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SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand
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SITE 2012 - Tracing International Differences in Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand

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Powell, A., & Barbour, M. K. (2012, March). Tracing international differences in online learning development: An examination of government policies in New Zealand. A paper presented at the annual …

Powell, A., & Barbour, M. K. (2012, March). Tracing international differences in online learning development: An examination of government policies in New Zealand. A paper presented at the annual conference of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education, Austin, TX.

In 2006 the North American Council for Online Learning surveyed the activity and policy relating to primary and secondary e-learning, which they defined as online learning, in a selection of countries. They found most were embracing e-learning delivery of education as a central strategy for enabling reform, modernising schools, and increasing access to high-quality education. While North American countries appeared to be using the internet as a medium to provide distance education at the secondary level longer than most countries, the lack of a guiding vision has created uneven opportunities for students depending on which state or province they live in. In New Zealand, the government has sought to provide a vision or guiding framework for the development of e-learning. In this article we trace that vision by describing three policy documents released by the New Zealand government over the past decade, and how that vision for e-learning has allowed increased development of primary and secondary online learning.

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  • 1. Tracing International Differencesin Online Learning Development: An Examination of Government Policies in New Zealand Allison Powell International Association of K-12 Online Learning Michael K. Barbour Wayne State University
  • 2. Rationale for the Study“Industrial society is being overtaken by theknowledge society, we are told, and ourcountry is in danger of being left behind,should we fail to prepare today’s students fortomorrow” (Goodwin, 2007, p. 4).
  • 3. Rationale for the Study“Personalized learning is an idea for our time. It’srecognition of human uniqueness – we are not tryingto turn out assembly-line children. It meansredesigning our schools to fit the pupils rather thanwhat we do now, which is to force them to fit intoexisting structures. It means a focus on learning,learning for understanding, learning for meaning andgiving people time” (Pullar& Brennan, 2008, p. 11).
  • 4. Rationale for the StudyWith the advancements in technology, theministry has focused their goals on e-learning, which “can provide accessible,relevant, and high-quality learningopportunities so that every student is betterable to achieve their full potential” (NewZealand Ministry of Education, 2006, p. 4).
  • 5. Purpose of the Study• The purpose of this study was to examine the policy environment that has allowed the growth of K-12 online learning initiatives in secondary schools in New Zealand.
  • 6. Research Questions1. What are the nature and extent of online learning in secondary schools in New Zealand?2. What steps have been taken by the Government of New Zealand to encourage online learning environment across the country?
  • 7. Study Context
  • 8. Study Context• Two main islands separated by the Cook Strait.• Closest neighbor is Australia (over 1200 miles away)• 4.4 million people (1% increase from 2001) o 67.6% European o 14.6% Maori o 9.2% Asian o 6.9% Pacific Peoples o 2% Middle East, Latin America, and Africa (Statistics New Zealand, 2006, p.2).• three official languages: English, Maori & American Sign Language
  • 9. Study Context• Managed by provincial boards• Maori population had schools independent of government until 1880• Thomas Report 1944 (changes to curriculum, access to education for all)• Picot Report – major changes o Charters o Boards of Trustees o The Maori population o Teachers and teaching o Coordination of tertiary education o Special education and advisory services o Parent choice o School property• Schools are independent
  • 10. Methodology• Existing Data• Newly Acquired Interview Data o MOE Officials o Secondary School Administrators o Secondary School Teachers• Archived Document Review
  • 11. Virtual Learning NetworkThe intention of the virtual leaning network site was for kids tocome on and pick what course they want, when they wantit, and how they want it, and enroll themselves, and it was partof the community and how that had been worked out. TheVLN is a community website. We’re implementing it so that atthe national level, each student can enroll, we can relay that tothe school and find out how they did, and that would be sort ofautomatic. And theoretically, it could send an e-mail to thevideo conference unit, that there’s a class at 3:00 andautomatically start it.
