Todays student and virtual schooling: The reality, the challenges, the promise...        Michael Barbour        Assistant ...
Agenda1. Today’s Student2. Distance Education in the K-12 Environment3. Virtual Schooling  a)   Canada, the United States ...
Generational differences: thetheory that people born withinan approximately 20 year timeperiod share a common set ofcharac...
Generational Boundaries• GI Generation “Greatest Generation”   – Born between 1901 and 1924• Silent Generation   – Born be...
This Generation’s Numbers• 60 million - largest group  since the Baby Boomers (72  million)• 3 times larger than  Generati...
Today’s Student: Which Fit Your Students?Gamers              Digital Natives   Socially       Disdain Previous            ...
Today’s Student•   Generation Y•   Echo•   Net Generation•   Neomillennials•   Generation NeXt•   Millennials•   Generatio...
Common Myths• Millennials / Digital  Natives• Master multitaskers• Little basis in research  or based on unproven  claims
Millennials• Based upon survey  research• Sample from Fairfax, VAHowe, N., & Strauss, W.  (2000). Millennials rising:  The...
Digital Natives• Common in the media• No systematic research• Makes unfounded  assumptions about access  to digital techno...
Master Multitaskers• Memory  encoding and  memory  retrieval  weaker in  teens when  attention is  dividedNaveh-Benjamin, ...
“Todays young people havebeen raised to aim for thestars at a time when it ismore difficult than ever toget into college, ...
• In 2002, 74% of high school students admitted  to cheating whereas in 1969 only 34%  admitted such a failing. (p. 27)• I...
Traditional K-12 Distance        Education
Correspondence Education• British Columbia  (Canada) in 1919• The Correspondence  School (New Zealand) in  1922• UNL (Unit...
Educational Radio• Used extensively  in mid-western  United States  (1929 – Ohio /  1931 – Wisconsin)  and Australia  (194...
Instructional Television• Matured in the United  States with the Midwest  Program on Airborne  Television Instruction in  ...
Audiographics/Telematics• Used extensively  in Australia and  Canada• Pre-cursor to  computer-based  distance  education
Origins of Virtual Schooling         Canada                       United States• district-based schools began   • federal ...
Describing Virtual Schooling          Canada                       United States• all virtual schools are either   • suppl...
In Canada…Single provincialvirtual schoolLimited district-based virtualschoolsExtensive district-based virtualschoolsBoth ...
Canada – The Numbers• Newfoundland and Labrador – 1688 enrollments in 2005  & 1484 enrollments in 2007 (about 900 students...
In the United States…               Watson & Ryan (2007)
United States – The Numbers• 40,000 to 50,000 enrollments (Clark, 2001)• 328,000 students in online or two-way video cours...
In Mexico…• at least 9 online high  schools   – all university-run• main focus helping  adults finish high  school• Intern...
Elsewhere in the World…• China                       • Singapore   – less than 1%               – online and blended      ...
Elsewhere in the World…• United Kingdom   – A School Without Walls offers A     level & GCSC courses primarily     to adul...
US Virtual Schools Reaching Out• 296 courses                  • 80 courses• 39 schools in 31 countries   • schools from 11...
So What Does It Look Like?
Asynchronous Instruction
Asynchronous Instruction
Asynchronous Instruction
Asynchronous Instruction
Asynchronous Instruction
Asynchronous Instruction
Synchronous Instruction
Synchronous Instruction
Synchronous Instruction
But Does It Work?
Student Performance• performance of virtual and  classroom students in Alberta  were similar in English and  Social Studie...
Student Performance• there was “a small positive  effect in favor of distance  education” at the K-12  level (Cavanaugh, 2...
Student Performance• IVHS had a completion  rate of 53% its first year of  operation and 80% the  following (Clark et al.,...
Student Performance• FLVS students performed  better on a non-mandatory  assessment tool than  students from the  traditio...
Student Performance• the completion rate for the  ALDC was 47% for their  asynchronous courses and  89% for their combinat...
The Students• the vast majority of VHS Global  Consortium students in their courses  were planning to attend a four-year  ...
The Students• the preferred characteristics include  the highly motivated, self-directed,  self-disciplined, independent  ...
The Students• participation rate in the assessment  among virtual students ranged  from 65% to 75% compared to 90%  to 96%...
