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A Caldwell

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  • 1. A. Caldwell iVideo Rationale NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION ICT Rationale: Issues in Teacher’s Professional Learning Professional Development: ‘Don’t Hesitate, Accelerate’ The debate whether technology should be used is schools is no longer the issue, because today, it’s inevitable. Clements & Sarama (2003) support this statement, implying that the focus of technology is how it should be used, rather than the debate of granted student access. Technology is increasingly recognised as an integral learning tool for promoting the social, linguistic, and cognitive development of young children (Gimbert & Cristol 2004). The advance of technological growth in society, indicates a strong need for educators to adapt to the occurring change. In her view of technology, Garland (2006) has reported that technology in K-12 schools is changing, with an estimated 48% (McLester, 2003 in Garland, 2006.) increase to portable computers, the inclusion of laptops, Alpha Smarts, Palm Pilots and tablet PC’s. Garland’s research has proved that computer-based technologies have substantially evolved over the past two decades, where 72% (Gray & Lewis, 2009 in Garland, 2006.) of elementary students have online access. Software’s such as Kid Pix, Hyper Studio, and Kidspiration have been designed to reinforce rote learning of skills and concepts, encouraging children to represent learning through multimedia authoring software. Even more recently new forms of stylus-interfaced or pen-top technology that are now common in gaming systems are available in laptop computers, known as tablet computers (van Mantgem, 2008 cited in Couse & Chen, 2010). The International Society for Technology in Education (2007) performed a study titled, The National Educational Technology Standards 2007, revealing that technology standards in early education can be implemented through a stylus-interfaced technology, potentially used as a learning tool. The relevant standards in early education are comprised of critical thinking, problem solving and decision-making skills and technology operations and concepts. Scholastic News (2009) researched the statistics of youth access to technology and reported 66% of students aged 8-18 own a mobile phone and 76% of students aged 8-18 own an Ipod or MP3 Player. Lewin in the New York Times (2010) furthers these statistics declaring that students aged 8-18 will watch 4/12 hours of TV a day; 31.5 hours a week, will spend 2 ½ hours of media/audio time per day; 17.5 hours a week, play 1 ½ hours on the computer per day; 10.5 hrs a week and will play 1 ½ hours of video games per day; 10.5 hours a week. According to the State of Victoria Department, Education and Early Childhood Development 2007, new innovative technologies are being used to enhance teaching and learning in Victorian schools. These include blogging, collaborative literacy tools, digital stories and portfolios, flip cameras, gaming, hand held games, ICT critical thinking, interactive mathematics, Interactive Whiteboards, ipods, netbooks, podcasts, video conferencing, wiki’s, vodcasts and imovie. Due to students frequently being provided access to technology, it is imperative to say that teachers and educators must become aware of these technologies and seek to change their pedagogy of teaching in order to   1  
  • 2. A. Caldwell iVideo Rationale NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION excel their teaching practice and more importantly, not get left behind. Traditionally, the teacher’s primary responsibility and activity was to directly instruct students, where students were the recipients and teachers the supplier of knowledge. Jonassen, Howland, Marra, & Crismond (2008) believe “students can and will learn about technology with or without the help of a teacher- often students are constantly pushing teacher’s understanding of the technology and often teachers can barely keep ahead of the students.” (Jonassen, Howland, Marra, & Crismond 2008, p vii). Keeping up with new technologies for the classroom presents an ongoing challenge for educators as they recognise the ever developing potential of technologies to enhance the ability of children to learn, problem solve, and convey their ideas. (Clements & Sarama, 2002) Recent surveys indicate that even teachers who have sufficient training and access to resources are not using technology as much as had been expected (Roblyer & Doering 2010). The 2005 Teachers Talk Survey indicates that 27% of teachers have little or no training on integrating computers into instruction, 76% of teachers believe that computers are essential teaching tools but more use technology for administrative purposes than for instruction, and only half- 54% integrate computers into their daily curriculum. Finally, Transforming Education Through Technology (2010), Nagel reported that only 22% of the teachers surveyed used technology frequently. Teachers must gain some familiarity with technology, gaining skills and fluency not only to teach it but also to utilise effectively in their classrooms. “Educators