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Solar panels on roads

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Solar panels on roads,paper presentation

Solar panels on roads,paper presentation

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    • 1. SOLARSOLAR PANELPANEL ROADSROADS
    • 2. 1.1. ABSTRACTABSTRACT 2.2. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION 3.3. PANEL CONSTRUCTIONPANEL CONSTRUCTION 4.4. ELECTRIC VEHICLES AND OIL INDEPENDENCEELECTRIC VEHICLES AND OIL INDEPENDENCE 5.5. TRAFFIC MANAGEMENTTRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 6.6. SNOW AND ICE MANAGEMENTSNOW AND ICE MANAGEMENT 7.7. RECYCLED MATERIALSRECYCLED MATERIALS 8.8. NATIONAL SECURITYNATIONAL SECURITY 9.9. SMART GRIDSMART GRID 10.10. HEALTH BENEFITSHEALTH BENEFITS 11.11. ECONOMIC RECOVERYECONOMIC RECOVERY 12.12. AESTHETICSAESTHETICS 13.13. OTHER ADVANTAGESOTHER ADVANTAGES 14.14. DISADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES 15.15. REFERANCEREFERANCE CONTENTSCONTENTS
    • 3. 1.ABSTRACT1.ABSTRACT Most of the electric power is being produced byMost of the electric power is being produced by using fossil fuels which is resulting in the increase ofusing fossil fuels which is resulting in the increase of pollution. Also these fossil fuels are getting depleted andpollution. Also these fossil fuels are getting depleted and may exhaust completely with in few years. So there is amay exhaust completely with in few years. So there is a need for alternative methods of production of power. So,need for alternative methods of production of power. So, non-conventional means of production came intonon-conventional means of production came into existence. Among all the non-conventional sources, solarexistence. Among all the non-conventional sources, solar energy is the most important one. Many devices wereenergy is the most important one. Many devices were designed to work by utilizing solar energy. Solar lamps,designed to work by utilizing solar energy. Solar lamps, solar roads, solar chargers, photovoltaic cells are some ofsolar roads, solar chargers, photovoltaic cells are some of the devices which depend on solar energy.the devices which depend on solar energy. Solar panel road is an innovative idea for theSolar panel road is an innovative idea for the production of solar power which is used to supply theproduction of solar power which is used to supply the domestic and industrial loads. The road ways cover vastdomestic and industrial loads. The road ways cover vast area in a town or city which exposes to sun all the day.area in a town or city which exposes to sun all the day. The radiation on the sun can be utilized for the productionThe radiation on the sun can be utilized for the production of power by the technique of solar panel roads. The basicof power by the technique of solar panel roads. The basic principle of solar panel roads, its construction, way ofprinciple of solar panel roads, its construction, way of working, applications, advantages and disadvantages areworking, applications, advantages and disadvantages are the main contents of this presentation.the main contents of this presentation. 2.INTRODUCTION2.INTRODUCTION  A solar roadway is a series of structurally engineered solarA solar roadway is a series of structurally engineered solar panels that are driven upon. The idea is to replace currentpanels that are driven upon. The idea is to replace current petroleum-based asphalt roads, parking lots, andpetroleum-based asphalt roads, parking lots, and driveways with solar road panels that collect energy to bedriveways with solar road panels that collect energy to be used by homes and businesses, and ultimately to be able toused by homes and businesses, and ultimately to be able to store excess energy in or alongside the solar roadways.store excess energy in or alongside the solar roadways. Thus renewable energy replaces the need for the currentThus renewable energy replaces the need for the current fossil fuels used for the generation of electricity, whichfossil fuels used for the generation of electricity, which cuts greenhouse gases.cuts greenhouse gases.  Parking lots, driveways, and eventually highways are allParking lots, driveways, and eventually highways are all targets for the panels. If the entire United States Interstatetargets for the panels. If the entire United States Interstate Highway system were surfaced with Solar RoadwaysHighway system were surfaced with Solar Roadways panels, it would produce more than three times the amountpanels, it would produce more than three times the amount of electricity currently used nationwide.of electricity currently used nationwide.  The solar roadways consists of structurally engineeredThe solar roadways consists of structurally engineered solar panels that we drive on. Each solar road panelsolar panels that we drive on. Each solar road panel (roughly 12’ by 12’) interlinks with neighboring panels to(roughly 12’ by 12’) interlinks with neighboring panels to form the solar roadways system. The solar roadwaysform the solar roadways system. The solar roadways generates electrical power from the sun and becomes ourgenerates electrical power from the sun and becomes our nation’s decentralised, intelligent, self-healing power grid,nation’s decentralised, intelligent, self-healing power grid, replacing our current deteriorating power distributionreplacing our current deteriorating power distribution infrastructure.infrastructure.