The Students• IVHS students were  “highly motivated, high  achieving, self-directed  and/or who liked to work  independent...
The Students• student performance  was due to the high  dropout rate in virtual  school courses  (McLeod et al., 2005)• sp...
The Students• 45% of the students  who participated in e-  learning opportunities in  Michigan were “either  advanced plac...
The Challenge• whether web-  based distance  education can  be suitable for  all secondary  level students?  (Mulcahy, 2002)
YourQuestions  andComments
Assistant Professor  Wayne State University, USA     mkbarbour@gmail.comhttp://www.michaelbarbour.com
DEANZ 2008 - Today's Student and Virtual Schooling: The Reality, The Challenges, The Promise…
DEANZ 2008 - Today's Student and Virtual Schooling: The Reality, The Challenges, The Promise…
DEANZ 2008 - Today's Student and Virtual Schooling: The Reality, The Challenges, The Promise…
DEANZ 2008 - Today's Student and Virtual Schooling: The Reality, The Challenges, The Promise…
DEANZ 2008 - Today's Student and Virtual Schooling: The Reality, The Challenges, The Promise…
DEANZ 2008 - Today's Student and Virtual Schooling: The Reality, The Challenges, The Promise…
DEANZ 2008 - Today's Student and Virtual Schooling: The Reality, The Challenges, The Promise…
DEANZ 2008 - Today's Student and Virtual Schooling: The Reality, The Challenges, The Promise…
DEANZ 2008 - Today's Student and Virtual Schooling: The Reality, The Challenges, The Promise…
DEANZ 2008 - Today's Student and Virtual Schooling: The Reality, The Challenges, The Promise…
DEANZ 2008 - Today's Student and Virtual Schooling: The Reality, The Challenges, The Promise…
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DEANZ 2008 - Today's Student and Virtual Schooling: The Reality, The Challenges, The Promise…

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Barbour, M. K. (2008, August). Today's student and virtual schooling: The reality, the challenges, the promise… Keynote presented at the annual meeting of the Distance Education Association of New Zealand, Wellington.

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  • DEANZ 2008 - Today's Student and Virtual Schooling: The Reality, The Challenges, The Promise…

    1. 1. Todays student and virtual schooling: The reality, the challenges, the promise... Michael Barbour Assistant Professor Wayne State University
    2. 2. Agenda1. Today’s Student2. Distance Education in the K-12 Environment3. Virtual Schooling a) Canada, the United States & Mexico b) Everywhere else c) What does it look like? d) Does it work?
    3. 3. Generational differences: thetheory that people born withinan approximately 20 year timeperiod share a common set ofcharacteristics based upon thehistorical experiences, economicand social conditions,technological advances andother societal changes they havein common
    4. 4. Generational Boundaries• GI Generation “Greatest Generation” – Born between 1901 and 1924• Silent Generation – Born between 1925 and 1945• Baby Boomers – Born between 1946 and 1964• Generation X – Born between 1965 and 1980• Today’s Student – Born between 1981 and 2000
    5. 5. This Generation’s Numbers• 60 million - largest group since the Baby Boomers (72 million)• 3 times larger than Generation X• Teen population is growing at twice the rate of the rest of America• Made up 37% of U.S. population in 2005
    6. 6. Today’s Student: Which Fit Your Students?Gamers Digital Natives Socially Disdain Previous Conscious GenerationsHigh Expectations Spoiled Rotten Respect Value Diversity IntelligenceExpect Incomes Experiential Optimistic and Family OrientedExceeding Parents Learners PositiveCollaborative Nomadic Inclusive Have More FriendsHealthy Lifestyle Clueless Direct More LiberalAchievement Media Patriotic More ConservativeOriented ConsumerValue Balanced Multi-tasker Confident EntitledLives
    7. 7. Today’s Student• Generation Y• Echo• Net Generation• Neomillennials• Generation NeXt• Millennials• Generation Me• Digital Natives• Generation txt
    8. 8. Common Myths• Millennials / Digital Natives• Master multitaskers• Little basis in research or based on unproven claims
    9. 9. Millennials• Based upon survey research• Sample from Fairfax, VAHowe, N., & Strauss, W. (2000). Millennials rising: The next great generation New York: Vintage Books.
