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Cell parts
 

Cell parts

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    Cell parts Cell parts Presentation Transcript

    • THE CELL
    • Contributors to Knowledge of Cell
      Robert Hooke (1665)- Discovered the cell
      Anton van Leeuwenhoek (mid-1600s)- viewed living organisms under microscope
      Matthias Schleiden (1838)- plants are made of cells
      Theodor Schwann (1839)- animals are made of cells
      Rudolf Virchow (1855)- new cells are produced only from division of old cells
    • The Cell Theory
      The discoveries of Hooke, Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow are summarized in the cell theory, which states that:
      All living things are composed of cells.
      Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.
      New cells are produced from existing cells.
    • Types of Cells
    • Types of Cells
    • Cell Parts
      Descriptions
      Functions
      Location
      Cell type
    • Cytoplasm
      Jelly -like substance
      Made mostly of water
      Holds all organelles
      Between the cell membrane and nuclear membrane
      Both plant and animal cell
    • Cell(plasma) membrane
      Outer portion of the cell
      Boundaries of inside organelles
      Controls movement inside and outside of the cell
      Both plant and animal cells
    • Animal Cell
    • Nucleus
      • Round dark organelle in cytoplasm
      • Control center for cell
      • Contains DNA/chromatin and nucleolus
      • Both plant and animal cells
    • Nuclear Membrane (envelope)
      • Membrane that surrounds nucleus
      • Controls movement of materials in and out of nucleus
      • Both plant and animal cells
    • Nucleolus
      Located in nucleus, dark spots
      Made of chromatin
      Makes ribosomes
      Both plant and animal cells
    • Microtubules(cytoskeleton)
      Microtubules (cytoskeleton)
      Thin protein strands, but thicker than microfilaments
      Provide support for cell
      Aide in movement
      Both plant and animal
      Found in cytoplasm
    • Microfilaments(cytoskeleton)
      Microtubules (cytoskeleton)
      Thin protein strands, but thinner than microtubules
      Provide support for cell
      Aide in movement
      Both plant and animal
      Found in cytoplasm
    • Centrioles
      Cylinder shaped, each cell has a pairHelp cell divide
      ONLY in animal cells
      Found in cytoplasm
    • Vacuole
      Sac shaped vesicle
      Used for storage of food, water, and wastes
      Much larger in plant cells
      Both plant and animal cells
      Located in cytoplasm
    • Chloroplast
      Located in the cytoplasm
      Green from chlorophyll
      Used in photosynthesis to make food
      Only in plants
    • Ribosomes
      Small circles or dots located in cytoplasm or on the Endoplasmic Reticulum
      Made by the nucleolus
      Make protein
      Both plant and animal cells
    • Cell Wall
      Layer outside cell membrane in plant cells
      Give cell support/shape
      Made of cellulose
      Only in plant cells
    • Golgi Apparatus(complex, bodies)
      Located in cytoplasm
      Looks like fruit rollups
      Packages materials in vessicles and ships them to the needed locations
      Adapts proteins made by ribosomes
      Both plant and animal cells
    • Mitochondria
      Double membrane organelle
      Powerhouse of the cell, releases the cell’s energy from stored food
      Contains its own DNA
      If cell requires more energy (muscle) it will have more mitochondria
      Both plant and animal cells
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
      Network of tubes connecting cell membrane to other organelles
      SER makes lipids
      RER makes proteins
      Transports materials throughout cell
      Can be rough (with ribosomes) or smooth (without ribosomes)
      Both plant and animal cells
    • Chromosomes/Chromatin
      Thread like genetic material
      Located in nucleus
      Contains all the information for the cells’ activities
      Both plant and animal cells
    • Chromatids
      Two strands make up a chromosome
      Located in the nucleus except during cell division where they are pulled apart by the centrioles
      Used in the duplication of the cell
      Both plant and animal cells
    • Cilia
      Hair like structures attached to the cell membrane
      Responsible for movement
      In animal cells
    • Flagellum
      Hair like structure attached to the cell membrane
      Responsible for movement
      In animal cells
    • Lysosomes
      Sac like structure that contains chemical that help in digestion and breaking down materials
      Located in the cytoplasm
      Only in animal cells