Transcript of "Working with special needs students"
Working with Special Needs Students<br />By: Marshell Keaton<br />
Introduction<br />Teaching special needs students can be a difficult process that<br />requires a lot of hard work and understanding. Special needs<br />students include children with learning disabilities, attention<br />deficits, developmental delays, behavioral problems, or other distinctive <br />disorders. One reason why educating special needs students is often so<br />complex is because there are many different issues involved including <br />Federal laws such as the IDEA, No Child Left Behind (NCLB), and <br />Section 504 of the Rehabilitations Act of 1973. It is important to <br />understand these laws while educating special needs students <br />because the laws can affect classroom management and <br />require for inclusion and instruction to take place in the least restrictive<br />environment (LRE).<br />
Introduction Cont.<br />There are many technologies and strategies that can be used to<br />effectively educate special needs students, and it is important for<br />teachers to study and develop the best methods to reach their <br />students’ individual needs. Some experts suggest that alternative<br />teaching methods, accommodations, and assistive technologies be <br />used to improve students’ weaknesses. After reviewing a student's <br />disability, it is up to the educator to customize an individual <br />educational plan (IEP) that will reach each student effectively using <br />these technologies and strategies.<br />
Key Terms<br />IDEA- Individuals with Disabilities Education Act is a United States federal law that governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education, and related services to children with disabilities.<br />No Child Left Behind (NCLB)- act of Congress that promotes standards-based education.<br />Section 504 of the Rehabilitations Act of 1973 -federal law designed to protect the rights of individuals with disabilities in programs and activities that receive Federal financial assistance from the U.S. Department of Education<br />Inclusion-a term which expresses commitment to educate each child, to the maximum extent appropriate, in the school and classroom he or she would otherwise attend. <br />Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)-area where disabled students have a right to be educated with non-disabled peers, to the greatest extent appropriate.<br />Assistive Technology- technology used by individuals with disabilities in order to perform functions that might otherwise be difficult or impossible.<br />Individualized Education Plan (IEP)- the legal document that defines a child's special education program.<br />
Guidelines to choosing Assistive Technologies and Strategies<br />It is important to examine the interests, abilities and needs of a child and the <br />area where support is needed, so that assistive technology solutions can be <br />planned and implemented effectively. The following six steps will assist you in <br />choosing the appropriate technology based on your students’ specific needs.<br />Steps are explained more in depth at http://www.ldonline.org/article/8088.<br />Step 1: Collect child and family information.<br />Step 2: Identify daily activities that student participates in.<br />Step 3: List observations that can be used to indicate whether or not the intervention is successful.<br />Step 4: Brainstorm assistive technology solutions and alternative teaching strategies.<br />Step 5: Determine when the assistive technology intervention or strategy will begin and create an observation plan to record how the child participates with the technology or new teaching method.<br />Step 6: Identify what worked<br />
Types of Assistive Technologies<br />The Touch Window-ideal for students who have trouble using the computer’s mouse. Effective with preschoolers, early learners, and students with developmental or physical disabilities. <br />FM systems & Induction loop systems- assistive listening devices<br />The invisible clock- used with ADHD students that have trouble with time management.<br />Portable word processors, audio books and speech recognition programs- can be used with students diagnosed with ADHD and mild reading and writing disabilities.<br />
Non-Technological Instructional Practices<br />For students who are deaf or hard of hearing:<br />1. Circular seating arrangements so students can see all class participants<br />2. Repeat comments and questions, acknowledging the students who made them<br />3. Provide written transcripts of audio material<br />
Non-Technological Instructional Practices Cont.<br />For students with mild learning disabilities including reading and writing:<br />1. Instruction should be presented in both written and oral formats<br />2. Allow students to record class<br />3. Clearly define course requirements, the dates of exams, and assignment due dates<br />4. Provide handouts and visual aids<br />5. Use more than one way to demonstrate or explain information<br />
Non-Technological Instructional Practices Cont.<br />For students with mild learning disabilities including reading and writing:<br />6. Have copies of course reading list ready in advance, so that taped textbooks can be ordered for students with mild learning disabilities including reading and writing.<br />7. Break information into small steps <br />8. Allow time for clarification of directions<br />9. Provide assistance with proofreading written work<br />10. Computer access for essay exams<br />11. Reduce distractions during exams. <br />
Non-Technological Instructional Practices Cont.<br />For students with ADHD:<br />1.Provide an advanced organizer.<br />2. Set learning and behavioral expectations.<br />3. State needed materials.<br />4. Simplify instructions, choices, and scheduling.<br />5. Support the student's participation in the classroom.<br />6. Use audiovisual materials.<br />7. Check student performance.<br />8. Ask probing questions.<br />9. Perform ongoing student evaluation.<br />10. Help students correct their own mistakes.<br />
Non-Technological Instructional Practices Cont.<br />For students with ADHD:<br />10. Help students correct their own mistakes.<br />11. Help students focus.<br />12. Provide follow-up directions.<br />13. Lower noise level.<br />14. Divide work into smaller units.<br />15. Highlight key points.<br />16. Eliminate or reduce frequency of timed tests.<br />17. Use cooperative learning strategies.<br />18. Check assignments.<br />
References<br />Assistive Listening Devices<br />http://www.asha.org/public/hearing/treatment/assist_tech.htm<br />ADHD and Assistive Technology<br />http://www.brighthub.com/education/special/articles/74108.aspx<br />ADD / ADHD and School: Helping Children with ADHD Succeed at School<br />http://helpguide.org/mental/adhd_add_teaching_strategies.htm<br />Guidelines to choosing Assistive Technology<br />http://www.ldonline.org/article/8088<br /> Special Education<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special_education<br />Successful Strategies for Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities<br />http://www.ldanatl.org/aboutld/teachers/understanding/strategies.asp<br />Strategies for Teaching Students with Hearing Impairments<br />http://www.as.wvu.edu/~scidis/hearing.html<br />Touch Window<br />http://www.synapseadaptive.com/edmark/prod/tw/default.htm<br />Teaching Students with Special Needs<br />http://www.teachervision.fen.com/special-education/new-teacher/48460.html<br />
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