Binghamton University's Virtual AP Conference 2014 - Online and blended education: What does it look like?


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Barbour, M. K. (2014, June). Online and blended education: What does it look like? An invited keynote presentation to the Binghamton University's Virtual Advanced Placement Conference, Binghamton, NY.

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Binghamton University's Virtual AP Conference 2014 - Online and blended education: What does it look like?

  1. 1. Michael Barbour Sacred Heart University
  2. 2. Online Learning  virtual school = supplemental  cyber school = full-time Blended/Hybrid Learning  blended = online & F2F at the same time  hybrid = online or F2F
  3. 3. Davis (2003)
  4. 4. Stalker & Horn (2013)
  5. 5. Stalker & Horn (2013)
  6. 6. Stalker & Horn (2013)
  7. 7. Stalker & Horn (2013)
  8. 8. Stalker & Horn (2013)
  9. 9. Stalker & Horn (2013)
  10. 10. Stalker & Horn (2013)
  11. 11. Stalker & Horn (2013)
  12. 12. Stalker & Horn (2013)
  13. 13. Virtual School Designer: Course Development  design instructional materials  works in team with teachers and a virtual school to construct the online course, etc. Virtual School Teacher: Pedagogy & Class Management  presents activities, manages pacing, rigor, etc.  interacts with students and their facilitators  undertakes assessment, grading, etc. Virtual School Site Facilitator: Mentoring & Advocating  local mentor and advocate for student(s)  proctors & records grades, etc. Davis (2007)
  14. 14. Copyright  who owns the content? Expertise/Training  “more than 31% of teachers reported receiving no training in online lesson design” (Rice & Dawley,2007, p. 26)  to create one hour of training it took 43 hours for instructor-led, 79 hours for basic e-learning, 184 hours for interactive e-learning, and 490 hours for advanced e- learning (Chapman Alliance, 2010) Lack of Research to Guide Practice  studies have focused on unreliable and invalid measures  primary data has been teacher and developer perceptions  no open access research-based standards
  15. 15. Similar to classroom-based teaching, with differences  time management, creation of materials, understanding current technology and working with a student one-on-one (Kearsley & Blomeyer, 2004)  work differently to have positive communication and assessments, using non- verbal communication, time is needed for teachers to become comfortable with technology, shift occurring from teacher- centered to student-centered learning (Easton, 2003)
  16. 16. Online teaching is more work  class size limit (official & unofficial)  asynchronous instruction in particular Lack of reliable and valid empirical research  most research is based on teacher perceptions What is known about teacher training  learn online in order to teach online  works in team with teachers and a virtual school to construct the online course, etc.
  17. 17. Critical to the success of students  research has shown the presence of active facilitators increase student performance (Roblyer, Freeman, Stabler, & Schneidmiller, 2007)  a trained facilitator also has a positive impact on student performance (UNC-Chapel Hill) Facilitator should…  monitor student activities  support students soft learning skills Facilitator should not…  provide regular tutoring  provide significant or substantial technical assistance
  18. 18. Lack of professional development  less than 40% of online teachers reported to receiving any professional development before they began teaching online (Rice & Dawley, 2007) Lack of teacher preparation programs  less than 2% of universities in the United States provided any systematic training in their pre- service or in-service teacher education programs (Kennedy & Archambault, 2012)
  19. 19. Haughey & Muirhead (1999) preferred characteristics include the highly motivated, self-directed, self-disciplined, independent learner who could read and write well, and who also had a strong interest in or ability with technology Roblyer & Elbaum (2000) only students with a high need to control and structure their own learning may choose distance formats freely Clark et al. (2002) students were highly motivated, high achieving, self- directed and/or who liked to work independently Mills (2003) typical online student was an A or B student Watkins (2005) 45% of the students who participated in e-learning opportunities in Michigan were either advanced placement or academically advanced students
  20. 20. • “enroll approximately the same percentages of black students but substantially more white students and fewer Hispanic students relative to public schools in the states in which the company operates” • “39.9% of K12 students qualify for free or reduced lunch, compared with 47.2% for the same-state comparison group.” • “enroll a slightly smaller proportion of students with disabilities than schools in their states and in the nation as a whole (9.4% for K12 schools, 11.5% for same-state comparisons, and 13.1% in the nation).” • “Students classified as English language learners are significantly under-represented in K12 schools; on average the K12 schools enroll 0.3% ELL students compared with 13.8% in the same-state comparison group and 9.6% in the nation.” Miron, G. & Urschel, J. (2012). Understanding and improving full-time virtual schools. Denver, CO: National Education Policy Center.
  21. 21. Director of Doctoral Studies Sacred Heart University, USA