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Ss Chapter 19.1


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  • 1. Chapter 19 Earth Cycles and Processes GEE Science Summer Remediation Mr. Nash Donnie Bickham Middle School Room 204
  • 2. Earth Recycles the Elements
    • Earth recycles atoms and compounds over and over in a closed system.
    • Closed system is composed of four parts:
      • Atmosphere
      • Hydrosphere
      • Biosphere
      • Lithosphere
    Pg. 324
  • 3. Earth Recycles the Elements
    • All four spheres depend on each other and interact closely.
    • Changes in the rates of recycling in one of the four parts affects each sphere.
    • If each sphere operates naturally, the health of each is maintained.
    Pg. 324
  • 4. Earth Recycles the Elements
    • If a pollutant is introduced into one sphere, all other areas will be affected as well.
    • Pollutants can be naturally occurring like the debris from a volcano or an increase in salt content because of evaporation.
    • Pollution is also the result of human activities.
    Pg. 324
  • 5. Atmosphere
    • Mixture of gases surrounding the earth.
    • Believed that this mixture has changed as earth has evolved.
    • Heat from the surface warms air close to the earth, causing air to rise.
    • Cooler air rushes in to fill the empty area creating wind.
    Pg. 325
  • 6. Atmosphere
    • Winds accelerate the evaporation of water.
    • Winds can move atmospheric gases as well as small solid particles from one place to another.
    Pg. 325
  • 7. Hydrosphere
    • The hydrosphere is all water environments of earth.
    • This includes oceans and all water situated on the land surface and below ground.
    • As water flows it moves large volumes of minerals.
    Pg. 325
  • 8. Hydrosphere
    • Often rock and sediment are transported thousands of miles.
    • Where the atmosphere and the hydrosphere meet, gases in each sphere transfer to the other if conditions are right.
    Pg. 325
  • 9. The Water Cycle
    • Circulates freshwater between the atmosphere and the earth.
    • 95 % of all water on earth is salt water.
      • Most freshwater is in the form of glaciers.
    • Freshwater is vital for carrying out metabolic processes and is replenished by the water cycle.
    Pg. 325
  • 10. The Water Cycle
    • Precipitation in the form of rain, ice, snow, hail, or dew falls to the earth and ends up in lakes rivers, and oceans through the precipitation itself or through runoff.
    • Evaporation occurs from bodies of water sending water vapor into the atmosphere.
    Pg. 325
  • 11. The Water Cycle
    • Respiration from humans and animals and transpiration from plants also send water vapor into the atmosphere.
    • The water vapor cools to form clouds. The clouds cool and become saturated to form precipitation again.
    Pg. 325
  • 12. The Water Cycle
    • Without the water cycle of evaporation, precipitation, and runoff, a freshwater supply would not be available.
    Pg. 325