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Vala m wolfson_thesis_jan2009

  1. 1. A Walk in the Neighborhood:Blending suburban and urban values to Master of Architecture Program The Boston Architectural Collegecreate architecture that allows for family January 2011friendly housing in the city. Candidate: Michael Vala Jr. Thesis Advisor: Denise Dea Director of Distance M.Arch Thesis: Michael Wolfson
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  3. 3. Candace, without your patience and understanding, this would not have beenpossible. I can never repay you for all the times you’ve had to be a counselor to me, andhave had to listen to me discuss my struggles and my small epiphanies. You have beenand continue to be my inspiration, not to mention the love of my life.To my sons, Wesley, Aiden, & Miles, you are all still too young to understandwhy I have spent so much time huddled on my computer over the past months, but I hopethat someday you do. I’m looking forward to more movie nights, bike rides, and back yardbaseball that have been lacking recentlyThanks to my advisors and classmates for all their feedback and encouragementthroughout this process. It’s been quite a trying experience, but I would do it all overagain if I had you all to lean on the second time around.I’d like to extend a special thanks to Jason & Stacey for all their additionalmotivation and encouragement. I feel like I’ve gained two true and life long friends throughthis process, and I hope that we can all get together for a beer sometime soon.I would also like to thank my parents & siblings for being so supportive of my endeavorsthroughout the years. Without your guidance and assistance, I would not be the personI am today. DEDICATION 3
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  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. IndIvIdualA neighborhood allows the people who livethere to make connections to many differentpeople, places, and things, extending theirpersonal experience without extending thephysical distance to those things. 6
  7. 7. THESIS STATEMENT 9INTRODUCTION 11 CONCEPT 15 TERMS OF CRITICISM 21 METHODOLOGY 23 LEXICON 25PRECEDENTS 27DESIGN 41 SALES BROCHURE 53 PROCESS & DEVELOPMENT 73CONCLUSION 159IMAGE CREDITS 163ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 167TABLE OF CONTENTS 7
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  9. 9. Through the blending of SuBurBAN and urBAN values architecture can be created that allows for family friendly housing in the city. A NEIGHBOrHOOD can exist anywhere, but a successful neighborhood must have the right mixture of housing and commercial space so that people can feel at ease in their home, yet have most of the functions necessary for daily life close-by. Through the use of efficient, thoughtful design, a new type of mixed use neighborhood can be introduced where previously there was nothing, a place which combines some of the spatial concepts from the suburbs, such as a private yard and an individual or customizable entry; with urban concepts, such as the ‘residence over the store’ and being virtually fully walkable. The combination of these two worlds creates a paradigm shift in city living - no longer reserved for young professionals with no children or empty nesters, the city becomes a place where raising children is preferred over the suburb; a place where the proximity to places of business is a major selling point, where culture and entertainment are within a few moments of walking rather than driving.THESIS STATEMENT 9
  10. 10. I see this portion of downtown Columbus as a piece of thecity that is missing - I’m proposing putting a piece in itsplace that fits but is different than what was there before. 10
  11. 11. [SuB]urBAN NEIGHBOrHOOD: or special events. Children are tied to their immediateAfter World War II - the American Dream was defined neighborhood - dependant on their parents to drive themas home ownership, a place to raise children, a place to everywhere.call your own. When the GI’s began returning from war,the suburbs were built to be that place. Families flocked Trips to the grocery store, the cafe, or the hardwareto these clusters of housing located further and further store all require an automobile to complete. While manyaway from the city, leaving the average American city to people enjoy using their cars to get places, by makingbecome a ghost town after 6 PM. The desire to locate them a requirement, it takes some of the enjoyment outin these isolated islands of housing and separate from of driving.the city, included a perception of safety, a desire to havethe children attend good public schools, and a feeling of Not everything about suburban living is negative, but thereownership. are drawbacks to the disconnection from the downtown area - the physical