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    Seminar report on paper battery Seminar report on paper battery Document Transcript

    • A SEMINAR REPORT ON SELF-RECHARGEABLE PAPER THIN FILM BATTERIES PERFORMANCE AND APPLICATIONS SESSION 2013-14 Submitted for the Partial fulfillment of the award for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering from Rajasthan Technical University, Kota Guided by: Submitted by Mr. MAYANK SHARMA MANISH KUMAR SHARMA Lecturer, Deptt. Of ECE College No: 10EC041 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE AJMER (An Autonomous Institute of Government of Rajasthan) Badliya Chouraha, N.H.-8 Bye Pass, Ajmer-305002 Ph. No. 0145-2671773, 776,800,801 Website: www.ecajmer.ac.in
    • I GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, AJMER (An Autonomous Institute Of Government Of Rajasthan) Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering Academic Session 2013-2014 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Mr. MANISH KUMAR SHARMA of final B.Tech.VIII semester, Electronics & Communication Engineering has presented a Seminar on “PAPER BATTERY” and submitted for the fulfillment for the award of the degree of Bachelor of technology of Rajasthan Technical University, Kota. Date: (MAYANK SHARMA) (RAJESH KUMAR RAJ) (REKHA MEHRA) Seminar Guide Seminar Co-ordinator Head of Deptt Lecturer Assistant Professor Associate Professor Deptt. Of ECE Deptt. Of ECE Deptt. Of ECE
    • II ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am thankful to my Seminar Guide Mr. Mayank Sharma (Lecturer, Deptt. Of ECE) Govt. Engineering College, Ajmer, for his valuable guidance, encouragement and co-operation during the course of this seminar and its presentation. I am also thankful to Seminar coordinator Mr. Rajesh Kumar Raj (Assistant Professor, ECE) who went out of way to provided me every possible facility and support in presenting seminar smoothly and successfully. It was his able guidance and support, which resulted in the successful presentation of seminar within the specified time. Their unflinching help and encouragement was a constant source of inspiration to me. I am very graceful to Mrs. Rekha Mehra (Head of Department, ECE) for giving opportunity to me to present this seminar. He took personal interest in seminar so that I could utilize my potential. A seminar owes its success from commencement to completion, to people involved with seminar at various stages. I avail this opportunity to convey my sincere thanks to all the individuals who have helped and assisted me in carrying and bringing out this seminar Last but not the least, the co-operation and help received from teachers and friends Dept. of ECE, is gratefully acknowledged. MANISH KUMAR SHARMA (B.Tech. Final Year ECE)
    • III CONTENTS TOPIC PAGE NO. CERTIFICATE I ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS II CONTENTS III LIST OF FIGURE IV LIST OF TABLE VI ABSTRACT 1 1 INTRODUCTION TO PAPER BATTERY 2 1.1 1.2 INTRODUCTION TO ORDINARY BATTERY INTRODUCTION TO PAPER BATTERY 2 4 2 MANUFACTURING OF PAPER BATTERY 8 2.1 2.2 MANUFACTURING OF CARBON NANO TUBES DEVELOPMENT 8 9 3 EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS 13 3.1 EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS 13 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 15 4.1 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 15 5 APPLICATION AND USE OF PAPER BATTERY 5.1 IN COSMETICS 5.2 USE OF PAPER BATTERY 5.3 DURABILITY CONCLUSION 22 22 24 25 26 BIBLIOGRAPHY 27 APPENDIX-A:- IEEE RESEARCH PAPER 29
    • IV LIST OF FIGURE FIGURE NO. FIGURE NAME PAGE NO. 1.1.1 FIGURE 1 ORDINARY BATTERY 2 1.1.2 FIGURE 2 CONVENTIONAL BATTERY 3 1.2.1 FIGURE 3 CARBON NANO TUBES 4 1.2.2 FIGURE 4 PAPER BATTERY 5 1.2.3 FIGURE 5 ANOTHER PAPER BATTERY 6 2.1 FIGURE 6 PAPER BATTERY 8 2.2 FIGURE 7 DEVELOPMENT OF PAPER BATTERY 11 3.1 FIGURE 8 DEPENDENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON DISCHARGE CAPACITY 13 3.2 FIGURE 9 TYPICAL SERIES CONNECTION METHOD 14 4.1 FIGURE 10 PHOTOGRAPH OF THE PAPER BATTERY WITH A SKETCH OF THE CROSS SECTION 16 4.2 FIGURE 11 SEM IMAGE OF THE PAPER SURFACE 17 4.3 FIGURE 12 SEM IMAGE OF THE ANODE(AI) SURFACE 18 4.4 FIGURE 13 CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF THE SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT DENSITY OF THE PAPER BATTERY AS IT IS UNDER GRADUAL RELATIVE HUMIDITY 19
    • V 5.1.1 FIGURE 14 ANTI-AGING AND WRINKLES 22 5.1.2 FIGURE 15 LG PATCH (FOR WHITENING) 23 5.1.3 FIGURE 16 IONTOPHORESIS MECHANISM 23 5.1.4 FIGURE 17 ESTEE LAUDER (FOR WRINKLES) 24
    • VI LIST OF TABLE TABLE NO. TABLE NAME PAGE NO. 4.1 TABLE 1 INFLUENCE OF THE ELECTRODES THICKNESS IN THE ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DEVICES 20
