Ss Chapter 13.3


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Ss Chapter 13.3

  1. 1. Chapter 13 Human Life and Health Energy Systems GEE Science Summer Remediation Mr. Nash Donnie Bickham Middle School Room 204
  2. 2. Energy Systems <ul><li>Three different body systems that allow us to meet our energy requirements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory </li></ul></ul>Pg. 233
  3. 3. Digestive System <ul><li>Composed several organs that process food by breaking it down into biomolecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Begins in the mouth where teeth break food down mechanically into smaller particles. </li></ul><ul><li>Saliva is mixed in. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saliva contains enzymes to begin the breakdown of carbohydrates. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 233
  4. 4. Digestive System <ul><li>Once swallowed, food moves into the esophagus moving to the stomach using peristalsis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peristalsis is involuntary muscle movement. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Movement of the stomach continues the breakdown process using gastric juices. </li></ul><ul><li>Gastric juices are a mix of mucus, water, enzymes, and acid. </li></ul>Pg. 233
  5. 5. Digestive System <ul><li>After the stomach, the small intestine begins the absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas secretes pancreatic enzymes help digest carbohydrates and proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Liver produces bile that breaks down fats. </li></ul>Pg. 233
  6. 6. Digestive System <ul><li>After the small intestine, all undigested materials and water move to the large intestine. </li></ul><ul><li>Water is reabsorbed by the body and waste product is expelled. </li></ul>Pg. 233
  7. 7. Circulatory System <ul><li>Circulatory is the transport system of most substances. </li></ul><ul><li>The heart is the pump of the circulatory system. </li></ul><ul><li>The heart is located between the lungs and is composed of cardiac muscle. </li></ul>Pg. 233
  8. 8. Circulatory System <ul><li>The heart collects deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>In the lungs, blood is oxygenated and then pumped back through the heart and out to the body. </li></ul>Pg. 233
  9. 9. Circulatory System <ul><li>Arteries pump oxygenated blood away from the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Veins carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Veins do not have a pump to move blood through them and rely on skeletal muscle contractions to move blood. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 233
  10. 10. Circulatory System <ul><li>Blood consists of four parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erythrocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leukocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platelets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Erythrocytes are the red blood cells. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin in the red blood cells allow them to transport oxygen and nutrients. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 234
  11. 11. Circulatory System <ul><li>Leukocytes are white blood cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Leukocytes help the immune system fight off infections in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Platelets are blood cell fragments that help repair damaged vessels. </li></ul>Pg. 234
  12. 12. Circulatory System <ul><li>Plasma is the liquid portion of the blood that contains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturally and artificially occurring substances. </li></ul></ul>Pg. 234
  13. 13. Respiratory System <ul><li>Respiration is the movement of air in and out of the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>External respiration is the exchange of gases between the air breathed in and the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal respiration is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases between body cells and blood. </li></ul>Pg. 234
  14. 14. Respiratory System <ul><li>External respiration takes place when we breathe in during a process called respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Air is taken in through the mouth and nose where it is warmed traveling to the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>The trachea is a tube passing from the mouth to the lungs. </li></ul>Pg. 235
  15. 15. Respiratory System <ul><li>The trachea is also called the windpipe. </li></ul><ul><li>Air then flows from the trachea to the bronchial tubes to the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>In the lungs the air oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange takes place in the alveoli. </li></ul>Pg. 235
  16. 16. Respiratory System <ul><li>Breathing out is expiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Air follows the same path as inspiration, except backwards. </li></ul><ul><li>To breathe, we use the diaphragm. </li></ul><ul><li>The diaphragm is a flat muscle that runs across the body cavity below the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>When it contracts inspiration occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>When it relaxes expiration occurs. </li></ul>Pg. 235