distance causes traffic congestion,While these ideas of ownership and safety are appealing people are slaves to the automobile, children can becomeand universal, the idea that they can only be achieved isolated, and neighbors might not associate the same wayin the suburbs is outdated. Not only are the suburbs they potentially could. When a person can enter and leavenot providing the safety that many families look for, they their house without any interaction with the outside (in thealso are a source of isolation and a dependence on the house, into the garage, into the car, out of the garage, andautomobile. This causes increasing traffic, increasing reversed when returning, there is no chance for interactionemissions from the vehicles, traffic congestion, etc. between neighbors.City life has dwindled except in major cities, leading to The suburbs do offer a chance for people to put theirdying metropolitan areas and sprawling suburbs. People personal stamp on a small piece of land - a sense offeel less connected with the city they are local to, because ownership. But at what cost?it’s not necessary to actually go downtown except for work INTrODuCTION 11
  12. 12. Cities are perceived as a place for empty nesters or young someone who believes the suburbs are more appropriateprofessionals without children. By changing this perception to raise children because of the quality of the schools andand providing a wider variety of housing, activity in the city because in the suburbs you typically get a private yardcould be revived beyond the workday, traffic congestion for the kids to play in. My wife is also a fairly privatefrom the city center out to the suburbs can be cut back, person, and she feels she gets a better chance to monitorand the city could become a viable option for living again. her interaction with the public in our current (suburban)Providing housing which allows residents to feel like situation. Architecture has the chance to influence thethey can take ownership and have some individuality, as spatial factors in her preference, while it has less to dowell as providing for necessary retail, commercial, and with the quality of schools in our area.entertainment areas can begin this city revitalization. So, if there was a neighborhood in the city that providedThe concept of downtown living for everyone is interesting the outdoor space that my wife desires, the opportunityfor multiple reasons. We have a duty to future generations to control her privacy or interaction with the public, andof people to take care of this planet, and living a more we could assume that the city schools are equal to thelocalized, centralized life can save resources and lower suburban schools, we could live downtown. We wouldpollution - a more efficient lifestyle. be better stewards of the environment if we didn’t have to drive everywhere (as we do now), we would be in betterThere is a personal side to this as well: I currently live physical shape without much effort just due to walkingin the suburbs for two significant reasons: first, because most of the time, and we could potentially have more freethe schools where we live are more highly rated than the time that is currently used driving to and from the store andcity school district, and second because my wife prefers other daily tasks, since it would all be more centralized.the suburban lifestyle. I would have to have a very goodargument to convince her to move to the city, at least Essentially, we need to mesh the best parts of theuntil our kids are grown and living on their own. She is SuBurB with the best parts of the CITy. 12
  13. 13. sports/ activities school shopping/ retail home work Diagram showing the extended area that is covered by daily suburban lifePart of daily life for a suburbanite is driving around,often with hundreds of others at the same time, inslow moving traffic. INTrODuCTION 13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. Create a neighborhood which has some of the spatial qualities of personal space or relationships to neighbors in the suburbs, while meshing it with the city.CONCEPT 15
  16. 16. SuBurBANIn the SuBurB, the housing forms vary, butgenerally are similar and fall into three categories: Thetwo-story, the ranch, or the split level being the mostcommon. Suburban layouts tend to be less likely toadhere to a grid than in the city, however there is an 1order to the way that suburban neighborhoods are laidout. Suburbs include open space around the house,giving each house a yard, and a sense of personalspace. 2The urBAN housing form can take many shapes,but mostly can be divided into two categories - the flator the town home. The flat can be stacked as low riseor high rise apartments; while the town home is usuallygrouped together to form smaller clusters of housingand mostly has street level access for each unit. Dueto the efficiency that a regular grid offers, many town 3home clusters are arranged to some kind of regularpattern.To take the two types of housing and add commercialspace, the layout could be arranged so that there isspace around each house, but it’s set up in an efficientmanner to adhere to the city aesthetic. This is theNEIGHBOrHOOD. 16