    • 1 ABSTRACT This paper reports on the use of cellulose paper simultaneously as electrolyte, separation of electrodes, and physical support of a rechargeable battery. The deposition on both faces of a paper sheet of metal or metal oxides thin layers with different electrochemical potentials, respectively as anode and cathode, such as Cu and Al, lead to an output voltage of 0.70 V and a current density that varies between 150 nA/cm and 0.5 mA/cm, subject to the paper composition, thickness and the degree of OH_ species adsorbed in the paper matrix. The electrical output of the paper battery is independent of the electrodes thickness but strongly depends on the atmospheric relative humidity (RH), with a current density enhancement by more than 3 orders of magnitude when RH changes from 60% to 85%. Besides flexibility, low cost, low material consumption, environmental friendly, the power output of paper batteries can be adapted to the desired voltage–current needed, by proper integration. A 3-V prototype was fabricated to control the ON/OFF state of a paper transistor.
    • 2 CHAPTER – 1 INTRODUCTION TO PAPER BATTERY 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO ORDINARY BATTERY Ordinary paper could one day be used as a lightweight battery to power the devices that are now enabling the printed word to be eclipsed by e-mail, e- books an online news. Scientists at Stanford University in California reported on Monday they have successfully turned paper coated with ink made of silver and carbon nano materials into a "paper battery" that holds promise for new types of lightweight, high-performance energy storage. The same feature that helps ink adhere to paper allows it to hold onto the single-walled carbon nanotubes and silver nano wire films. Earlier research found that silicon nano wires could be used to make batteries 10 times as powerful as lithium-ion batteries now used to power devices such as laptop computers. Figure 1.1.1 Ordinary battery
    • 3 "Taking advantage of the mature paper technology, low cost, light and high- performance energy-storage are realized by using conductive paper as current collectors and electrodes," the scientists said in research published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. This type of battery could be useful in powering electric or hybrid vehicles, would make electronics lighter weight and longer lasting, and might even lead someday to paper electronics, the scientists said. Battery weight and life have been an obstacle to commercial viability of electric-powered cars and trucks."Society really needs a low-cost, high-performance energy storage device, such as batteries and simple super capacitors," Stanford assistant professor of materials science and engineering and paper co-author Yi Cui said. Cui said in an e-mail that in addition to being useful for portable electronics and wearable electronics, "Our paper supercapacitors can be used for all kinds of applications that require instant high power.” Figure 1.1.2 Conventional battery
    • 4 "Since our paper batteries and super capacitors can be very low cost, they are also good for grid-connected energy storage," he said. Peidong Yang, professor of chemistry at the University of California Berkeley, said the technology could be commercialized within a short time. 1.2 INTRODUCTION OF PAPER BATTERY A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage and production device formed by combining carbon nanotube with a conventional sheet of cellulose-based paper. A paper battery acts as both a high-energy battery and super capacitor , combining two components that are separate in traditional electronics . This combination allows the battery to provide both long-term, steady power production and bursts of energy. Non-toxic, flexible paper batteries have the potential to power the next generation of electronics, medical devices and hybrid vehicles, allowing for radical new designs and medical technologies. Figure 1.2.1 carbon nanotubes
    • 5 Paper batteries may be folded, cut or otherwise shaped for different applications without any loss of integrity or efficiency . Cutting one in half halves its energy production. Stacking them multiplies power output. Early prototypes of the device are able to produce 2.5 volt s of electricity from a sample the size of a postage stamp. Figure 1.2.2 paper battery The devices are formed by combining cellulose with an infusion of aligned carbon nanotubes that are each approximately one millionth of a centimeter thick. The carbon is what gives the batteries their black color. These tiny filaments act like the electrode s found in a traditional battery, conducting electricity when the paper comes into contact with an ionic liquid solution. Ionic liquids contain no water, which means that there is nothing to freeze or evaporate in extreme environmental conditions. As a result, paper batteries can function between -75 and 150 degrees Celsius. One method of manufacture, developed by scientists at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and MIT, begins with growing the nanotubes on a