    • 4.  3.PANEL CONSTRUCTION3.PANEL CONSTRUCTION  Existing prototype panels consist of three layers.Existing prototype panels consist of three layers.  Road surface layer –Road surface layer –   The road surface is translucent and high-strength, it is roughThe road surface is translucent and high-strength, it is rough enough to provide sufficient traction, yet still passesenough to provide sufficient traction, yet still passes sunlight through to the solar collector cells embeddedsunlight through to the solar collector cells embedded within, along with LEDs and a heating element. This layerwithin, along with LEDs and a heating element. This layer needs to be capable of handling today's heaviest loads underneeds to be capable of handling today's heaviest loads under the worst of conditions and to be weatherproof, to protectthe worst of conditions and to be weatherproof, to protect the electronics layer beneath it.the electronics layer beneath it.  Electronics layer –Electronics layer –   Contains a microprocessor board with support circuitry forContains a microprocessor board with support circuitry for sensing loads on the surface and controlling a heatingsensing loads on the surface and controlling a heating element with a view to reducing or eliminating snow and iceelement with a view to reducing or eliminating snow and ice removal as well as school and business closings due toremoval as well as school and business closings due to inclement weather. The microprocessor controls lighting,inclement weather. The microprocessor controls lighting, communications, monitoring, etc. With a communicationscommunications, monitoring, etc. With a communications device every 12 feet, a solar roadway can be an intelligentdevice every 12 feet, a solar roadway can be an intelligent highway system.highway system.  Base plate layer –Base plate layer –  While the electronics layer collects energy from the sun, it isWhile the electronics layer collects energy from the sun, it is the base plate layer that distributes that power as well asthe base plate layer that distributes that power as well as data signals (phone, TV, internet, etc.) down the line to alldata signals (phone, TV, internet, etc.) down the line to all homes and businesses connected to the solar roadway. Ithomes and businesses connected to the solar roadway. It needs to be weatherproof to protect the electronics layerneeds to be weatherproof to protect the electronics layer above itabove it
    • 5. 4.ELECTRIC VEHICLES AND OIL4.ELECTRIC VEHICLES AND OIL INDEPENDENCEINDEPENDENCE  Electric vehicles (EVs) are on their way: More and moreElectric vehicles (EVs) are on their way: More and more car manufacturers are offering electric vehicle options. It'scar manufacturers are offering electric vehicle options. It's a good thing too: Roughly 25% of greenhouse gases comea good thing too: Roughly 25% of greenhouse gases come from the exhaust pipes of internal combustion enginefrom the exhaust pipes of internal combustion engine vehicles, which we've been using for well over 100 years.vehicles, which we've been using for well over 100 years.  As wonderful as they are, electric vehicles have a majorAs wonderful as they are, electric vehicles have a major problem: due to their relatively short range (generally lessproblem: due to their relatively short range (generally less than 180 miles) they have to be recharged regularly,than 180 miles) they have to be recharged regularly, typically at the owner's home. This means that they wouldtypically at the owner's home. This means that they would be fit for running to the local grocery store and back, but itbe fit for running to the local grocery store and back, but it wouldn't be feasible to take a cross country trip. Basically,wouldn't be feasible to take a cross country trip. Basically, we’d just go as far as the initial charge would take us.we’d just go as far as the initial charge would take us.  