MANISH KUMAR SHARMA
GOVT. ENGG. COLLEGE AJMER
VIII SEM ECE (10EC41)
An Overview of the battery technology that
powers our mobile society.
• The creation of the paper battery drew from a diverse pool
of disciplines, requiring expertise in materials science, energy
storage and chemistry.
• In august 2007, a research team at Rensselear polytechnic
Institute developed the paper battery,
also known as nano composite paper.
Electrochemical reaction - a chemical
reaction between elements which creates
Oxidation occurs on the metals
(“electrodes”), which creates the
Electrons are transferred down the pile via
the saltwater paper (the “electrolyte”).
A charge is introduced at one pole, which
builds as it moves down the pile.
• It is a hybrid energy storage device that
combines characteristics of batteries and
• It takes the high energy storage capacity
of the battery and the high energy density of
the super capacitor which producing bursts
of extreme power.
What is Nanocomposite paper
Materials and Description
This energy storage device is based on two basic,
Also an ionic liquid provides the third component:
How it is made
• To create this paper we have to first
dissolve the cellulose in the ionic liquid and
then infiltrate the cellulose paper with
aligned carbon nanotubes which form the
• Then it is solidified on dry ice, after
this it is soaked in ethanol to remove the
ionic liquid and dried in a vacuum, which
gives us our final product: Nanocomposite
A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin
energy storage and production device
formed by combining carbon nanotube s
with a conventional sheet of cellulose-
A paper battery acts as both a high-
energy battery and super capacitor ,
combining two components that are
separate in traditional electronics .
WHAT IS A CARBON NANOTUBE?
A carbon nanotube is a tube-shaped
material, made of carbon, having a diameter
measuring on the nanometer scale.
Carbon Nanotubes have many structures,
differing in length, thickness, and in the type
of helicity and number of layers.
Although they are formed from essentially
the same graphite sheet, their electrical
characteristics differ depending on these
variations, acting either as metals or as
Carbon Nanotubes can be categorized by their structures:
Single-wall Nanotubes (SWNT)
Multi-wall Nanotubes (MWNT)
• While a conventional battery contains a
number of separate components, the paper
battery integrates all of the battery
components in a single structure, making it
more energy efficient, Integrated devices.
• The battery contains carbon nanotubes,
each about one millionth of a centimeter
thick, which act as an electrode. The
nanotubes are embedded in a sheet of paper
soaked in ionic liquid electrolytes, which
conduct the electricity.
How a paper battery works?
• Electricity is the flow of electrical power or electrons
• Batteries produce electrons through a chemical reaction
between electrolyte and metal in the traditional battery.
• Chemical reaction in the paper battery is between
electrolyte and carbon nanotubes.
• Electrons collect on the negative terminal of the battery and
flow along a connected wire to the positive terminal.
• Electrons must flow from the negative to the positive
terminal for the chemical reaction to continue.
• The flexible battery can function even if it is rolled up,
folded or cut.
• "If we stack 500 sheets together in a ream, that's 500
times the voltage. If we rip the paper in half we cut
power by 50%. So we can control the power and
• Because the battery consists mainly of paper and
carbon, it could be used to power pacemakers within
the body where conventional batteries pose a toxic
• “We wouldn't want the ionic liquid electrolytes in our
body, but it works without them that is we can implant a
piece of paper in the body and blood would serve as an
Paper battery offers future power
The black piece of paper can power a small light.
Flexible paper batteries could meet the energy demands of
the next generation of gadgets.
The ambition is to produce reams of paper that could one
day power a car.
The paper battery was a glimpse into the future of power
The versatile paper, which stores energy like a conventional
battery, can also double as a capacitor capable of releasing
sudden energy Bursts for high-power applications.4/5/2014 16
• This energy storage device is cost-effective because
the device can be able to be used in the smallest and
most diversely designed electronics. Such as cell
phones, mp3 players and medical equipment.
• The researchers say that it can also be used in
automobiles and aircraft. But it has a poor processibility,
being that it is particularly insoluble of infusible. Lastly,
the use of ionic liquid makes the device environmentally
friendly; a major concern in nanotechnology.