  17. 17. NEIGHBOrHOOD urBAN 4 5 6 7 MAIN STREET 8 CONCEPT 17
  18. 18. The suburb18
  19. 19. To compare one to one, the two situations (a SuBurB and the CITy) are laid out side by side, at the same scale, and shown with the approximate time to walk a certain distance overlaid. The suburban map shows how little is within walking distance - there are a lot of people (houses) but not a lot of attractions (business, culture, etc). However, looking at the city, there are many attractions, but not as many homes.The city CONCEPT 19
  20. 20. Is the NEIGHBOrHOOD suitablefor families?Does it provide most (if not all) amenities that theSuBurB provides?Does it preserve the character of downtownby acknowledging the context of the existingurBAN fabricDoes it allow for residents flexibility/change andgrowth? “PEDESTRIAN POCKET” “A simple cluster of housing, retail space, and officesDoes it allow for multiple methods of interaction between within a quarter mile walking radius of a transit system.”residents? -Pedestrian Pocket Book, page IXDoes it provide outdoor spaces that are acceptableplay/recreation/relaxation spaces? 4 key componentsDo the place and spaces created by the design -low rise, high density housingencourage an affirmative answer to the question, -mixed use ‘main street’“would you live downtown if you had the opportunity to -light rail transitlive here?” -regional shopping 20
  21. 21. Collage showing a mixture of outdoor activities that drawpeople together. TErMS OF CrITICISM 21
  22. 22. SuBurBAN, urBAN,Define whatand NEIGHBOrHOOD mean and howthey relate to each other.Create a catalog of images that describe thedefinitions.Study housing precedents.Collage those images to illustrate the concept of a newtype of mixed use NEIGHBOrHOOD.Create design schemes that incorporate spatial ideasfrom the SuBurB and mesh them with theCITy .Collage over those schemes to continue to expandon how the spatial and physical aspects define theperception of a NEIGHBOrHOOD .Work at various levels of detail (ranging from masterplan to block to unit scale). 22
  23. 23. METHODOLOGy 23
  24. 24. urBAN - Where someone could liveand access most of their daily needs and wantswithout the need for an automobile. Does notnecessarily need to be a major metropolitanarea.SuBurBAN - A less centralized placewhere it’s a necessity to have an automobilefor daily use. Very few things are accessibleby walking. Housing is usually single familydetached style homes. Through the homesbeing detached, people have the impression ofmore personal space.NEIGHBOrHOOD - A mix ofurban and suburban; combining the walkabilityof the city with the more individual spatialfeatures of the suburb. Includes residentialareas, retail, commercial, service amenities,community spaces, etc, within a 20 minutewalking radius (approx. 1/2 mile radius) 24
  25. 25. LEXICON 25
  26. 26. 26
  27. 27. PrECEDENTS The following housing types were studied and helped to define some examples of medium to high density housing that have been designed and built throughout history. Studying historical and contemporary precedents allowed me to learn about the methods that architects have used to provide housing in various configurations and use that information to form opinions about the spatial make up of successful housing types.PrECEDENTS 27
  28. 28. APArtMent DwellingsOne of the most common urban housing styles is theapartment - a building broken up into multiple units,usually for rent. Typically one or two bedrooms, asmall living space, a kitchen, bathroom or two, andother necessities. Modern apartments can range fromthe most spartan of living, to luxurious multi-story units,but because they are locked in as a piece of the whole(the building), they don’t allow for a lot of flexibility orchange. 28
  29. 29. Unit Lower level floor plan Unit Upper level floor planThe Stuyvesant on East 18th Street In New York - 1869by Richard Morris Hunt* Stuyvesant Plan* French, p. 10 PrECEDENTS 29
  30. 30. squAres/CourtyArDsIn an attempt to give residents a better chance for nat-ural light and better ventilation, courtyard housing be-came popular at the end of the 19th/early 20th century.Allowing for natural light on two sides of a dwelling, thespaces inside became more desirable. The courtyardsthemselves were seen as “enclosed, impressive gar-dens, often with fountains and lawns. This introvertedform is reflected in a programme that provided for allthe tenants’ needs, including parking, a gymnasium,restaurant and shops.”* (French)The images to the right are an example of courtyardhousing gives a good example of why courtyardhousing is popular - it provides an inward focus muchlike a suburban neighborhood does.* French, p. 54 30