Since the Solar Roadway creates and carries cleanSince the Solar Roadway creates and carries clean renewable electricity, EVs can be recharged at anyrenewable electricity, EVs can be recharged at any conveniently located rest stop, or at any business thatconveniently located rest stop, or at any business that incorporates Solar Road Panels in their parking lotsincorporates Solar Road Panels in their parking lots (restaurants for instance). Owners can plug their cars in(restaurants for instance). Owners can plug their cars in and recharge while they're eating or shopping. Engineersand recharge while they're eating or shopping. Engineers are even investigating ways to use mutual induction toare even investigating ways to use mutual induction to charge EVs while they are driving down the Solarcharge EVs while they are driving down the Solar Roadway! By the way: using electric cars would eliminateRoadway! By the way: using electric cars would eliminate most of the other half of the cause of global warming andmost of the other half of the cause of global warming and could virtually wean the world off oil entirely.could virtually wean the world off oil entirely.  By replacing our deterioration highway infrastructure withBy replacing our deterioration highway infrastructure with the solar roadways, we create a system that will supportthe solar roadways, we create a system that will support the recharging of all electric vehicles. Using all electricthe recharging of all electric vehicles. Using all electric vehicles will eliminate the need for fuel. By the removal ofvehicles will eliminate the need for fuel. By the removal of internal combustion engine vehicle are easy to drive.internal combustion engine vehicle are easy to drive.
    • 6. 5.TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT5.TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT  Each Solar Road Panel contains a microprocessor thatEach Solar Road Panel contains a microprocessor that monitors and controls the panel, while communicating withmonitors and controls the panel, while communicating with neighboring panels and the vehicles traveling overhead. Thisneighboring panels and the vehicles traveling overhead. This means that you have a communications device every few feetmeans that you have a communications device every few feet in the road: every road, everywhere.in the road: every road, everywhere.  Imagine what you can do with this kind of control: the dashedImagine what you can do with this kind of control: the dashed road lines that you see on highways can "travel" alongsideroad lines that you see on highways can "travel" alongside you at the designated speed limit. If your car is moving fasteryou at the designated speed limit. If your car is moving faster than the lines, you are going too fast. If your car is beingthan the lines, you are going too fast. If your car is being passed by the line, you're driving too slowly. You canpassed by the line, you're driving too slowly. You can maintain the proper speed while never having to look at yourmaintain the proper speed while never having to look at your speedometerspeedometer  The roadways can protect the motorists. Load cells in theThe roadways can protect the motorists. Load cells in the solar road panels can detect if something is on the surface ofsolar road panels can detect if something is on the surface of the panel. Load cells work like weight machines. In the eventthe panel. Load cells work like weight machines. In the event that an animal does get onto the solar roadway, oncomingthat an animal does get onto the solar roadway, oncoming drivers will be warned via embedded LEDs of the dangerdrivers will be warned via embedded LEDs of the danger ahead and will be given plenty of time to slow down.ahead and will be given plenty of time to slow down. Crosswalk panels can alert drivers when pedestrians are onCrosswalk panels can alert drivers when pedestrians are on the crosswalk. Once the crosswalk panels detect a pedestrian,the crosswalk. Once the crosswalk panels detect a pedestrian, the LEDs within the crosswalk begin flashing and a warningthe LEDs within the crosswalk begin flashing and a warning is displayed in front of oncoming vehicles.is displayed in front of oncoming vehicles.  The Solar Roadways could drastically reduce the number ofThe Solar Roadways could drastically reduce the number of deaths/injuries caused by impaired driving. This too, ought todeaths/injuries caused by impaired driving. This too, ought to result in lowered insurance rates for all of us.result in lowered insurance rates for all of us.
