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Volcanoes
 

Volcanoes

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Earth Science HS: Volcanoes

Earth Science HS: Volcanoes

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    Volcanoes Volcanoes Presentation Transcript

    • VOLCANOES
    • Launch Lab • Take one beaker (containing water and oil) and salt cup • Sprinkle salt into the beaker in one spot for five seconds • Observe 1.Which component of your model represents magma? 2.What happened to the oil before and after you added the salt? 3.What do you think causes “magma” (oil) to rise?
    • Volcanism • Movement of magma toward or onto the Earth’s surface ***magma is less dense than surface so it pushes its way up
    • Volcanoes • http://mass.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/i dptv11.sci.ess.earthsys.d4kvol/volcanoes/
    • Where they form…. 1. Convergent Boundaries 2. Divergent Boundaries
    • Where they form…. 3. Hot Spots
    • Hot Spots • Magma comes to the surface from within a plate (not at a boundary) that continues to move over spot producing lava Hawaiian Islands Galapagos Islands
    • How Hawaii was formed …. • http://mass.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/nat08.
    • All three types
    • Parts of a Volcano • Volcanic cones – piles of volcanic material built up around vent • What you see on the surface and call volcanoes
    • Parts of a Volcano • Lava = Magma on earth’s surface • Tephra = fragments of volcanic rock blown into atmosphere • Conduit = tube-like structure lava travels through to create a vent
    • Parts of a Volcano •Vent = opening in earth’s surface where magma flows through •Fissure = linear crack which lava flows out
    • vent fissure
    • Anatomy of a Volcano
    • Crater vs. Caldera • Crater = bowl-shaped depression at top of vent; formed when material is blown from vent during explosions • Caldera = large basin shaped depressions formed either by explosions or cones collapsing
    • Types of Volcanoes • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/earth/meet-volcan
    • Three types of Cones (volcanoes) 1. Shield cone - largest type -quiet eruptions where lava slowly flows out - basaltic lava
    • Basaltic lava flows into ocean • http://mass.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/b f10.sci.ps.earth.stormsea/stormy-seas/
    • Basaltic Lava On land: pahoehoe – thin lava with wrinkled hardened texture aa – sharp chunks of lava that form when lava continues to flow underneath cooling lava
    • Basaltic Lava In Ocean: pillow lava – shape of cooled lava that escapes fissures of midocean ridges
    • Three types of Cones (volcanoes) cont… 2. Cinder cone - made up of solid fragments - steep slopes rarely high very explosive - Smallest kind - Forms on edge of Other cones
    • Three types of Cones (volcanoes) cont… 3. Composite Cone (stratovolcanoes) - alternating hardened lava and tephra - lava flows clog vent and cause eruption of tephra then lava flows cause clog again - develop into high volcanic mountains - Mt. St. Helen’s, Mt. Pinatubo, Mt. Rainier
    • Mt. St. Helens
    • Mt. St. Helens • http://mass.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/i dptv11.sci.ess.earthsys.d4kmsh/mount-sthelens/
    • Other hazards from eruptions
    • Volcanic Rock Fragments • Volcanic bombs – rounded or spindle shape tephra particles caused by lava spinning through air • Volcanic blocks – largest kind of tephra – some as big as houses
    • Lahars • Lahars - mudflows made of pyroclastic material, mud, and water – Very destructive – Dense as concrete
    • Mt. Pinatubo • http://mass.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/e ss05.sci.ess.earthsys.lahar/mount-pinatubothe-aftermath-of-a-volcanic-eruption/
    • Pyroclastic flows • Pyroclastic flows - Rapidly moving clouds of tephra mixed with hot, suffocating gases (sulfuric acid)
    • Predicting Volcanoes 1. Seismographs 2. measuring gases given off – sulfur dioxide (SO2) 3. study past history of volcanoes 4. bulging of volcanic slopes • http://mass.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/ess05.sci.ess.earth sys.pinatubo/mount-pinatubo-predicting-a-volcanic-eruption/
    • Extraterrestrial Volcanism Many planets & moons in the solar system were and are volcanically active
    • Extraterrestrial Volcanism The Moon Covered by Basaltic flows; no longer active; however, no evidence of plate tectonic activity
    • Extraterrestrial Volcanism Mars Numerous volcanoes & features; biggest one is a shield volcano called Olympus Mons
    • Extraterrestrial Volcanism IO Moon on Jupiter; shows 9 active volcanoes erupting on Io http://mass.pbslearningmedia.org/ resource/flbe12.sci.ess.eiu.iovolca no/io-and-volcanism/
    • Yellowstone • http://mass.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/n vdv.sci.earth.yellowvolc-1/volcanism-atyellowstone/