• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Chp4 introduction to the pic microcontroller   copy

Chp4 introduction to the pic microcontroller copy






Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



1 Embed 303

http://adam-waiz.blogspot.com 303



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.


11 of 1 previous next

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
  • its nice......
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Chp4 introduction to the pic microcontroller   copy Chp4 introduction to the pic microcontroller copy Presentation Transcript

    • Introduction to the PIC Microcontroller BEE 3213: Microprocessor & Microcontroller
    • Outline
      • What is Microcontroller?
      • µC vs General-Purpose µ P
      • A Brief History of PIC µC
      • PIC16F84 Features
      • PIC Clock Generator
      • Reset
      • PORTS
      • Center Processing Unit (CPU)
      • Timer & Prescalar
      • Flash Memory
      • RAM
      • ROM
      • EEPROM
    • What is Microcontroller?
      • Integrated chip that contains CPU, RAM, some form of ROM, I/O ports, and timers
      • Designed for a very specific task to control a particular system
      • reduce production cost
    • µC vs General-Purpose µ P Microcontroller Microprocessor Devices Microchip’s PIC’s series, Atmel’s AVR series Intel’s x86 family (8086, 80286, 80386, 80486 & the Pentium) or (Motorola’s PowerPC family) Components Internal CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O ports and timers External RAM, ROM, and I/O ports Application Perform specific function: A small set of signal processing functions for digital signal processor Perform more tasks that related to general requirements: calculations of software, personal computer
    • µC vs General-Purpose µ P Cont… CPU / μ P Register Control Unit ALU DATA BUS CPU / μ P Register Control Unit ALU ADDRESS BUS CONTROL BUS μ C RAM ROM I/O Timer Serial COM
    • µC vs General-Purpose µ P Cont… Microprocessor-based System Microcontroller-based System
    • A Brief History of PIC µC
      • In 1989, Microchip Technology Corporation introduced an 8-bit µC called PIC (Peripheral Interface Controller).
      • This 8 pins chip contains a small amounts of data RAM, a few hundred bytes of on-chip ROM for program, one timer, and a few pins for I/O ports.
      • The family of 8-bit µC: 10xxx, 12xxx, 14xxx, 16xxx, 17xxx, and 18xxx
    • A Brief History of PIC µC Cont… http://www.microchip.com
    • A Brief History of PIC µC
      • They are all 8-bit processors that the CPU can work on only 8 bits of data a time.
      • Problem: not all 100% upwardly compatible in terms of software when going from one family to another family.
      • Ex.: 12xxx - 12-bit wide instructions
      • 16xxx- 14-bit wide instructions
      • PIC18xxx - 16-bit wide with many
      • new instructions
    • A Brief History of PIC µC
      • Advantages of PIC:
      • 30 to 100 times faster than other µCs (program memory is integrated to the chip)
      • Smaller size (on-board memory)
      • Easy to program, reusable and inexpensive
    • A Brief History of PIC µC
      • Architecture:
      Cont… CPU Program & Data Memory Von Neumann architecture CPU Program Memory Data Memory Harvard architecture
    • Review
      • A  C normally has which of the following devices on-chip?
      • (a) RAM (b) ROM (c) I/O (d) all of the above
      • A general-purpose microprocessor normally needs which of the following devices to be attached to it?
      • (a) RAM (b) ROM (c) I/O (d) all of the above
      • 3. The PIC16 has a(n) ___-bit  P.
    • PIC16F84 Features
      • 18 pins, DIP18 type (Dual in Package) or SMD type
      Remarks: RA0 - RA3 : Pins on port A. No additional function RA4 : TOCK1 which functions as a timer RB0 : Interrupt input is an additional function. RB1 - RB5 : Pins on port B. No additional function. RB6 : 'Clock' line in program mode. RB7 : 'Data' line in program mode MCLR : Reset input and Vpp programming voltage Vss : Ground of power supply. Vdd : Positive power supply pole. OSC1 - OSC2 : Pins for connecting with oscillator.
    • PIC16F84 Features Cont… Block diagram of PIC16F84
    • PIC Clock Generator
      • To provide a clock for executing a program or program instructions of  C.
      • Types of PIC clock generator:
        • A crystal & two capacitors
        • Resonators or external resistor-capacitor pair
        • Built-in resistor-capacitor
    • PIC Clock Generator
      • PIC16F84 can operate in four different oscillation modes:
      • - LP low power crystal
      • - XT crystal/resonator