    • 7. LOAD CELLS
    • 8. 6.SNOW AND ICE MANAGEMENT6.SNOW AND ICE MANAGEMENT  For those of us in the northern climates, snow can be aFor those of us in the northern climates, snow can be a beautiful thing. It creates a winter wonderland and give thebeautiful thing. It creates a winter wonderland and give the kids hours of entertainment building snowmen and igloos,kids hours of entertainment building snowmen and igloos, sledding, making snow angels, and having good ole snowballsledding, making snow angels, and having good ole snowball fights.fights.  Unfortunately, it also makes for dangerous driving. SnowUnfortunately, it also makes for dangerous driving. Snow removal is expensive and labor intensive. DOT budgets areremoval is expensive and labor intensive. DOT budgets are sometimes expended before the snow stops falling. The needsometimes expended before the snow stops falling. The need for studded tires and snow chains wreck havoc on asphaltfor studded tires and snow chains wreck havoc on asphalt roads, which require repair every spring.roads, which require repair every spring.  A Solar Roadway (or parking lot, driveway, playground,A Solar Roadway (or parking lot, driveway, playground, tarmac, etc.) changes all of that. The roads in northerntarmac, etc.) changes all of that. The roads in northern climates heat themselves with their embedded heatingclimates heat themselves with their embedded heating elements (similar to the rear window of a car), eliminating iceelements (similar to the rear window of a car), eliminating ice and snow buildup.and snow buildup.  Cities will no longer have the expense of snow removal andCities will no longer have the expense of snow removal and the problems caused by the chemicals (salt, magnesiumthe problems caused by the chemicals (salt, magnesium chloride, etc.) used to maintain clear roads.chloride, etc.) used to maintain clear roads.  7.RECYCLED MATERIALS7.RECYCLED MATERIALS  Let's clean up our oceans and landfillsLet's clean up our oceans and landfills  Recycled materials can be used for the internal supportRecycled materials can be used for the internal support structure. Over 46,000 pieces of plastic litter are floating onstructure. Over 46,000 pieces of plastic litter are floating on every square mile of ocean today. In the Central Pacific, thereevery square mile of ocean today. In the Central Pacific, there are up to 6 pounds of marine litter to every pound of plankton.are up to 6 pounds of marine litter to every pound of plankton.
    • 9.  The power grid cannot be disrupted - not by terrorists, notThe power grid cannot be disrupted - not by terrorists, not by power companies, not by nature, not by anyone. No moreby power companies, not by nature, not by anyone. No more blackouts, no more brownouts, no more disruptions - ever.blackouts, no more brownouts, no more disruptions - ever.  Global Warming:Global Warming:  If we don't stop pouring carbon dioxide into the atmosphere,If we don't stop pouring carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, then global temperatures will continue to increase,then global temperatures will continue to increase, Greenland and the polar ice caps will continue to melt, andGreenland and the polar ice caps will continue to melt, and hundreds of millions of people will be displaced. Thathundreds of millions of people will be displaced. That presents a national security problem for every country in thepresents a national security problem for every country in the world.world.  Dependency on Foreign Oil:Dependency on Foreign Oil:  The fact that the world is running out of oil doesn't meanThe fact that the world is running out of oil doesn't mean that the industrialized nations will simply learn to livethat the industrialized nations will simply learn to live without it. Those who are capable will fight for the last dropwithout it. Those who are capable will fight for the last drop of oil, anyplace, anywhere. We don't believe that any of usof oil, anyplace, anywhere. We don't believe that any of us are willing to mothball our military machines or revert backare willing to mothball our military machines or revert back to non-mechanized artillery units. WWIII could easily ensueto non-mechanized artillery units. WWIII could easily ensue over the right to extract and use the last reserves of oil.over the right to extract and use the last reserves of oil.  