    • 6 silicon substrate and then impregnating the gaps in the matrix with cellulose. Once the matrix has dried, the material can be peeled off of the substrate, exposing one end of the carbon nanotubes to act as an electrode . Figure 1.2.3 paper battery When two sheets are combined, with the cellulose sides facing inwards, a super capacitor is formed that can be activated by the addition of the ionic liquid. This liquid acts as an electrolyte and may include salt-laden solutions like human blood, sweat or urine. The high cellulose content (over 90%) and lack of toxic chemicals in paper batteries makes the device both biocompatible and environmentally friendly, especially when compared to the traditional lithium ion battery used in many present-day electronic devices and laptops. Widespread commercial deployment of paper batteries will rely on the development of more inexpensive manufacturing techniques for carbon nanotubes. As a result of the potentially transformative applications in electronics, aerospace, hybrid vehicles and medical science, however, numerous companies and organizations are pursuing the development of
    • 7 paper batteries. In addition to the developments announced in 2007 at RPI and MIT, researchers in Singapore announced that they had developed a paper battery powered by ionic solutions in 2005. NEC has also invested in R & D into paper batteries for potential applications in its electronic devices. Specialized paper batteries could act as power sources for any number of devices implanted in humans and animals, including RFID tags, cosmetics, drug-delivery systems and pacemakers. A capacitor introduced into an organism could be implanted fully dry and then be gradually exposed to bodily fluids over time to generate voltage. Paper batteries are also biodegradable, a need only partially addressed by current e-cycling and other electronics disposal methods increasingly advocated for by the green computing movement.
    • 8 CHAPTER – 2 MANUFACTURING OF PAPER BATTERY 2.1 MANUFACTURING OF CARBON NANOTUBES One method of manufacture, developed by scientists at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and MIT, begins with growing the nano tubes on a silicon substrate and then impregnating the gaps in the matrix with cellulose. Once the matrix has dried, the material can be peeled off of the substrate, exposing one end of the carbon nano tubes to act as an electrode . Figure 2.1 paper battery When two sheets are combined, with the cellulose sides facing inwards, a super capacitor is formed that can be activated by the addition of the ionic liquid. This liquid acts as an electrolyte and may include salt-laden solutions like human blood, sweat or urine. The high cellulose content (over 90%) and lack of toxic chemicals in paper batteries makes the device both biocompatible and environmentally friendly, especially when compared to
    • 9 the traditional lithium ion battery used in many present-day electronic devices and laptops. Specialized paper batteries could act as power sources for any number of devices implanted in humans and animals, including RFID tags, cosmetics, drug-delivery systems and pacemakers. A capacitor introduced into an organism could be implanted fully dry and then be gradually exposed to bodily fluids over time to generate voltage. Paper batteries are also biodegradable, a need only partially addressed by current e-cycling and other electronics disposal methods increasingly advocated for by the green computing movement. 2.2 DEVELOPMENT The creation of this unique nano composite paper drew from a diverse pool of disciplines, requiring expertise in materials science, energy storage, and chemistry. The researchers used ionic liquid, essentially a liquid salt, as the battery’s electrolyte. The use of ionic liquid, which contains no water, means there’s nothing in the batteries to freeze or evaporate. “This lack of water allows the paper energy storage devices to withstand extreme temperatures,” Kumar said. It gives the battery the ability to function in temperatures up to 300 degrees Fahrenheit and down to 100 below zero. The use of ionic liquid also makes the battery extremely biocompatible; the team printed paper batteries without adding any electrolytes, and demonstrated that naturally occurring electrolytes in human sweat, blood, and urine can be used to activate the battery device.