    10. 10. Digital Natives• Common in the media• No systematic research• Makes unfounded assumptions about access to digital technologyPrensky, M. (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants – Part II: Do They Really Think Differently? On the Horizon, 9(6).
    11. 11. Master Multitaskers• Memory encoding and memory retrieval weaker in teens when attention is dividedNaveh-Benjamin, M., Kilb, A., & Fisher, T. (2006). Concurrent task effects on memory encodingand retrieval: Further support for an asymmetry. Memory & Cognition, 34(1), 90-101.
    12. 12. “Todays young people havebeen raised to aim for thestars at a time when it ismore difficult than ever toget into college, find a goodjob, and afford a house.Their expectations are veryhigh just as the world isbecoming more competitive,so theres a huge clashbetween their expectationsand reality.”
    13. 13. • In 2002, 74% of high school students admitted to cheating whereas in 1969 only 34% admitted such a failing. (p. 27)• In 1967, 86% of incoming college students said that “developing a meaningful philosophy of life” was an essential life goal whereas in 2004 only 42% of GenMe freshmen agreed. (p. 48)• In 2004, 48% of American college freshmen reported earning an A average in high school whereas in 1968 only 18% of freshmen reported being an A student in high school. (p. 63)• In the 1950s, only 12% of young teens agreed with the statement “I am an important person” whereas by the late 1980s, 80% claimed they were important. (p. 69) Jean M. Twenge
    14. 14. Traditional K-12 Distance Education
    15. 15. Correspondence Education• British Columbia (Canada) in 1919• The Correspondence School (New Zealand) in 1922• UNL (United States) in 1929
    16. 16. Educational Radio• Used extensively in mid-western United States (1929 – Ohio / 1931 – Wisconsin) and Australia (1948)• Still in use today in many African nations
    17. 17. Instructional Television• Matured in the United States with the Midwest Program on Airborne Television Instruction in 1961• Used primarily as a supplement to traditional face-to-face teaching
    18. 18. Audiographics/Telematics• Used extensively in Australia and Canada• Pre-cursor to computer-based distance education
    19. 19. Origins of Virtual Schooling Canada United States• district-based schools began • federal grant created in Alberta, Manitoba & Virtual High School Global Ontario around 1994 to Consortium in 1996-97 1996 • Florida creates Florida• private Virtual High School Virtual School in 1996-97 began in Ontario in 1996• district-based consortiums • Utah creates e-School in in Ontario followed shortly 1996-97 thereafter
    20. 20. Describing Virtual Schooling Canada United States• all virtual schools are either • supplemental programs public or private – district-based, consortiums, state-wide – called virtual schools• can be either supplemental or full-time • full-time programs – created under charter school• called virtual schools, cyber legislation schools, Internet high – called cyber schools schools – and a variety of other names
    21. 21. In Canada…Single provincialvirtual schoolLimited district-based virtualschoolsExtensive district-based virtualschoolsBoth district-based and privatevirtual schoolsUse district-basedvirtual schools inother provinces
    22. 22. Canada – The Numbers• Newfoundland and Labrador – 1688 enrollments in 2005 & 1484 enrollments in 2007 (about 900 students both years)• New Brunswick – average of 1400-1500 online students per semester & 800-1000 blended students over past three years• Ontario – 8200 courses taken by over 7700 students from the provincial (another ~500 students in district- based)• British Columbia - 17,000 students in 2006 to 33,000 in 2007
    23. 23. In the United States… Watson & Ryan (2007)
    24. 24. United States – The Numbers• 40,000 to 50,000 enrollments (Clark, 2001)• 328,000 students in online or two-way video courses (Setzer & Lewis, 2005)• 139,000 students in online courses (Gray & Tucker, 2006)• 700,000 students in online courses (Picciano & Seaman, 2007)
    25. 25. In Mexico…• at least 9 online high schools – all university-run• main focus helping adults finish high school• Internet access is not universal – educational radio, satellite delivery, DVDs, online, mobile phones• small programs, but university consortiums are rapidly growing
    26. 26. Elsewhere in the World…• China • Singapore – less than 1% – online and blended learning is pervasive• Iran – many private companies • Turkey offering MOE approved – pilot began in 2005-06 with courses 300,000 and hope to have 12,000,000 taking online• Japan courses by 2010 – one correspondence school offering online • New Zealand course – TCS & VLNPowell & Patrick (2006)
    27. 27. Elsewhere in the World…• United Kingdom – A School Without Walls offers A level & GCSC courses primarily to adults  No real other K-12 – National Academy for Gifted and Talented Youth offers some online learning online courses initiatives• Australia  Many online school – Virtual School for the Gifted support initiatives offers some online courses – Virtual Schooling Service• Finland – Small national virtual school
    28. 28. US Virtual Schools Reaching Out• 296 courses • 80 courses• 39 schools in 31 countries • schools from 11 countries
    29. 29. So What Does It Look Like?