To summarize, the Solar Roadways provides us (and otherTo summarize, the Solar Roadways provides us (and other nations) national security that we have never been able tonations) national security that we have never been able to achieve. It can help curb terrorism. It can help prevent futureachieve. It can help curb terrorism. It can help prevent future wars. It can keep our children safer. It will cut down onwars. It can keep our children safer. It will cut down on health and respiratory problems. The Solar Roadway™ willhealth and respiratory problems. The Solar Roadway™ will help us to sleep better at night!help us to sleep better at night!  Trash bags, water bottles and other plastics, and rubber tiresTrash bags, water bottles and other plastics, and rubber tires can be mixed with organic materials to create parts of thecan be mixed with organic materials to create parts of the Solar Road PanelsSolar Road Panels 8.NATIONAL SECURITY8.NATIONAL SECURITY  Renewable Energy = Homeland SecurityRenewable Energy = Homeland Security   Our decentralized power grid will deny terrorists anOur decentralized power grid will deny terrorists an opportunity to take out our power. Making oil relativelyopportunity to take out our power. Making oil relatively worthless will take away the vast majority of terroristworthless will take away the vast majority of terrorist funding. Eliminating any perceived need to protect our oilfunding. Eliminating any perceived need to protect our oil interests in hostile lands will keep our troops safe and allowinterests in hostile lands will keep our troops safe and allow us to redirect the money spent on war to our needs at home.us to redirect the money spent on war to our needs at home. The Solar Roadways™ provides national security on severalThe Solar Roadways™ provides national security on several levels:levels:  Our Roadway Infrastructure:Our Roadway Infrastructure:  Trucks with hazardous materials can be tracked andTrucks with hazardous materials can be tracked and monitored. Suspected terrorist's vehicles can be tracked.monitored. Suspected terrorist's vehicles can be tracked. Public buses and school buses can be tracked. All in realPublic buses and school buses can be tracked. All in real time. These vehicles can be fitted with controls to shut downtime. These vehicles can be fitted with controls to shut down their engines and/or apply their brakes in the event that theytheir engines and/or apply their brakes in the event that they are commandeered with malintent.are commandeered with malintent.  Our Power Grid:Our Power Grid:  A self-healing transmission system would minimize theA self-healing transmission system would minimize the impact of any kind of terrorist attempt to “take out” theimpact of any kind of terrorist attempt to “take out” the power grid. The Solar Roadways™ can't be "taken out" - notpower grid. The Solar Roadways™ can't be "taken out" - not by terrorists, not by utility companies, not by anyone. Itby terrorists, not by utility companies, not by anyone. It provides a decentralized, secure, intelligent, self-healingprovides a decentralized, secure, intelligent, self-healing power grid.power grid.
    • 10. 9.SMART GRID9.SMART GRID  Our current power grid is based on centralized powerOur current power grid is based on centralized power stations. Distribution of power is handled throughstations. Distribution of power is handled through transmission lines (overhead and underground), relaytransmission lines (overhead and underground), relay stations, and transformers. When a line goes down (ice,stations, and transformers. When a line goes down (ice, lighting, wind, tress, utility pole hit by car, etc.), everyonelighting, wind, tress, utility pole hit by car, etc.), everyone on the wrong end of the line loses power until the damageon the wrong end of the line loses power until the damage is repaired. If a power station goes down, an entire sectionis repaired. If a power station goes down, an entire section of the country goes dark.of the country goes dark.  