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Immune response 2012
 

Immune response 2012

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    Immune response 2012 Immune response 2012 Presentation Transcript

    • How does the body protect itselffrom the invasion of pathogens? What are pathogens?
    • bacteria viruses Pathogens “Germs” fungi protists
    • International Pathogens
    • Pathogen - an infectious agent that can cause disease in its host
    • How does the body defend itself ?
    • DefenseOffense
    • How does the body prevent pathogens from entering? First Line of Defense Physical Barriers Chemical Barriers
    • Where can pathogens enter the body?
    • Physical Barriers
    • Chemical Barriers
    • What happens if the pathogens get through the first line of defense? Second Line Of Defense Inflammation
    • phagocytosis
    • phagocytosishttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fpOxgAU5fFQ
    • What happens if the first andsecond lines of defense are notenough to stop the pathogens?
    • The third (and last) line of defense: The Immune Response
    • Antigen -any substance that isrecognized as foreign to thebody and stimulates animmune response
    • Lymphatic system
    • Lymphatic System• absorbs and transports digested fat from the small intestine• transports lymph - a tissue- cleaning fluid• transports white blood cells villus
    • A Lymph NodePaul Revere
    • How is a lymph node like a police station?
    • Antigen Receptor rPhagocyte Helper T cell
    • -Why? Phagocyte Helper T cellHelper T cell - Sounds the alarmWhat does a helper T-cell “say”?
    • Help!!!The helper T-cell activates the rest of theimmune system
    • Antibodie Y sY Y YY Y Y Y Y Y Y Y B CellsKiller T Cells
    • AntibodyB Cell Helper T cell
    • B cell AntibodiesMemory B Cell B CellWhat does a memory B cell say?
    • NEVER FORGET!!!Memory B Cell
    • What is Immunity?the ability of the body to resist a disease
    • The Immune Response
    • The Immune Response
    • Memory cells remain ready JIC… Macrophages “clean up” debris “Army” of B and T cells attack antigen & infected cells (B cells make antibodies etc…) Activated B cells and T cells divide; form more B and T cells and memory cells Helper T cells activate B cells and Killer T cells Helper T cell activated Macrophage displays antigen to Helper T cellMacrophages engulf, destroy antigen Antigen enters body
    • What is the first line of defense? Physical and chemical barriersWhat is the second line of defense? InflammationWhat is the third line of defense? The Immune Response
    • If you have the chicken pox once why don’t you (usually) get it again?
    • NEVER FORGET!!!Memory B Cell
    • How is the secondary responsedifferent from the primary response?
    • How is the secondary response different from the primary response?Secondary immune response is stronger, faster, and longer than the primary response.
    • What is a vaccine?A weakened or dead pathogen putinto the body to stimulate theproduction of antibodies andmemory cells (immune response)
    • How is a vaccine like sparring?
    • How do vaccines protect us from disease? Vaccines activate the primary immune response (stimulate the body to produce antibodies and memory cells)
    •  A boy became ill with the chicken pox and recovered. A year later, he was exposed to the same disease again but did not become ill. Why didn’t he develop chicken pox after the second exposure? Explain using the following terms: primary immune response, secondary immune response, memory cells, antibodies, antigen
    • When the boy got infected the firsttime his primary immune responsewas activated and he made antibodiesto attack the antigen. His immunecells divided and left behind memorycells. When he got infected the secondtime his memory cells made thesecondary immune response fight thedisease faster and stronger, so hedidn’t even get sick..
    • What is this?Antibody
    • For each kindof pathogenthe bodymakesspecificantibodies(and cells ofthe immunesystem) thatrecognize it
    • Active Immunity Passive ImmunityYou make You don’t makethe antibodies the antibodies Exposure to - injection antigen - breastfeeding - vaccine - infection
    • Active immunityPassive Immunity
    • The Immune Response1. Antigen enters body2. Macrophages engulf and destroy antigen or cell infected with antigen
    • The Immune Response3. Macrophage displaysantigen to helper T cells(activating them)4. Activated Helper T cellactivates B cells and KillerT cells
    • The Immune Response5. Activated B cells formmemory B cells and plasmacells (which make antibodies) Activated T cells formmemory T cells and killer Tcells
    • The Immune Response6. Antibodies bind to freeantigen and target them fordestruction by macrophages Killer T cells destroyinfected cells
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rpj0emEGShQHow viruses infect cellshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U2h0ECyMWhEHIV destroying Helper T cells
    • The Immune Response
    • The Immune Response