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  • 1. Chapter 3 GEE Science Summer Remediation Mr. Nash Donnie Bickham Middle School Room 204
  • 2. The Structure of Atoms
    • Atomic Theory – states that all matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms.
    • Matter is defined as anything that has mass and takes up space.
    Pg. 54
  • 3. The Structure of Atoms
    • Atoms are made up of three subatomic particles:
      • Protons – positive charge
      • Neutrons – no charge; neutral
      • Electrons – negative charge
        • Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons are made up of particles called quarks.
    • Protons and Neutrons are located in the nucleus of an atom
    • Electrons are located outside the nucleus in random patterns, but clustered in electron shells.
    Pg. 54
  • 4. The Structure of Atoms
    • Electron Shells
      • The first electron shell has no more than two electrons.
      • The Second shell can have as many as eight electrons.
      • The other shells have varying numbers of electrons depending on the number of electrons in the atom.
      • The last electron shell usually will hold no more than eight electrons.
    Pg. 54
  • 5. Properties of Elements In the Periodic Table
    • The number of protons in an atom gives the atom its identity.
    • Atoms that have the same number of protons are called elements.
    • Elements are arranged according to their atomic number on the periodic table.
      • The atomic number corresponds to the number of protons or electrons in the atom.
    Pg. 56
  • 6. Properties of Elements in the Periodic Table
    • The atomic mass is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons found in the atom.
      • Electrons do not contribute to the mass of the atom because they are so small.
    • Protons + Neutrons = Atomic Mass
    Pg. 56
  • 7. Properties of Elements in the Periodic Table
    • Atoms of the same element do not always have the same number of neutrons.
    • Atoms that have different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.
    • The atomic mass given on the periodic table is the average of all the isotopes and is not a whole number.
    • To find the number of neutrons for an element, subtract the number of protons (atomic number) from the atomic mass.
      • Atomic Mass – Atomic Number = Number of Neutrons
    Pg. 56
  • 8. Properties of Elements in the Periodic Table
    • The periodic table is made up of elements placed in organized rows and columns according to properties and size.
    • Rows are called period and are arranged according to the atomic numbers.
    • Columns are called families and have similar properties and always have the same number of electrons in their outer shell.
      • You can remember that families of people have similar characteristics or properties and a family tree goes down.
    Pg. 56
  • 9. Properties of Elements in the Periodic Table
    • Elements can all be classified as metals, nonmetals, metalloids, or noble gases.
    • Metals:
      • Make up the majority of the table and are located to the left.
        • Hydrogen is the only exception.
      • Are solids at room temperature, are hard, have luster (shiny), and conduct heat and electricity.
    Pg. 57
  • 10. Properties of Elements in the Period Table
    • Nonmetals:
      • Right side of the periodic table.
      • Usually gases or dull, brittle solids at room temperature.
    • Metalloids:
      • Elements diagonally between the metals and nonmetals.
      • Have properties of both metals and nonmetals.
      • Used in semiconductors and computer chips.
    Pg. 57
  • 11. Properties of Elements in the Periodic Table
    • Noble Gases:
      • Located in one family; Family VIIIA
      • Far right column of the periodic table
      • Nonmetal gases that do not react with any other elements.
    Pg. 57
  • 12. Reactivity of Elements in the Periodic Table
    • An element is most stable when its last electron shell is full.
    • All elements have outer shells that can hold 8 electrons.
      • Exception: Hydrogen and Helium
    Pg. 61
  • 13. Family VIIIA
    • Noble gases have 8 electrons in their outer shells
      • Exception: Helium, but is complete with only 2 electrons.
    • Very stable elements
    • Will not react with other elements
    Pg. 61
  • 14. Family IA
    • Alkali Metals
      • Exception is Hydrogen (non metal)
    • Very reactive
    • Have only one electron in the outer shell
    • Give up its one electron forming ions
    Pg. 61
  • 15. Family IIA
    • Alkaline Earth Metals
      • Have 2 electrons out of 8 possible in their outer shell
    • Very reactive, but less reactive than the Alkali Metals
    Pg. 61
  • 16. Family B
    • Transition Metals found in the middle of the periodic table.
    • Reactivity of these metals increases as you go down the periodic table and from right to left.
    Pg. 62
  • 17. Family VIIA
    • Halogens
    • Most reactive nonmetals
    • Have 7 out of 8 possible electrons in their outer shell
    • Combine with metals to form a salt
      • Example: Na + Cl -> NaCl
    Pg. 62
  • 18. Family VIA
    • No common name
    • Have 6 of 8 possible electrons in their outer shell
    • Not as reactive as the halogens
    Pg. 62
  • 19. Family IIIA through VA
    • No common name
    • Family IVA is half full making it more stable than IIIA or VA on either side of it.
    Pg. 62
  • 20. Bonding of Atoms
    • Atoms of different elements combine chemically to form compounds
      • Done by sharing or transferring electrons
    • Electrons in the outer shell of an atom are called valence electrons
    • Ionic bonds result in the transfer of electrons from atom to atom.
    Pg. 64
  • 21. Bonding of Atoms
    • Ionic bonds are usually present in compounds which have metal atoms bonded with nonmetal atoms
    • Covalent bonds are when two or more atoms share electrons
    • Usually present with two or more nonmetals
    Pg. 64-65
  • 22. Radioactivity
    • Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons.
    • Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes
    • When there are too many neutrons in the nucleus the nucleus becomes unstable.
    • An unstable isotope will be radioactive and is called a radioactive isotope
    Pg. 69
  • 23. Radioactivity
    • Radioactive atoms give off three particles:
      • Alpha Particles – helium nucleus with 2p and 2n
        • When an alpha particle is given off the atomic number of the parent nucleus is reduced by two
        • If ingested will do more damage to internal tissues than other forms of radiation.
    Pg. 69
  • 24. Radioactivity
      • Beta Particles – electrons emitted
        • Penetrate more than alpha particles but can be stopped by lead
      • Gamma Particles – high energy x-rays
        • Can only be stopped by thick lead or concrete
    • All elements with atomic numbers greater than 83 are radioactive
    Pg. 70
  • 25. Radioactivity
    • A radioactive atom that emits an alpha, beta, or gamma particles is going through a process called radioactive decay
    • Radioactive decay causes an atom of one element to become a different element by reducing its atomic number
    • The half-life of a radioactive atom is the time it takes for ½ of the particles in the nucleus to decay
    Pg. 70
  • 26. Fission
    • Fission occurs when the nucleus of an atom that is so unstable that it splits into two smaller atoms.
      • Releases a large amount of energy
      • Used in nuclear reactors
      • Reactors use control rods to absorb excess energy
      • Nuclear bombs have no control rods and release all of the energy in one blast
    Pg. 71
  • 27. Fusion
    • Fusion is when two small atoms are joined together to form a larger atom
      • Produces energy also
      • Requires high temperatures
      • Occurs in the sun when two hydrogen atoms fuse to form a helium atom
      • Scientists are still working to recreate this but can’t generate the high temp
    Pg. 72
  • 28. Pg.
  • 29. Pg.
  • 30. Pg.
  • 31. Pg.