    30. 30. Asynchronous Instruction
    31. 31. Asynchronous Instruction
    32. 32. Asynchronous Instruction
    33. 33. Asynchronous Instruction
    34. 34. Asynchronous Instruction
    35. 35. Asynchronous Instruction
    36. 36. Synchronous Instruction
    37. 37. Synchronous Instruction
    38. 38. Synchronous Instruction
    39. 39. But Does It Work?
    40. 40. Student Performance• performance of virtual and classroom students in Alberta were similar in English and Social Studies courses, but that classroom students performed better overall in all other subject areas (Ballas & Belyk, 2000)• over half of the students who completed FLVS courses scored an A in their course and only 7% received a failing grade (Bigbie & McCarroll, 2000)
    41. 41. Student Performance• there was “a small positive effect in favor of distance education” at the K-12 level (Cavanaugh, 2001)• students in the six virtual schools in three different provinces performed no worse than the students from the three conventional schools (Barker & Wendel, 2001)
    42. 42. Student Performance• IVHS had a completion rate of 53% its first year of operation and 80% the following (Clark et al., 2002)• a small negative effect size in their meta-analysis of K-12 distance education (Cavanaugh et al., 2004)
    43. 43. Student Performance• FLVS students performed better on a non-mandatory assessment tool than students from the traditional classroom (Cavanaugh et al., 2005)• FLVS students performed better on an assessment of algebraic understanding than their classroom counterpart (McLeod et al., 2005)
    44. 44. Student Performance• the completion rate for the ALDC was 47% for their asynchronous courses and 89% for their combination asynchronous & synchronous courses (Elluminate, 2006)• CDLI students performed as well as classroom-based students on final course scores & exam marks (Barbour & Mulcahy, 2007; 2008)
    45. 45. The Students• the vast majority of VHS Global Consortium students in their courses were planning to attend a four-year college (Kozma, Zucker & Espinoza, 1998)• “VHS courses are predominantly designated as ‘honors,’ and students enrolled are mostly college bound” (Espinoza et al., 1999)
    46. 46. The Students• the preferred characteristics include the highly motivated, self-directed, self-disciplined, independent learner who could read and write well, and who also had a strong interest in or ability with technology (Haughey & Muirhead, 1999)• between 25% and 50% of students had dropped out of their FLVS courses over the previous two-year period (Bigbie & McCarroll, 2000)
    47. 47. The Students• participation rate in the assessment among virtual students ranged from 65% to 75% compared to 90% to 96% for the classroom-based students (Ballas & Belyk, 2000)• “only students with a high need to control and structure their own learning may choose distance formats freely” (Roblyer & Elbaum, 2000)
    48. 48. The Students• IVHS students were “highly motivated, high achieving, self-directed and/or who liked to work independently” (Clark et al., 2002)• the typical online student was an A or B student (Mills, 2003)
    49. 49. The Students• student performance was due to the high dropout rate in virtual school courses (McLeod et al., 2005)• speculated that the virtual school students who did take the assessment may have been more academically motivated and naturally higher achieving students (Cavanaugh et al. 2005)
    50. 50. The Students• 45% of the students who participated in e- learning opportunities in Michigan were “either advanced placement or academically advanced” students (Watkins, 2005)
    51. 51. The Challenge• whether web- based distance education can be suitable for all secondary level students? (Mulcahy, 2002)
    52. 52. YourQuestions andComments
    53. 53. Assistant Professor Wayne State University, USA mkbarbour@gmail.comhttp://www.michaelbarbour.com

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