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  • 1. Teaching and Learningwith Technology Chapter 13 Issues in Implementing Technology This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: • any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; • preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e images; © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. • any rental, lease, or lending of the program. All rights reserved.
  • 2. Planning and ImplementingTechnology Due to cost/complexity, districts create formal strategic technology plan Teachers need to be aware of the issues beyond technical ones:  Legal  Social  Ethical Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 2 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 3. Issues in Educational TechnologyLegal Ethical Copyright and fair  Freedom of speechuse  Privacy Privacy  Academic dishonesty Acceptable use Software piracySocial Digital divide Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 3 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 4. Legal IssuesCopyright and Fair Use Copyright protects interest of individual who created intellectual property: writings, graphics, photos, music, etc. Fair use guidelines determine when a teacher can legally use copyrighted material TEACH Act offers similar guidelines for DE Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 4 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 5. Legal IssuesDetermining Fair Use Purpose and character of use Nature of copyrighted work Amount and sustainability of portion used Effect of the use on the work’s marketability Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 5 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 6. Legal IssuesUsing copyrighted materials Use only in face-to-face teaching If DE, follow TEACH guidelines Limit copying to small portions of copyrighted work Avoid making unnecessary copies Include copyright notice and attribute work Limit use to single class, single year Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 6 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 7. Legal IssuesPrivacy Every child has a right to privacy Parents must give permission for student information to be shared Ease of sharing information with technology can lead to abuse Teachers must protect student privacy Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 7 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 8. Legal IssuesSteps to Ensure Privacy Comply with your school’s policies and procedures Get parental permission before putting student work and/or pictures on a web site Protect children’s information: name, age, location, etc. Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 8 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 9. Legal IssuesSteps to Ensure Privacy Avoid storing students’ personal information and files on unprotected computers Encourage every child to store his/her work on a removable storage device rather than easily accessible hard drives Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 9 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 10. Legal IssuesLegislation Protecting Children COPPA (Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act) addresses privacy issues CIPA (Children’s Internet Protection Act) went further, established Internet policies to protect children in libraries ADA (American’s with Disabilities Act) deals with equal access and guidelines to help technology meet all students’ needs Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 10 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 11. Legal IssuesAcceptable Use Policy (AUP) Districts’ acceptable use policies define appropriate uses of school computers Teachers must ensure appropriate use of technology in their classrooms Teachers should be aware of and enforce AUPs Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 11 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 12. Legal IssuesAcceptable Use Policy (AUP)Teachers ensure acceptable use: Review AUPs with your students Ask students and parents to sign Code of Ethics Monitor Internet use and use filtering software Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 12 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 13. Legal IssuesSoftware Piracy Copying or installing software on more than one computer is normally copyright violation and illegal (same with CDs, DVDs) Site license allows installation on multiple computers subject to license Network administrators often monitor licensing on network and attached individual computers Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 13 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 14. Social IssuesThe Digital Divide Inequities of access have created technological “haves” and “have-nots” Gap often related to socioeconomic status, ethnic group, gender, and education levels Teachers can design activities that help bridge the gap and reduce technological inequities Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 14 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 15. Social IssuesCyberbullying Playground bullying has entered cyberspace Defined as incident: “where the Internet, cell phones, or other devices used to send or post text or images to hurt or embarrass another person” Widespread problem, estimated 43% of students have been victims Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 15 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 16. Ethical IssuesOnline social interaction The Web offers tremendous opportunities for social interaction Immature children and teens may be at risk Information, words, and images (e.g., sexting) do not go away and may be seen by unintended viewers Teachers need to teach and encourage appropriate positive online social interaction Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 16 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 17. Ethical IssuesFreedom of Speech Internet content not regulated Materials posted may be objectionable or inappropriate Net is an open forum for free speech:  Should expression be regulated?  Does the government have the right to do so?  