      • - HS high speed crystal/resonator
      • - RC resistor/capacitor
      • Two configuration bits, FOSC1 & FOSC0 are used to select one of these four modes
    • PIC Clock Generator
      • Crystal Oscillator/Ceramic Resonators
      • For XT, LP or HS OSC configurations
      • Crystal or ceramic resonator is connected to the OSC1/CLKIN & OSC2/CLKOUT pins
    • PIC Clock Generator
      • A parallel cut crystal is used to design PIC16F84A
      • The use of a series cut crystal may give a freq. out of the crystal manufacturer’s specifications
      Cont… External clock input operations
    • PIC Clock Generator Cont… Capacitor selection for ceramic resonators Capacitor selection for crystal resonators
    • PIC Clock Generator
      • RC Oscillator
      • Reduce cost for timing insensitive applications
      • Variation of the oscillator frequency:
      • - operating temperature
      • - process parameter variation
      • - difference in lead frame capacitance between package types (low
      • CEXT values)
      • - tolerance of the external R & C components
    • Reset
      • Power-on Reset (POR)
      • MCLR during normal operation
      • MCLR during SLEEP
      • WDT Reset (during normal operation)
      • WDT Wake-up (during SLEEP)
      Value registers upon reset Register Reset value (hex) PC 000000 WREG 00 SP 00 TRISA-TRISB FF
    • Review
      • Which pin is used to reset the PIC16F84 chip?
      • Upon power-up, the program counter (PC) has a value of ____.
      • Upon power-up, the PIC16F84 fetches the first opcode from ROM address location _____.
      • MCLR is an active-_____ (LOW, HIGH) pin.
      • How many Vdd and Gnd pins are in the PIC16F84 chip?
      • In the PIC16, the program counter is ____ bits wide.
    • PORTS
      • Physical connection of CPU and outside world – monitor @ control other components @ devices
      • A group of pins which can be accessed simultaneously @ set the desired combination of zeros and ones
      • All port pins can be designated as input @ output
      • PORTA is a 5-bit wide, bi-directional port
      • TRISA: data direction register of PORTA
      • TRISA = 1, PORTA is an input (output driver in HI-impedance mode)
      • TRISA = 0, PORTA is an output (contents of the output latch on the selected pin)
      • PORTB is a 8-bit wide, bi-directional port
      • TRISB: data direction register of PORTB
      • TRISB = 1, PORTB is an input (output driver in HI-impedance mode)
      • TRISB = 0, PORTB is an output (contents of the output latch on the selected pin)
    • Review
      • There are total of ____ ports in the PIC16F84.
      • True or false. All of the PIC16F84 ports have 8 pins.
      • List the PIC16F84 port that has 8 pins.
      • True or false. Upon power-up, the I/O pins are configured as output ports.
      • To make Port B an output port, we must place ____ in register _____.
      • To make Port B an input port, we must place ____ in register _____.
    • Center Processing Unit (CPU)
      • The brain of the  C
      • Connect all parts of the  C through a data bus & and an address bus
      • Find, fetch, decode & execute the right instruction
      • CPU resources:
        • Registers : store temporary information
        • ALU : performing arithmetic functions
        • Program counter : point to the address of the next instruction to be executed
        • Instruction decoder : interpret the instruction fetched into the CPU
    • Center Processing Unit (CPU) execute Memory Assembler (translator) Decoder MOVLW 0x20 Program Memory Temporary storage 11 00xx 0010 0000 opcode Fetch instruction Fetch instruction
    • Center Processing Unit (CPU)
      • Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
      • Add, subtract, move (left @ right within a register) and logic operations
      • PIC16F84 contains an 8-bit ALU & 8-bit working registers (WREG)
      • ALU instructions: two operands @ one operand
      • Two operands: WREG + file register @ immediate constant
      • Registers: GPR (General Purposes Registers) & SFP (Special Function Registers)
      • One operand: WREG @ a file register
      • Execution of ALU instructions can affect STATUS bits which are carry (C), digit carry (DC), and zero (Z).
    • Center Processing Unit (CPU) Cont… ALU STATUS register 8-bit literal (from instruction word) WREG register 8-bit 8-bit 8-bit Z, DC, C flags Carry bit
      • PIC16F84 has two separate memory blocks: data & program
      • Data block: GPR and SFP registers in RAM memory (read/write memory- static memory), EEPROM memory
      • Program block: FLASH memory