may not be able to predict the future of educational technology, but they know that it will be different from the present, that is, they must anticipate and accept the inevitability of change and the need for a continual investment of their time”. (Roblyer & Doering 2010, p 12). History has shown resources and methods of teaching will change, and teachers must therefore be prepared to accept and learn new models of technology. Mills & Tincher (2003) cited in Couse & Chen (2010) state, “being able to orchestrate a student-centered, technology-rich lesson requires much expertise on the part of the teacher”. Teachers must refresh their professional development and learn about global communications, attend teacher conferences and professional development courses and partake in online tutorials. Vannatta and Beyerbach (2000) cited in Gronseth, Brush, Ottenbreit-Leftwich, Strycker, Abaci, Easterling, Roman, Shin & van Leusen (2010) mention teacher preparation programs will provide instruction on technology integration within coursework and related requirements, where teacher training can help pre-service teachers see connections between current technology applications and the appropriate uses in a classroom. Teachers must initiate, communicate, integrate and participate to advance in their learning. Jonassen, Howland, Marra, & Crismond (2008) agree, also inferring teacher collaboration, meetings and discussions if teachers lack the time (Jonassen, Howland, Marra, & Crismond 2008, p vii).   2  
  • 3. A. Caldwell iVideo Rationale NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION Teacher technology skill proficiency alone does not appear to be enough to facilitate effective integration into teaching practices (Strudler & Wetzel, 1999; Vannatta & Beyerbach, 2000). Roblyer & Doering (2010) stand with this notion, stating “more teachers who understand the role technology plays in society and in education are needed, teachers who are prepared to take advantage of its power, and who recognise its limitations” (Roblyer & Doering 2010, p 13). In an increasingly technological society, we need more teachers who are both technology savvy and child centred. So don’t hesitate but accelerate and become a 21st Century teacher.ReferencesCDWG (2007-2011). Teachers Talk Technology Survey 2005. Retrieved 17th February 2011 fromhttp://newsroom.cdwg.com/features/feature-08-29-05.htmClements, H. & Sarama, J. (2003). Young children and technology: What does the researchsay? Young Children, 58(6), 34–40.Couse, L. & Chen, D. (2010). A Tablet Computer for Young Children? Exploring Its Viability for Early ChildhoodEducation. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. 43 (1), 75–98.Garland, V. (2006). Digital literacy and the use of wireless portable computers, planners,and cell phones for K–12 education. In L. Hin & R. Subramaniam, (Eds.), Literacy intechnology at the K–12 level: Issues and challenges (pp. 308–321). Hershey, USA: Idea GroupPublishing.Gimbert, B., & Cristol, D. (2004). Teaching curriculum with technology: Enhancing children’stechnological competence during early childhood. Early Childhood Education Journal,31(3), 207–216.Gray, L., & Lewis, L. (2009). Educational technology in public school districts: Fall 2008 (NCES2010–003). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S.Department of Education. Washington, DC.Gronseth, S. & Brush, T. & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. & Strycker, J. & Abaci, S. & Easterling, W. & Roman, T. &Shin, S. & van Leusen, P. (2010). Equipping the Next Generation of Teachers: Technology, Preparation and Practice.Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education. 27 (1), 30-36.   3  
  • 4. A. Caldwell iVideo Rationale NOT FOR DISTRIBUTIONInternational Society for Technology in Education. (2007). National Educational Technology Standards for Students(NETS•S). (2007). Retrieved 17th February 2011 from http://www.iste.org/standards/nets-for-students/nets-student-standards-2007.aspxJonassen, D. & Howland, J. & Marra, R. & Crismond, D. (2008). Meaning Learning with Technology. New Jersey:Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.Lewin, T. (2010). If your kids are awake, they’re probably Online. The New York Times.McLester, S. (2003). A studied look at wireless. Technology and Learning. 23(10), 4–5.Nagel, D. (2010). Transforming Education Through Technology: Teachers report Educational Benefits of FrequentTechnology Use. Retrieved 17th February from http://thejournal.com/articles/2010/06/28/teachers-report-educational-benefits-of-frequent-technology-use.aspxRoblyer, M. & Doering, A. (2010). Educational Technology into Teaching, Fifth Edition. United State of America:Pearson Publication Inc.Scholastic News Edition, (2009). Graph of the week: How Often kids 8-18 Use The Internet. Ed 5/6. ScholasticNews.State of Victoria Department. (2007). Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. Technologies andInnovation. Retrieved 17th February, 2011 fromhttp://www.education.vic.gov.au/researchinnovation/resources/technology.htmvan Mantgem, M. (Ed.). (2008). Tablet PCs in K–12 education. Eugene, OR: InternationalSociety for Technology in Education.   4