Although controversy continues, schools must control access to appropriate areas Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 17 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 18. Ethical IssuesPrivacy What is the appropriate balance between privacy and monitoring of activity? When is it OK to monitor where people go and what they do on the Internet? School’s responsibility is to:  Ensure students’ safety  Publish and enforce AUPs Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 18 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 19. Ethical IssuesAcademic Dishonesty Ease of manipulating and sharing information increased dishonest use of work Cheating and plagiarizing further facilitated by web sites that post and share work Teachers and schools need clear policies dealing with digital dishonesty Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 19 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 20. Ethical IssuesTeachers’ Role in Technology Are key stakeholders Can implement best technology for students and themselves Have critical role dealing with legal, ethical, and social issues of implementing technology Must keep up to date as technology evolves to utilize it and to address issues it creates Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 20 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 21. Ethical IssuesResources for Teachers Schools’ media and/or technology specialists can help address digital issues They have wealth of knowledge and skills and usually enthusiastic support to provide to teachers Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 21 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 22. Emerging TechnologyWireless Connectivity Rapid improvement making wireless availability commonplace WiFi (wireless fidelity) technology provide networking for campus and public wireless networks Retrofitting schools with cables will cease to be necessary Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 22 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 23. Emerging TechnologyWireless ConnectivityBluetooth technology Personal area networks (PANs) created automatically Various types of devices can be connected together wirelessly No more limitations by length of cables Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 23 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 24. Emerging TechnologyVirtual Environments Fully rendered 3-D environments in which the user is immersed As the technology progresses:  Development of full sensory environments will address all learning preferences  Students will be able to take virtual field trips Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 24 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 25. Emerging TechnologyArtificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence - programs that work like the human brain Neural networks, fuzzy logic, and expert systems are examples of AI These tools exist and, when evolved, will be significant Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 25 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 26. Emerging TechnologyWiki Refers to a web site written collaboratively Vandalism may occur, but the community corrects problems quickly Schools can create wiki sites for brainstorming, collaboration, debate, projects, and/or sharing resources Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 26 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 27. Emerging TechnologyGrid Computing Multiple computers join together to share resources and computing power The fastest dedicated computer in the world is a 900,000 computer grid Peer-to-peer networking is another example of grid computing Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 27 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 28. Emerging TechnologyDisplays Flexible organic light-emitting devices (FOLEDs) can be any size and even rolled. Electronic paper - film with beads of ink that electrical current makes turn over to form letters, graphics, pictures. Erasable and rewritable Size and weight of a transparency Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 28 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 29. Emerging TechnologyWearable Computers Computers built into clothing or worn like a pin or around the neck Devices could offer information about environment, reminders, and data on demand Current examples are heads-up-displays and small computers for special needs students Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 29 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 30. Emerging TechnologyConvergence Blending technologies into a single multipurpose technology In schools, convergence will mean:  Better use of limited resources, since less equipment will need to be acquired  Less time and resources spent in training on diverse equipment  Easier integration of equipment into the classroom Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 30 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 31. Emerging TechnologyComputers as Appliances Digital technology becoming common as a household appliances, schools must keep up with societal change Pocket or tablet PCs will allow instant access from anywhere Instruction will need to accommodate more opportunities and greater access Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 31 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 32. Emerging IssuesComputer Literacy Effectively using computer will become as essential a skill as reading Computer literacy will be an entry-level skill and will not have to be taught Computer-enhanced instruction will be easier to integrate into lessons Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 32 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 33. Emerging IssuesDecentralized Instruction Instruction may change as technology broadens the ways it can be delivered Classroom walls will give way to virtual communities of learners Master teachers from around the world may come together to team teach Schools will no longer be isolated Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 33 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 34. Emerging Issues Changing Role of the Teacher  Technology will not replace teachers, teachers must design instruction using technology  Digital-age curriculum may look very different from contemporary curriculum  Global collaboration and ever-expanding resources will benefit students Teaching and Learning with Technology, 4e 34 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.