Ss Chapter 18.1
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Ss Chapter 18.1 Ss Chapter 18.1 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 18 Ecosystems & Populations GEE Science Summer Remediation Mr. Nash Donnie Bickham Middle School Room 204
  • Major Ecological Systems
    • An ecological system is also called an ecosystem.
    • Ecosystems contain biotic and abiotic factors.
    • Biotic factors are the living organisms.
      • Example: Plant and Animals
    • Abiotic factors are nonliving, physical components.
      • `Example: soil and nutrients
    • Six major terrestrial and three major aquatic ecosystems.
    Pg. 311
  • Terrestrial Ecosystems
    • Large land areas characterized by a dominant form of plant life and climate type that make up large ecosystems are called biomes.
    • Boundaries between biomes are not apparent and gradually fade into each other.
    Pg. 311 View slide
  • Terrestrial Ecosystems
    • There are six major terrestrial biomes:
      • Tundra
      • Coniferous Forest
      • Deciduous Forest
      • Grassland
      • Desert
      • Rain Forest
    Pg. 311 View slide
  • Tundra Biome
    • Located near the north and south poles.
    • Rainfall is light and summer temperature averages around 1 0 C.
    • Subsoil is permanently frozen.
    • Plant life consists of mosses, lichens, and reindeer moss.
    • Animals are reindeer caribou, polar bears, arctic wolves, foxes, hares, lemmings, birds and insects.
    Pg. 311
  • Coniferous Forest
    • Found above 60 0 N latitude.
    • Rainfall is medium and the summer temperature averages 12 0 C.
    • Subsoil thaws for a few weeks in the summer.
    • Trees are mostly coniferous.
      • Example: Spruce, Fir, and Pine
    • Animals are moose, black bear, wolves, lynx, wolverines, martens, porcupines, and birds.
  • Deciduous Forest
    • Found in the middle latitudes between 20 0 and 60 0 .
    • Rainfall is medium and the average summer temperature is around 24 0 C.
    • Trees are broad leaved with foliage that changes color in autumn.
    • Animals include mostly squirrels, deer, foxes and bears.
    • Louisiana falls in this biome.
  • Grassland Biome
    • Located in mid-continental areas of middle latitudes.
    • Rainfall is low and average summer temperature is 20 0 C.
    • Plants are variegated grasses.
    • Large herbivores such as bison, antelope, zebras, as well as smaller burrowing rodents.
    Pg. 312
  • Tropical Rain Forest Biome
    • Located near the equator and near mountain ranges.
    • Abundant rainfall with high humidity. Average summer temperature is 25 0 C.
    • Large variety of plants and animals.
    Pg. 312
  • Desert Biome
    • Located on either side of the equator between 0 0 and 20 0 .
    • Little rain with extreme temperature fluctuations. Average summer temperature is 30 0 C.
    • Plants include sage brush, mesquite, and cacti.
    • Animals include the kangaroo rat, snakes, lizards, spiders, and insects.
  • Aquatic Ecosystems
    • Precipitation and temperature are NOT the major determinant of plant and animal life.
    • The amount of light and oxygen are important for photosynthesis.
    • Salinity (salt content) is the most important determinant.
  • Freshwater Biomes
    • No salinity.
    • Important to the Earth’s water cycle.
    • Found in many areas and support a wide variety of plant and animal life.
    Pg. 312
  • Estuary Biome
    • Mixed salinity.
      • This is where fresh water and salt water meet.
    • Contain salt marshes and swampy areas.
    • Some of the most biologically diverse locations on earth.
    Pg. 313
  • Marine Biome
    • High salinity.
    • Largest ecosystems on earth.
    • Three different zones depending on depth.
      • Intertidal Zone
      • Pelagic Zone
      • Benthic Zone
  • Intertidal Zone
    • An area of shore between low and high tides.
    • Most biologically active area of the marine ecosystem.
  • Pelagic Zone
    • Largest ocean area.
    • Divided into two zones:
      • Shallow
      • Deep
    • Shallow allows light for photosynthesis to occur in plants and organisms.
    • Most marine mammals and fish live in this zone.
    • Deep zone does not allow light, but comprises most of the earth’s oceans.
    Pg. 313
  • Benthic Zone
    • Located on the ocean floor.
    • Burrowing animals like clams and worms are abundant.
    • In shallow benthic areas, coral reefs are commonly found.
    Pg. 313