    • 10 Cellulose-based paper is a natural abundant material, biodegradable, light, and recyclable with a well-known consolidated manufacturing process. These attributes turn paper a quite interesting material to produce very cheap disposable electronic devices with the great advantage of being environmental friendly. The recent (r) evolution of thin-film electronic devices such as paper transistors [1], transparent thin-film transistors based on semiconductor oxides [2], and paper memory [3], open the possibility to produce low cost disposable electronics in large scale. Common to all these advances is the use of cellulose fiber-based paper as an active material in opposition to other ink-jet printed active-matrix display [4] and thin-film transistors [5] reports where paper acts only as a passive element (substrate). Batteries in which a paper matrix is incorporated with carbon nanotubes [6], or biofluid - and water-activated batteries with a filter paper [7] have been reported, but it is not known a work where the paper itself is the core of the device performance.
    • 11 Figure 2.2 development of paper battery With the present work, we expect to contribute to the first step of an incoming disruptive concept related to the production of self-sustained paper electronic systems where the power supply is integrated in the electronic circuits to fabricate fully self sustained disposable, flexible, low cost and low electrical consumption systems such as tags, games or displays. In achieving such goal we have fabricated batteries using commercial paper as electrolyte and physical support of thin film electrodes. A thin film layer of a metal or metal oxide is deposited in one side of a commercial paper sheet while in the opposite face a metal or metal oxide with opposite
    • 12 electrochemical potential is also deposited. The simplest structure produced is Cu/paper/Al but other structures such as Al paper WO TCO were also tested, leading to batteries with open circuit voltages varying between 0.50 and 1.10 V. On the other hand, the short current density is highly dependent on the relative humidity (RH), whose presence is important to recharge the battery. The set of batteries characterized show stable performance after being tested by more than 115 hours, under standard atmospheric conditions [room temperature, RT (22 C) and 60% air humidity, RH]. In this work we also present as a proof of concept a paper transistor in which the gate ON/OFF state is controlled by a non-encapsulated 3 V integrated paper battery.
    • 13 CHAPTER – 3 EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS 3.1 EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS The paper batteries produced have the Al/paper/Cu structure, where the metal layers were produced by thermal evaporation at RT. The thicknesses of the metal elect rodes varied between 100 and 500 nm. The electrical characteristics of the batteries were obtained through I–V curves and also by sweep voltammetry using scanning speed of 25 mV/s and the electrodes area of 1 cm . A Keithley 617 Programmable Electrometer with a National Instruments GPIB acquisition board were used to determine the I–V characteristics. Figure 3.1 Dependence of temperature on discharge capacity
    • 14 The cyclic voltammetry was performed with a potenciostat Gamry Instruments—Ref. 600 in a two-electrode configuration. The electrical performances of the batteries were determined by monitoring the current of the battery under variable RH conditions. The surface analysis of the paper and paper batteries was performed by S-4100 Hitachi scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with a 40 tilt angle. The electrical properties of the paper transistor controlled by the paper battery were monitored with an Agilent 4155C semiconductor parameter analyzer and a Cascade M150 microprobe station. Figure 3.2 Typical series connection method
    • 15 CHAPTER – 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The Al/paper/Cu thin batteries studied involved the use of three different classes of paper: commercial copy white paper (WP: 0.68 g/cm , 0.118 mm thick); recycled paper (RP: 0.70 g/cm , 0.115 mm thick); tracing paper (TP: 0.58 g/cm , 0.065 mm thick). The TP is made of long pine fibers and according to FRX (X-ray fluorescence) mainly Al2 O3 (24%), SiO2 (37%), SO2 (15%), CaO (9%), and Na2 O (4%). The role of the type of paper and electrodes thickness on the electrical parameters of the battery, such as the Voc and Jsc are indicated in Table I, for RH of 50%–60%, using metal electrodes with different thicknesses (t1=100 nm; tot2=250 nm;t3=500 nm). Jsc for WP is ~ 40%–50% lower than of TP, and RP is one order of magnitude lower than WP. Consequently, the Voc is reduced by merely a ~ 0.1 V when moving from WP to RP only for thickness (t1=100 nm) while it increases for t2 and t3.