The Solar Roadways on the other hand, replaces all currentThe Solar Roadways on the other hand, replaces all current centralized power stations including coal- and nuclear-centralized power stations including coal- and nuclear- powered electricity generation plants. With the Solarpowered electricity generation plants. With the Solar Roadways™, the road becomes the power grid, eliminatingRoadways™, the road becomes the power grid, eliminating the need for unsightly utility poles and relay stations.the need for unsightly utility poles and relay stations. Power is generated everywhere - every road, parking lot,Power is generated everywhere - every road, parking lot, and driveway. No more power outages, roaming .and driveway. No more power outages, roaming .  This is "secure" energy: it can't be deliberately shut down.This is "secure" energy: it can't be deliberately shut down. Not by terrorists, not by power companies, it simply can'tNot by terrorists, not by power companies, it simply can't be shut down.be shut down.  The precise definition of "smart" varies from one engineerThe precise definition of "smart" varies from one engineer to the next. The gist is that a smart grid would be moreto the next. The gist is that a smart grid would be more automated and more "self-healing," and so less prone toautomated and more "self-healing," and so less prone to failures. It would be more tolerant of small-scale, variablefailures. It would be more tolerant of small-scale, variable power sources such as solar panels and wind turbines, inpower sources such as solar panels and wind turbines, in part because it would even out fluctuations by storingpart because it would even out fluctuations by storing energy...energy...  The Solar Roadway is completely decentralized. EveryThe Solar Roadway is completely decentralized. Every Solar Road Panel™ can generate and pass electricitySolar Road Panel™ can generate and pass electricity "down line" to homes and businesses. No loss to heat, no"down line" to homes and businesses. No loss to heat, no carbon footprint, and no spent fuel rods.carbon footprint, and no spent fuel rods.  A self-healing smart grid can best be built if its architectsA self-healing smart grid can best be built if its architects try to fulfill three primary objectives. The mosttry to fulfill three primary objectives. The most fundamental is real-time monitoring and reaction. Anfundamental is real-time monitoring and reaction. An array of sensors would monitor electrical parameters sucharray of sensors would monitor electrical parameters such as voltage and current, as well as the condition of criticalas voltage and current, as well as the condition of critical components. These measurements would enable thecomponents. These measurements would enable the system to constantly tune itself to an optimal state.system to constantly tune itself to an optimal state.  Each Solar Road Panel measures 12 feet (about 4 meters)Each Solar Road Panel measures 12 feet (about 4 meters) by 12 feet and contains a microprocessor board forby 12 feet and contains a microprocessor board for control, monitoring, and communications. This meanscontrol, monitoring, and communications. This means that you have a microprocessor (a small computer)that you have a microprocessor (a small computer) located every 12 feet in your power grid. It monitorslocated every 12 feet in your power grid. It monitors everything that takes place within its 12 foot perimeter. Iteverything that takes place within its 12 foot perimeter. It tracks voltage and current that it generates, uses, sends totracks voltage and current that it generates, uses, sends to or receives from neighboring Solar Road Panels, etc.or receives from neighboring Solar Road Panels, etc.  The Solar Roadways can't be "taken out" - not byThe Solar Roadways can't be "taken out" - not by terrorists, not by utility companies, not by anyone. Itterrorists, not by utility companies, not by anyone. It provides a decentralized, secure, intelligent, self-healingprovides a decentralized, secure, intelligent, self-healing power gridpower grid..
