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Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 1 Scientific Method and Scientific Communication GEE Science Summer Remediation Mr. Nash Donnie Bickham Middle School Room 204
  • 2. Introduction To The Scientific Method
    • Science is the observation, identification, description, and explanation of phenomena.
    • The Scientific Method is the process used to assist us in our attempt to understand our surroundings.
    Pg.17
  • 3. Steps In The Scientific Method
    • Make an observation
    • Ask questions
    • Form the hypothesis
    • Set up an experiment to test the hypothesis
    • Collect the data
    • Draw a conclusion
    • Make a prediction
    Pg 17.
  • 4. Example of the Scientific Method
    • Observe birds in flight.
      • Make an observation
    • How do birds fly?
      • Ask questions
    • The wing designs of birds catch the air differently
      • Form the hypothesis
    Pg. 17
  • 5. Example of the Scientific Method
    • Make and fly different designs of paper airplanes.
      • Set up an experiment to test the hypothesis
    • Take notes on flight patterns of paper airplanes and create a data table on how each airplane flew.
      • Collect the data
    Pg. 17
  • 6. Example of the Scientific Method
    • The size and shape of the wing gives lift to the bird.
      • Draw a conclusion
    • Wing designs are dependent on the size of the bird.
      • Make a prediction
    Pg. 17
  • 7. Making Observations and Defining the Problem
    • Scientist believe all natural phenomena in the universe have logical, verifiable explanations.
    • Natural Phenomena is something occurring in nature that we experience through our senses.
    Pg. 18
  • 8. Making Observations and Defining the Problem
    • Observations are made by using the five senses:
        • Sight – Watching a bird build a nest
        • Touch – Touching the nest’s material
        • Smell
        • Sound – Hearing the bird’s call
        • Taste
    Pg. 18
  • 9. Making Observations and Defining the Problem
    • Making observations may lead to identifying problems.
      • Example:
        • Observing that pigeons are making nests on the tops of city buildings. You might also observe the problem that pigeon droppings are damaging shingles and defacing city property.
    Pg. 18
  • 10. Asking Questions
    • Asking appropriate questions is the second step in solving a problem
    • By asking questions, we can search for logical explanations for what we observe and find ways to solve problems.
    Pg. 18
  • 11. Forming The Hypothesis
    • A hypothesis is a statement that gives the best possible response to the question
    • Example:
      • What is the effect of sunlight on green plants?
      • Hypothesis: Green plants need sunlight to grow.
    Pg. 18
  • 12. Forming The Hypothesis
    • The hypothesis can be formed using inductive reasoning.
    • Inductive reasoning is the ability of a scientist to draw from knowledge and experience to make a general explanation.
    Pg. 18
  • 13. Setting Up the Experiment
    • Should give accurate and measurable results.
    • Should be designed to collect information about the hypothesis I order to solve the problem.
    • Gather meaningful data.
    • Examine only one condition at a time.
    Pg. 18
  • 14. Setting Up the Experiment
    • Should have two parts:
      • Control Group
        • Part of the experiment designed without variable to support the hypothesis.
      • Experimental Group
        • Part designed to test variable components of the hypothesis.
        • Indicate changes which might invalidate the hypothesis.
    Pg. 18
  • 15. Collecting Data
    • Gathered from the observations and measurement taken during a scientific experiment.
    • Should include intervals, temperatures, and metric units of mass, length and volume.
        • Grams, Meters, Liters, etc.
    Pg. 19
  • 16. Collecting Data
    • Two Types of Data
      • Qualitative Data
        • Shows specific characteristics
      • Quantitative Data
        • Gives exact amounts
    • Both types should be collected and displayed in a data table.
    Pg. 19
  • 17. Presenting Data
    • Table – good way to organize data because it presents information in an orderly fashion.
      • Usually in rows and columns.
    • Line Graph – best used to show how one variable changes with respect to another.
      • Data recorded in a table can often be graphed to show the relationship between the data in a way that is easier to analyze.
    Pg. 21-22
  • 18. Presenting Data
    • Multiple Line Graphs – used to compare multiple values
    • Bar Graphs – used to show easy-to-read, unconnected bars which represent a quantity of information.
      • Quantities represented by the bars can then be compared and contrasted.
    Pg. 22-23
  • 19. Presenting Data
    • Circle Graph – used to show parts of a whole.
      • Often show percentages of a total.
      • Also called pie graphs or pie charts.
    • Models – used to show a picture
    • Diagrams – used to show schematic drawings, illustrating the parts of the whole of a real event.
    Pg. 24-25
  • 20. Drawing Conclusions
    • Conclusion – judgment or inference based on observation and experimentation.
    • Drawn from the results of the experiment
    • Results are the end products of an experiment.
    Pg. 25
  • 21. Making a Prediction
    • Prediction – a forecast of the possible results of future events.
    • Knowledge gained from observation and experimentation can help to make predictions for unrelated events.
    Pg. 26
  • 22. Analysis of Error In Scientific Data
    • Any errors that might have been made during an experiment will result in a distortion of data.
    • Examples:
      • A student consistently reads the volume in a graduated cylinder at a slight angle instead of straight on.
      • Sometimes a spillage or other accident can result in an invalid data point.
      • Pouring a liquid from one container to another and then recording the volume will usually result in some error since not all of the liquid will be transferred to the second container.
      • Errors in data are commonly made simply by recording the data incorrectly.
    Pg. 26
  • 23. Assignment
    • Chapter 1 Review
      • Complete all 20 questions.
    Pg. 34-38