    • 16 Figure 4.1 Photograph of the paper batteries with a sketch of the cross section The thickness of the metal layer does not play a remarkable role on electrical characteristics of the batteries. The results show that it is enough to guarantee the step coverage of the randomly dispersed fibers by metal or metal–oxide thin films to allow the carriers to find a continuous pathway without the inhibition of water vapor absorption by the paper fibers. Considering that the tracing paper is less dense and thinner than white and recycled paper, the difference on the current density observed can be related to ions recombination either due to impurities inside the foam/mesh-like paper structure or charge annihilation by vacant sites associated to the surface of the paper fibers, existing in thicker papers. Other possible explanation is that the adsorption of water vapor is favored in less dense paper. Fig. 4.1 shows a photograph and a sketch of a paper battery analysis it contains with an Al anode while the cathode is Cu, whose
    • 17 difference in work functions influences the set of chemical reactions that take place within the paper mesh structure. The paper SEM image of Fig. 4.2 is the surface morphology of tracing paper used. There, large (50 m). This mesh-like structure favors OHx absorption on the surface of the fibers, in line with data depicted in Table 4.1, where the batteries produced in WP show currents one order of magnitude lower than the ones produced in TP. figure 4.2 SEM image of the paper surface.
    • 18 Figure 4.3 SEM image of the anode (Al) surface For RP, two orders of magnitude difference in is observed. Voc is reduced by 0.1–0.2 V when moving from WP to RP as electrolyte. The paper battery prototype used is non-encapsulated and so, its electrical performance is influenced by the atmospheric constituents. This behavior was confirmed by measuring the current of one cell in vacuum and under atmospheric pressure [8]. The results demonstrated a reduction of one order of magnitude in Jsc value after vacuum reaching 10 Pa. These results were reproducible after performing several tests. We attributed this behavior to the incorporation of OH radicals from adsorbed water and its contribution to the enhancement of
    • 19 current through the typical reactions of 2H2 O O2+ 4H+ +4e- and/or4 OH-  O2+2 H2 O+4e- and subsequent reactions with the paper fibers constituents (cellulose and ions). This was confirmed by measuring the current variation as RH changes. The graph of Fig. 4.4 shows the short circuit-current density variation as RH increases for TP. A variation of about three orders of magnitude is observed when RH changes from 60% to 85%, and it is reversible, meaning that no battery damage is verified. We conclude that this type of battery is a mixture of a secondary battery and a fuel cell where the fuel is the water vapor and so its application requires environment with RH>40 % or proper encapsulation with controlled humidity via holes through which we can allow the battery to breathe. Figure 4.4 Continuous measurement of the short circuit current density of the paper battery as it is under gradual relative humidity
    • 20 Table 4.1 Influence of the electrodes thickness in the electrical characteristics of devices
    • 21 This is the case in applications with typically high RH, as in the food industry, where these batteries could be used to turn electronic tags auto- sustained. From the data taken, each battery element is able to supply a power from 75 nW/cm to 350 W/cm , depending on RH. The desired voltage and power output can be achieved by integrating in series and in parallel the battery elements produced. In the present case, a prototype battery able to supply a 3 V was produced to actuate the gate of a paper transistor working in the depletion mode. Fig. 4.4 shows a photograph of the prototype made of 10 cells (with only 8 cells connected in series) and the graph of the drain current of the paper transistor when the paper battery is connected to the gate ( 3 V) or disconnected (0 V). The connection/disconnection were repeated during 400 s in intervals of 25 s and the current was monitored continuously. The results clearly show the sustainability of the paper battery in powering the gate of the transistor and how the results are reproducible. The drain current of the paper transistor at 0 V is 2 10 A and at 3V is 10 A, similar to the values obtained when measuring the transfer characteristics of the same devices with a semiconductor analyzer [1].