    • 11. 10.HEALTH BENEFITS10.HEALTH BENEFITS  The Solar Roadways will help to clean up theThe Solar Roadways will help to clean up the environment by eliminating the need to produce CO2 in theenvironment by eliminating the need to produce CO2 in the generation of electricity, by preventing pollutants fromgeneration of electricity, by preventing pollutants from entering our lakes, streams, and oceans (Water Management),entering our lakes, streams, and oceans (Water Management), and by eliminating the need to burn oil in the forms ofand by eliminating the need to burn oil in the forms of gasoline and diesel (Electric Vehicles).gasoline and diesel (Electric Vehicles).  The Solar Roadways will eliminate the need for pouring CO2The Solar Roadways will eliminate the need for pouring CO2 into our atmosphere in order to create electricity. It will makeinto our atmosphere in order to create electricity. It will make all-electric vehicles practical, so we can stop burning gasolineall-electric vehicles practical, so we can stop burning gasoline and diesel.and diesel.  Let’s give our children a chance at a brighter future: let’s notLet’s give our children a chance at a brighter future: let’s not leave them a world where respiratory illnesses become theleave them a world where respiratory illnesses become the norm rather than the exception. How much longer shall wenorm rather than the exception. How much longer shall we continue to endanger their very futures?continue to endanger their very futures? 11.ECONOMIC RECOVERY11.ECONOMIC RECOVERY  It will take roughly five billion 12' by 12' Solar RoadIt will take roughly five billion 12' by 12' Solar Road Panels™ just to cover the roads, parking lots, andPanels™ just to cover the roads, parking lots, and driveways in the United States. Imagine the manufacturingdriveways in the United States. Imagine the manufacturing requirements: it will create so many new jobs that it mayrequirements: it will create so many new jobs that it may very well become the "New Deal" of the 21st century. Wevery well become the "New Deal" of the 21st century. We can retrain workers from obsolete jobs such as coal minerscan retrain workers from obsolete jobs such as coal miners and asphalt workers with new "Green Collar" jobs.and asphalt workers with new "Green Collar" jobs. Unemployment rates will plummet. Vast sums of moneyUnemployment rates will plummet. Vast sums of money will be injected back into our economy. This could createwill be injected back into our economy. This could create the biggest mobilization this country has seen since WWII.the biggest mobilization this country has seen since WWII.  Each Solar Road Panel™ measures 12 feet (about 4Each Solar Road Panel™ measures 12 feet (about 4 meters) by 12 feet. Each panel contains solar collectors,meters) by 12 feet. Each panel contains solar collectors, circuit boards, electronics parts, etc. All of these have tocircuit boards, electronics parts, etc. All of these have to be assembled. Let's say it take a minimum of 10 hours tobe assembled. Let's say it take a minimum of 10 hours to completely assemble one Solar Road Panel™. Ten hourscompletely assemble one Solar Road Panel™. Ten hours is probably a conservative estimate, but it's a nice roundis probably a conservative estimate, but it's a nice round number.number.
    • 12. 12.AESTHETICS12.AESTHETICS  How many views are marred by ugly power lines? ImagineHow many views are marred by ugly power lines? Imagine traveling and enjoying the lack of these obtructions. Since thetraveling and enjoying the lack of these obtructions. Since the power lines will be located in the Solar Roadways, it will alsopower lines will be located in the Solar Roadways, it will also prevent power outages from snow and ice accumulating onprevent power outages from snow and ice accumulating on lines. This will make our world much safer as well.lines. This will make our world much safer as well.  No more unsightly utility poles, relay stations, coal stacks,No more unsightly utility poles, relay stations, coal stacks, cooling towers, etc. All power lines are replaced by the Solarcooling towers, etc. All power lines are replaced by the Solar Roadway. Data (telephone, cable TV, high-speed internetRoadway. Data (telephone, cable TV, high-speed internet access, etc.) is contained within the same Solar Roadway andaccess, etc.) is contained within the same Solar Roadway and delivered right to your home/business via yourdelivered right to your home/business via your driveway/parking lot.driveway/parking lot.  Central power stations such as coal and nuclear plants willCentral power stations such as coal and nuclear plants will become obsolete. Power will be produced and distributed viabecome obsolete. Power will be produced and distributed via the Solar Roadways, providing cleaner skies and a picturesquethe Solar Roadways, providing cleaner skies and a picturesque landscape.landscape.
