Ss Chapter 19.2
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Ss Chapter 19.2 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 19.2 GEE Science Summer Remediation Mr. Nash Donnie Bickham Middle School Room 204
  • 2. The Biosphere
    • Youngest of the four spheres.
    • Includes all living things; plants and animal.
    • The biosphere interacts with the other four spheres through the nutrient cycles.
    • Large areas of earth are covered with plants that break down soil and rock with their roots to get at nutrients and minerals to grow.
    Pg.326
  • 3. The Biosphere
    • Thick vegetation also serves to slow erosion.
    • Minerals and elements are transferred through plants and animals through food chains.
      • Plant eaten by animal, animal eaten by animal, etc.
    • Recycling process doesn’t end with the death of a plant or animal.
    • Remains are broken down by decomposers.
    • Decomposition returns minerals and elements to the soil and water.
    Pg. 326
  • 4. The Biosphere
    • Certain types of elements, such as carbon and nitrogen are recycled through nutrient cycles over and over again because they are in high demand.
    • Other elements, such as lead and uranium are recycled more slowly because they are not in great demand.
    Pg. 327
  • 5. The Carbon Cycle
    • Recycling of carbon between carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and organic molecules.
    • Main component of organic molecules is carbon.
    • Inorganic carbon exists as CO 2 in the atmosphere.
    Pg. 327
  • 6. The Carbon Cycle
    • Plants muse carbon dioxide and energy from the sun to perform photosynthesis.
    • Carbon is passed from one organism to another through food chains.
    • Carbon returns to earth through respirations, excretion, or decomposition.
    Pg. 327
  • 7. The Carbon Cycle
    • Some animals do not decompose after death; they become buried and compressed underground.
    • Fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and naturals gas form.
    • When fossil fuels are burned, CO 2 returns to the atmosphere.
    Pg.327
  • 8. The Nitrogen Cycle
    • Nitrogen (N 2 ) is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere.
        • Approximately 70%
    • N 2 gas is not in a form that can be used by most organisms.
    • Nitrogen is transformed in the nitrogen cycle so that it can be used by plants and animals.
    Pg. 327
  • 9. The Nitrogen Cycle
    • The nitrogen cycle begins with nitrogen fixation.
    • Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of nitrogen gas (N 2 ) to nitrates (NO 3 ).
    • First N 2 is converted to ammonium (NH 4 ).
    Pg. 327
  • 10. The Nitrogen Cycle
    • One type of bacteria turns NH 4 into nitrites (NO 2 ).
    • Another type of bacteria, usually found on the roots of legumes, turns the NO 2 into nitrate (NO 3 ) that plants can use.
    Pg. 327
  • 11. The Nitrogen Cycle
    • Lightning can also fix nitrogen in the atmosphere.
    • These nitrates (NO 3 ) fall to earth carried on rain drops.
    • Nitrogen is passed from plant to animal like carbon through food chains.
    Pg. 328
  • 12. The Nitrogen Cycle
    • Animal wastes contain nitrites (NO 2 ) and nitrates (NO 3 ).
    • One type of bacteria reverses the nitrogen fixation process by converting nitrates to nitrites.
    • The nitrites decompose into nitrogen gas.
        • Dog poop
    Pg. 328