  • 12. “so these rural high schools are typically small; some of them are under 200 pupils,with small cohorts in their senior years. Youngsters didn’t have too many optionsonce you got past Year 11. So then, for Year 12, those subjects are teased out andcovered in greater depth individually, and then you do Year 12, Year 13, and thengo on to tertiary study. So in Year 12 and Year 13, these rural high schools didn’toften have specialist teachers. Because of the nature of the schools, they oftenhad sort of generalist teachers or teachers who primary school trained and didn’thave specialist skills.In a [city] of, let’s say, up to 100,000, I’m just thinking of Dunedin as an examplehere, up to – which has got a population of about 110,000, and has about sevenhigh schools. You might only have one Latin teacher, but you might have a numberof kids in that area who want to do Latin. So now what they’ve done in Dunedin,they’ve put their own videoconferencing network in place, and again, they’resharing these specialist teachers that are in short supply. If you have webconnectivity, and you have your course sitting up there in the cloud, then thatsolves all of those problems, and again, it doesn’t matter if you’re in the States orNew Zealand, or whatever, you can just continue and get on with it. That’s a prettyrevolutionary position to be in. Where once upon a time you were tied down to oneperson being able to transmit knowledge to you, supported by textbooks that oftenhad to be interpreted by that person, because they were difficult to understand, andnow you’ve got all of the other tools out there that help simplify life.”
  • 13. Virtual Learning Network New Zealande-Learning Cluster Map + Te Kura/TheCorrespondence School (nationwide)
  • 14. Government of New ZealandNational Government Policies• ICT Strategy, 1998 o Develop the use of ICT in Schools o Build Infrastructure o Build School Capability o Enable educators to gain skills and insight into potential of ICT in education
  • 15. Government of New ZealandNational Government Policies• Digital Horizons Learning Through ICT, 2002 o Improve learning experiences and outcomes for all students o Support educators in integrating ICT into curriculum and management practices o Increase efficiency and effectiveness of educational management and administration o Develop partnerships with communities, businesses and other stakeholders
  • 16. Government of New ZealandNational Government Policies• ICT Strategic Framework for Education, 2006 o Provide a mechanism to guide and co-ordinate ICT investment o Provide a strategy for effective and integrated use of ICT across all parts of the education sector o Improve learner achievement in an innovative education sector, fully connected and supported by the smart use of ICT
  • 17. Government of New ZealandNational Government Policies• Enabling the 21st Century Learner:e-Learning Action Plan for Schools 2006-2010, 2006 o Describes the goals for e-learning in schools and the projects, tools, and resources that are being developed to address those outcomes o Demonstrates how e-learning can contribute to the Schooling Strategy and its priorities for the next five years o To build an education system that equips New Zealanders with 21st century skills, through the increased use of e-learning in schools
  • 18. Government of New ZealandNational Government Programs• ICT PD o A total of 267 clusters are currently active or have gone through the program since its inception in 1999• The Correspondence School • Open since 1922 and serves over 24,000 students a year• TELA (Teacher Laptops) • the MOE is running a $20 million a year laptop program. We provide every teacher a laptop. This is a voluntary program, so every teacher who wants a laptop, we pay two- thirds of the cost of the laptop, and then the school pays the other third. Currently, we have about an 89% take-up on those laptops, so it’s quite high we think. That’s called the TELA Program, teacher laptop. We also give every principal a laptop. Every three years we give them a new one.”• TKI Website
  • 19. New Zealand Ministry of Education, 2010d
  • 20. Conclusions• Grassroots approach works!• Policies have created an environment to encourage development of K-12 online learning• Programs have been flexible enough to allow them to be used to foster K-12 online learning• 4 components of success: research and innovation, capability or professional development, online services, infrastructure
  • 21. Unanticipated Conclusions• Universal Implementations o New Zealand’s model would work in other countries o Has worked with Sweden, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and Australia o Recognizing cultural differences is important• Advice/Lessons Learned o Strong team - 4 components of success o Grassroots o Have a plan o Leadership is key!
  • 22. Future Research• Expand the research sample to include students and parents• Case studies of other countries who have implemented online learning• Looking at organizational cultures that foster innovation in these models• Further study on leadership and management practices that support quality and innovation
  • 23. Questions & Comments
  • 24. Allison PowellInternational Association of K-12 Online Learning apowell@inacol.org Michael K. Barbour Wayne State University mkbarbour@gmail.com

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