    • 13. 13.OTHER ADVANTAGES13.OTHER ADVANTAGES  Renewability and life-spanRenewability and life-span  The main advantage of the solar roadway concept is that itThe main advantage of the solar roadway concept is that it utilizes a renewable source of energy to produce electricity. Itutilizes a renewable source of energy to produce electricity. It has the potential to reduce dependence on conventionalhas the potential to reduce dependence on conventional sources of energy such as coal, petroleum and other fossilsources of energy such as coal, petroleum and other fossil fuels. Also, the life span of the solar panels is around 30–40fuels. Also, the life span of the solar panels is around 30–40 years, much greater than normal asphalt roads, which only lastyears, much greater than normal asphalt roads, which only last 7–12 years.7–12 years.  Military and rescue assistanceMilitary and rescue assistance  In the event of an environmental disaster or militaryIn the event of an environmental disaster or military emergency, solar roadways would provide power when it isemergency, solar roadways would provide power when it is needed most. As solar power is renewable, it obviouslyneeded most. As solar power is renewable, it obviously requires no external connection to an artificial power source.requires no external connection to an artificial power source.  Roadways already in placeRoadways already in place  Another advantage of solar roadways is that they do notAnother advantage of solar roadways is that they do not require the development of unused and potentiallyrequire the development of unused and potentially environmentally sensitive lands. This is currently a veryenvironmentally sensitive lands. This is currently a very controversial issue with large photovoltaic installations in thecontroversial issue with large photovoltaic installations in the Southwestern US and other places. But since the roads areSouthwestern US and other places. But since the roads are already there, this is not an issue. Also, unlike largealready there, this is not an issue. Also, unlike large photovoltaic installations, new transmission corridors –photovoltaic installations, new transmission corridors – perhaps across environmentally sensitive land – would not beperhaps across environmentally sensitive land – would not be required to bring power to consumers in urban areas.required to bring power to consumers in urban areas. Transmission lines could simply be run along alreadyTransmission lines could simply be run along already established roadways.established roadways.  On-the-go chargingOn-the-go charging  With induction plating embedded inside these roads, electricWith induction plating embedded inside these roads, electric cars can be recharged while in motion on top of these roads.cars can be recharged while in motion on top of these roads. This would reduce the costs and the time-inconvenience ofThis would reduce the costs and the time-inconvenience of waiting at a charging station.waiting at a charging station.  Protection from lightnings and thunders:Protection from lightnings and thunders:  Each Solar Road Panel will have electrical connections withEach Solar Road Panel will have electrical connections with something similar to a GFI (Ground Fault Interrupter - foundsomething similar to a GFI (Ground Fault Interrupter - found in our homes to prevent us from being electrocuted if wein our homes to prevent us from being electrocuted if we drop a hair dryer in the bathtub). If too much current beginsdrop a hair dryer in the bathtub). If too much current begins to flow (short circuit?), the electrical connection will be shutto flow (short circuit?), the electrical connection will be shut off, therefore isolating any damaged panels. On a largeroff, therefore isolating any damaged panels. On a larger scale - say a fuel truck explodes, completely severing thescale - say a fuel truck explodes, completely severing the road in half - no one would lose power. All of the panelsroad in half - no one would lose power. All of the panels leading up to your home would still provide power. Youleading up to your home would still provide power. You may lose your cable TV or telephone (land line) until themay lose your cable TV or telephone (land line) until the road is repaired, but you'd still have powerroad is repaired, but you'd still have power..
    • 14. 14.DISADVANTAGES14.DISADVANTAGES  In spite of these advantages, initially, the start up and maintenance costs of buildingIn spite of these advantages, initially, the start up and maintenance costs of building such roadways and parking lots may be extremely high, although advances in thissuch roadways and parking lots may be extremely high, although advances in this technology should cause the costs to fall. Another issue to deal with is the efficiencytechnology should cause the costs to fall. Another issue to deal with is the efficiency of solar panels. The average efficiency is currently 20%. Another disadvantage is thatof solar panels. The average efficiency is currently 20%. Another disadvantage is that solar road panels cannot easily be constructed in the poorest developing nations due tosolar road panels cannot easily be constructed in the poorest developing nations due to the high initial start-up costs. Road surfaces also accumulate rubber, salt, etc., whichthe high initial start-up costs. Road surfaces also accumulate rubber, salt, etc., which block sunlight. Salt might be easy to wash off, but not rubber. Solar roadways wouldblock sunlight. Salt might be easy to wash off, but not rubber. Solar roadways would also be quite costly. Each panel costs about $7,000 to build, and the plan calls foralso be quite costly. Each panel costs about $7,000 to build, and the plan calls for billions of them to cover the roadwaysbillions of them to cover the roadways 15.REFERANCE15.REFERANCE www.solarroadways.comwww.solarroadways.com www.futureenergy.comwww.futureenergy.com www.techli.comwww.techli.com en.wikipedia.orgen.wikipedia.org

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