  31. 31. Graham Court, New York, 1901, Clinton and Russell ** French, p. 56 PrECEDENTS 31
  32. 32. MoDernist HousingAnother new housing type of the early 20th centurywas the movement toward “a new kind of urbanism -high rise buildings with high-speed transport systems.”*(French) The architects of the early 20th century werefocusing to “open up the streets to more light andbetter air circulation”** and the terraced house becamepopular. This focus on providing a more comfortableand healthy environment is still a strong drive fordesigners today. While this method does provide morenatural lighting and ventilation into the interior of units,the compromise was that due to their more verticalnature, the housing relied on elevators and entries offof a common corridor on the interior of the building.* French, p. 13** French, p. 13 32
  33. 33. Stepped apartment block, rue des Amiraux, Paris, Henry Sauvage, The proposed La Citta Nuova by Antionio Sant’Elia - 1914*1916-27** French, p. 12 * French, p. 13 PrECEDENTS 33
  34. 34. ConteMPorAry PreCeDentsLate 20th century and early 21st century projects haveworked to create housing in urban areas that work fora variety of demographics.The first example is a multifamily housing complex inGraz, Austria - Schiefstatte by Szyszkowitz.Kowalski in1999.* (images on opposite page) The site is locatedon the edge of town so that the housing gets accessto greenspace around it, making it feel more suburbanthan it is. Residents can individually access theirhomes, and each provides a feeling of separationwhile working as a collection of houses. The accessstair defines the clusters of units, then from there, eachunit’s entry is accessed, making the entry to a homeone of 2 or 4 rather than one of 10 or 12 - it lowers thescale of entry, and creates a sense of individuality. Example #1 Schiefstate Graz, Austria Designer/Planner: Szyszkowitz Kowalski* French, p. 26-29 34
  35. 35. Images from New Urban Housing PrECEDENTS 35
  36. 36. ConteMPorAry PreCeDents (Cont’D)Another project that stood out and embodied principlesof urban/people centered design is Town House,Wimbergergasse in Vienna, Austria by Delugan_MeisslAssociated Architects, 2001.* (images of oppositepage) The interesting thing about this project was howthe design incorporates green space and office spaceall in close proximity to the living spaces. Residentscan easily access greenspace; and if they work in theoffices, are seconds away from home while at work.The integration of multiple functions will help ensurethat there will almost always be some sort of interactionhappening, making the space work effectively as acommunity. Example #2 Town House Wimbergergasse Vienna, Austria Designer/Planner: Delugan_Meissl Associated Architects* French, p. 76-79 36
  37. 37. Images from New Urban Housing PrECEDENTS 37
  38. 38. ConteMPorAry PreCeDents (Cont’D)This housing development, built on shipping docks andbounded by water (which lent itself to the use of somevery dynamic bridge forms), encompasses many of thefeatures I think are important to city dwelling. The fa-cades of the buildings are diverse - each house allowsthe people who live there to have a sense of pride andindividualism about their house. There is a mixture ofhousing types in the neighborhood - from apartmentsto town homes to flats. The neighborhood encourageswalking through its narrow streets, while not totally ig-noring the need for the residents to have access to avehicle.The factor which becomes most influential though, is Master Plan, each color represents a different housing typethat this housing was intended for middle income fami-lies - not the young professionals without kids or theempty nesters so often targeted by urban developers. Example #3 Borneo Sporenburg Amsterdam, The Netherlands Designer/Planner: West 8 38
  39. 39. Although the aesthetic changes, the spacing is what The ‘whale’ - apartment building, brings a variety to the housingbecomes a pattern. types. The alleys provide parking for the residents. PrECEDENTS 39
  40. 40. 40
  41. 41. SITE The site studied in this section was chosen because of the benefit it could gain by an intervention. While it is specific to Columbus, Ohio, the site could be located in almost any city in America.DESIGN 41