    • 22 CHAPTER – 5 APPLICATION AND USES OF PAPER BATTERY 5.1 IN COSMETICS Anti-aging and wrinkles Dark spots / Discoloration Skin lightening / Whitening Firming and lifting Moisturizing Figure 5.1.1 Anti-aging and wrinkles
    • 23 Figure 5.1.2 LG Ion Patch (For whitening) Figure 5.1.3 Iontophoresis mechanism
    • 24 Figure 5.1.4 estee lauder (for wrinkles) 5.2 USES OF PAPER BATTERY The paper-like quality of the battery combined with the structure of the nanotubes embedded within gives them their light weight and low cost,
    • 25 making them attractive for portable electronics, aircraft, automobiles, and toys (such as model aircraft), while their ability to use electrolytes in blood make them potentially useful for medical devices such as pacemakers. The medical uses are particularly attractive because they do not contain any toxic materials and can be biodegradable; a major drawback of chemical cells However, Professor Sperling cautions that commercial applications may be a long way away, because nanotubes are still relatively expensive to fabricate. Currently they are making devices a few inches in size. In order to be commercially viable, they would like to be able to make them newspaper size; a size which, taken all together would be powerful enough to power a car. 5.3 DURABILITY The use of carbon nanotubes gives the paper battery extreme flexibility; the sheets can be rolled, twisted, folded, or cut into numerous shapes with no loss of integrity or efficiency, or stacked, like printer paper (or a Voltaic pile), to boost total output. As well, they can be made in a variety of sizes, from postage stamp to broadsheet. “It’s essentially a regular piece of paper, but it’s made in a very intelligent way,” said Linhardt, “We’re not putting pieces together — it’s a single, integrated device,” he said. “The components are
    • 26 CONCLUSION In this paper we show the functionality of a non-encapsulated thin-film battery using paper as electrolyte and also as physical support. Batteries able to supply a Voc≈.70V and Jsc>100nA/cm2 at RH>60% were fabricated using respectively as anode and cathode thin metal films of Al and Cu as thin as 100 nm. The battery is self rechargeable when exposed to relative humidity above 40%, being Jsc highly influenced by RH>60%. In this case,Jsc varies from 150 nA/cm2 to 0.8 mA/cm2 , as RH varies from 60% to 85%. This constitutes the first step towards future fully integrated self sustained flexible, cheap and disposable electronic devices, with great emphasis on the so-called paper electronics.
    • 27 BIBLOGRAPHY [1] E. Fortunato, N. Correia, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, G. Goncalves, and R. Martins, “High-performance flexible hybrid field-effect transistors based on cellulose fiber paper,” IEEE Electron Device Lett., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 988– 990, Sep. 2008. [2] E. Fortunato, A. Goncalves, A. Pimentel, P. Barquinha, G. Goncalves, L. Pereira, I. Ferreira, and R. Martins, “Zinc oxide, a multifunctional material: From material to device applications,” Appl.Phys.—Materials Science & Processing, vol. 96, pp. 197–206, Jul. 2009. [3] R. Martins, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, N. Correia, G. Gonçalves, I. Ferreira, and E. Fortunato, “Write-erase and read paper memory transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 93, p. 203501, Nov. 2008. [4] P. Andersson, D. Nilsson, P.-O. Svensson, M. Chen, A. Malmstrom, T. Remonen, T. Kugler, and M. Berggren, “Active matrix displays based on all- organic electrochemical smart pixels printed on paper,” Adv. Mater., vol. 14, no. 20, pp. 1460–1464, Oct. 2002. [5] J. Sun, Q.Wan, A. Lu, and J. Jiang, “Low-voltage electric-double-layer paper transistors gated by microporous SiO processed at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 95, pp. 222108-1–222108-3, Nov. 2009. [6] V. L. Pushparaj, M. M. Shaijumon, A. Kumar, S. Murugesan, L. Ci, R. Vajtai, R. J. Linhardt, O. Nalamasu, and P. M. Ajayan, “Flexible energy storage devices based on nanocomposite paper,” PNAS, vol. 104, no. 4, pp. 13574–13577, Aug. 2007. [7] K. B. Lee, “Two-step activation of paper batteries for high power generation: Design and fabrication of biofluid- and water-activated paper batteries,” J. Micromech. Microeng., vol. 16, pp. 2312–2317, Sept. 2006.
    • 28 [8] B. Bras, “Produção e Caracterização de Bateriais de Filme Fino em Substrato de Papel,” M.Sc. Thesis, FCT-UNL, Lisbon, Portugal, Oct. 2009, ed. FCT-UNL.
    • 29 APPENDIX-A:- IEEE RESEARCH PAPER
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