    • Memory organization of PIC16F84
    • MEMORY ORGANIZATION: Program Memory
      • Used for storing programs (opcodes), directly under control of program counter (PC)
      • Wake up memory (address 0000H) when PIC is powered up.
      • Has been carried out in FLASH technology (indicated by the letter F in the part number, C for one-time programmable (OTP)) : possible to program a  C many times
      • Size of 1024 locations, 14 bits width
      • Locations 0000h & 0004h are reserved for reset & interrupt vector, respectively
      • The 1 st 1Kx14 (0000h-03FFh) are physically implemented address
      • Accessing a location of physically implemented address will cause a wraparound
    • MEMORY ORGANIZATION: Program Memory
      • Also known as file register: data storage, scratch pad & registers for internal use and functions
      • Special Function Registers (SFR)
      • - 8-bit wide
      • - ALU status, timers, serial communication, I/O ports, ADC, & etc.
      • - function of each SFR is fixed in design, used to control  C or peripheral
      • - access either directly (names @ addresses) or indirectly (FSR – File Select
      • Register)
      • - classified into core and peripheral sets
      • - control bits (RP1, RP0) in STATUS register are used for bank selection
      • General Purpose Registers (GPR)
      • - 8-bit wide
      • - also called general purpose RAM (GP RAM)
      • - used for data storage & scratch pad
      • - accessed directly
      • - addresses in Bank 0 & Bank 1 are mapped together
      • Location of SFR and GPR vary from chip to chip, even among members of the same family
    • Data Memory Organization
    • SFR File Memory Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented, read as '0', q = value depends on condition Note 1: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a slave register for PC<12:8>. The contents of PCLATH can be transferred to the upper byte of the program counter, but the contents of PC<12:8> are never transferred to PCLATH. 2: The TO and PD status bits in the STATUS register are not affected by a MCLR Reset. 3: Other (non power-up) RESETS include: external RESET through MCLR and the Watchdog Timer Reset. 4: On any device RESET, these pins are configured as inputs. 5: This is the value that will be in the port output latch.
    • Review
      • True or false. Every member of the PIC16 family, regardless of the program ROM size, wakes up at memory 0000H when it is powered up.
      • What is the main difference between the PIC16Fxxx and PIC16Cxxx  C?
      • The GPR and SFR together are called ____.
      • The SFR registers in PIC are ___-bit.
      • The data memory in PIC16 is divided into ____-byte banks.
    • Timer & Prescalar
      • Establish relation between a real dimension such as “time” and a variable which represents status of a time within a microcontroller
      • PIC16F84 has an 8-bit timer, whose its value is continually increasing to 255 and then it starts all over again: 0, 1, 2, 3, …, 255, 0, 1,… etc
      • Prescaler divides oscillator clock before it reaches logic that increases timer status.
      • The first three bits in OPTION register defines divisor
      • 256 is the highest divisor, means timer clock would increase by one at every 256 th clock
    • Timer & Prescalar Cont…
    • Flash Memory
      • Store permanent information on some palm-sized computers (operating system & core applications)
      • Unlike RAM (random-access memory), flash memory can continue to store information in the absence of a power source.
      • Unlike ROM (read-only memory), we can write/update to flash memory
      • More expensive than ROM
    • RAM
      • Random-access memory
      • The most common computer memory to perform necessary tasks while the computer is on
      • An integrated circuit memory chip allows information to be stored or accessed in any order and all storage locations are equally accessible.
    • ROM
      • Read Only Memory
      • Non-volatile: hold programs and data that must be retained even the computer is turned off
      • data cannot be easily written to ROM; depending on the technology used in the ROM, writing may require special hardware, or may be impossible.
      • A computer's BIOS may be stored in ROM.
    • EEPROM
      • Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
      • ROM that can be erased electronically and reprogrammed in-circuit (or with a device programmer).
      • EEPROM is very similar to flash memory. The biggest difference is that the bytes (words) of an EEPROM can be erased individually.