Ss Chapter 18.2

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Ss Chapter 18.2

  1. 1. Chapter 18.2 Ecosystems and Populations Energy Flow Within Ecosystems GEE Science Summer Remediation Mr. Nash Donnie Bickham Middle School Room 204
  2. 2. Energy Flow Within Ecosystems <ul><li>Within each of the major ecosystems, there are many smaller ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy can be added, stored or transferred. </li></ul><ul><li>The transfer of energy within an ecosystem is called energy flow. </li></ul>Pg. 314
  3. 3. Energy Flow <ul><li>Producers </li></ul><ul><li>↓ </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Consumers </li></ul><ul><li>↓ </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Consumers </li></ul><ul><li>↓ </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary Consumers </li></ul><ul><li>↓ </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposers </li></ul>Pg. 314
  4. 4. Producers <ul><li>Make their own food through the process of photosynthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants such as grasses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Convert energy from the sun into stored energy to be used later by the plant or primary consumers that eat the plant. </li></ul>Pg. 314
  5. 5. Primary Consumers <ul><li>Also known as herbivores, or plant eating only. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deer </li></ul></ul>Pg. 314
  6. 6. Secondary Consumers <ul><li>Carnivores, or meat eaters, that eat the primary consumers. </li></ul>Pg. 314
  7. 7. Tertiary Consumers <ul><li>Larger carnivores that eat the secondary consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>Also includes omnivores, eating both animal and plant, that eat secondary consumers and producers. </li></ul>Pg. 314
  8. 8. Decomposers <ul><li>When a consumer or producer dies, the decomposers take over. </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposers break down organic material and use the decomposition products as a source of energy. </li></ul>Pg. 314
  9. 9. Energy Within Ecosystems <ul><li>Energy flows within an ecosystem in food chains with energy passing from producer to consumer to decomposer. </li></ul><ul><li>The interaction of many food chains forms food webs. </li></ul><ul><li>As energy is transferred from one organism to another, some of the energy is lost through heat and activity. </li></ul>Pg. 315
  10. 10. Energy Pyramid <ul><li>An energy pyramid is used to show how energy transfers and decreases as organisms go up the food chain. </li></ul><ul><li>A trophic level is the position occupied by an organism in a food chain. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Figure 18.5 on pg. 316 </li></ul></ul>Pg. 315

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