BOILER INSTRUMENTATION

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BOILER INSTRUMENTATION

  1. 1. SUBMITED TO: SUBMITTED BY: Mr. P.K.GANGULY Er.NAVEEN KUMAR (Seminar Cordinator) 10ESEEE055
  2. 2. Overview Introduction of boiler Classification of boiler Boiler instrumentation Boiler control conclusion
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications.  Instrumentation and controls in a boiler plant encompass an enormous range of equipment from simple industrial plant to the complex in the large utility station.  The boiler control system is the means by which the balance of energy & mass into and out of the boiler are achieved. Inputs are fuel, combustion air, atomizing air or steam &feed water. Of these, fuel is the major energy input. Combustion air is the major mass input. Outputs are steam, flue gas, blow down, radiation & soot blowing.
  4. 4. Classification of boiler Boiler are classified on following configuration  Fire tube boiler  Water tube boiler
  5. 5. Fire tube boiler Here, water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume left above to accommodate the steam (steam space). This is the type of boiler used in nearly all steam locomotives. The heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be kept permanently surrounded by the water in order to maintain the temperature of the heating surface just below boiling point.
  6. 6. Diagram of a fire-tube boiler
  7. 7. Water tube boiler  In this type, the water tubes are arranged inside a furnace in a number of possible configurations:  often the water tubes connect large drums, the lower ones containing water and the upper ones, steam and water; in other cases, such as a mono tube boiler, water is circulated by a pump through a succession of coils.
  8. 8. Diagram of a water-tube boiler
  9. 9. - High temperature resistant optical system consists of quartz and corundum, which can be normally operated in a certain amount of purging air. - Screen menu setting, remote control in central control room, for forward and retract movement of camera. - Horizontal mounting and large field angle probe - System is equipped with automatic forward and backward protection device, which can automatically withdraw from furnace when no pressure in cooling air. Furnace TV :
  10. 10. FLOW METER  The flow meter is designed to measure flow rate of a fluid.  Measurement is based on Faraday’s law of induction, according to which a voltage is induced in an electrically conductive body which passes through a magnetic field.  The following expression is applicable to the voltage. U = K * B * V * D  Where: U = induced voltage K = an instrument constant B = magnetic field strength V = mean velocity D = pipe diameter
  11. 11. Boiler control +INPUT OUTPUT FIRING RATE DEMAND FUEL DEMAND AIR DEMAND FEEDWATER CONTROL STEAM TEMPERATURE CONTROL BOILER
  12. 12. BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION  The block diagram of boiler control is shown in above figure the output from the boiler i.e, the steam outputs and the level of water is given to transmitters. The major loops in boiler control are 1) Combustion control 2) Feed water control
  13. 13. COMBUSTION CONTROL  A combustion control system is broken down into (a) fuel control and (b) combustion air control subsystems.
  14. 14. HARDWARES USED IN COMBUSTION CONTROL ON/OFF controls Positioning systems Metering control system
  15. 15. FEED WATER CONTROL  Feed water control is the regulation of water to the boiler drum. It provide a mass accounting system for steam leading and feed water entering the boiler.  Proper boiler operation requires that the level of water in the steam drum should be maintained within certain band.  A decrease in this level may uncover boiler tubes, allowing them to become overheated.
  16. 16. Levelling Vessel Level Control by- Feed Water Control BCP CV to 1st stage DSH water Drain CVs to Condensor From Separator-B BCP Discharge CV to Eco. I/L Levelling Vessel From Separator-A Drain CVs to OAC/Waste
  17. 17. ADVANTAGES  Multiple element feedwater control can help: i. Faster response of systems. ii. More accurate control. iii. Maximum system stability.  Metering control system maintains combustion efficiency over wide load changes and over long period of time.
  18. 18. DISADVANTAGES  Boilers require quick responding controls.  Level of the water in the boiler must be kept above 50% of height.
  19. 19. CONCLUSION The various goals of boiler control includes: 1. To minimize excess air 2. To minimize blow down 3. To minimize steam pressure 4. To measure efficiency

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