  42. 42. The site of the project is in the southwestern corner ofDowntown Columbus, Ohio. The area is mostly surfaceparking, with some buildings that have come into astate of disrepair. The area is not heavily populated;during site visits, it was rare to see more than one ortwo other people, other than construction workers whowere working on the river bank project nearby. Thesite is located just north of Interstate 70, just east ofthe Scioto river, and west of High Street (one of themain streets in Columbus). To the north of the site isa new development of town homes, marketed towardyoung professionals. The site is flanked by two parks -on the west a riverfront park (Bicentennial Park) whichconnects to a greenway that is to open in the springof 2011 (called the Scioto Mile). Immediately to thenortheast of the site is “Columbus Commons” - a newpark that is being constructed on the property whereCity Center Mall once stood - the 9 acre park will housea band shell on it’s northern edge and a carousel onthe opposite end. The site is about a half mile south ofthe heart of Columbus’ main entertainment district, theArena District - within a 15-20 minute leisurely walk. 42
  43. 43. maps from Microsoft “Bing”SITE SITE 43
  44. 44. the site with some key views1-a nice view of the scioto river - the natural beauty of a river adds balance to aneighborhood situated in the city.2-typical of the site, mostly parking, with small, unrelated buildings scatteredabout. A more successful site would create sense of cohesion rather than beingso disconnected.3-the new Franklin County Courthouse with the existing courthouse in thebackground. 44
  45. 45. 1 2 3 SITE 45
  46. 46. By doing a quick site vicinity mapping diagram, I studiedthe social, utility, entertainment, and commercialfunctions available to the residents. What I noticedis lacking the most would be a market or grocerystore - definitely something that a downtown residentwho wants to use the car as little as possible wouldneed. There is ample green space, but it is not allconnected very well - there are empty surface lots andabandoned buildings that interrupt the connection. Thenew neighborhood should accentuate the connectionbetween the elements of the city. Diagram showing the change in density between the city of Columbus, and a suburban area - Columbus is approximate three times more dense than it’s suburban areas. 46
  47. 47. Mapping of some of the existing commercial, retail,cultural, and civic points around the city - done todefine what sorts of functions could bolstered orwould need to be added by a new neighborhood. SITE 47
  48. 48. The town homes just to the north of the site arefairly new. The biggest problem with them is that thesidewalk is passive. If there was a way to activate it sothat people would use it for more than just getting fromone point to another, these homes could work better.The ‘after’ image on the opposite page shows how thesidewalk can be activated by adding features like trees& greenery, providing a place for people to congregateand socialize, giving more life to the street level in frontof the residences. The addition of those items changesthe sidewalk, softening it and making it more inviting. “before” 48
  49. 49. “after” SITE 49
  50. 50. To envision how the neighborhood would be activatedby it’s buildings, I did a series of collages, similar to theone with the town homes from the previous page. Byinserting some of the spatial ideals from suburban lifeinto the images of the city, I had hoped to form opinionson what would make a good neighborhood. I concludedthat not only does a site need to be active for it to be adesirable place to live and work and play, but it needsto have the ability to be flexible.Most importantly, I understood that the area I would bedesigning happens outside of the house - the floor planof a home may be important to the person or peoplewho live there, but it’s not relevant to the neighborhoodas a whole. The space between the buildings is whatbecomes the neighborhood. 50
  51. 51. Collage of suburban and urban being meshed together toform the theoretical neighborhood. SITE 51
  52. 52. 52
  53. 53. SALES BrOCHurE To summarize my thesis ideas, I developed a sales brochure that showcases how a neighborhood can be created in the city that bridges suburban and urban values that people associate with each.SALES BrOCHurE 53
  54. 54. Capital Viewat Riversouth Now is the time to do what you’ve been thinking of for a while. You’ve talked to your friends and coworkers about how your commute downtown from the suburbs is such a hassle. You like your car, but do you really like just sitting there in traffic each day? Don’t you wish you could spend more time with your family, and less time commuting back and forth? So, do you want to do something about it? Make the move to the city - to Capital View - you will have the opportunity to be a part of something huge - you’ll meet people, be close to culture and dining and work, and be contributing to the revitalization of a great city.
  55. 55. be a part ofsomething great
  56. 56. City living,for everyone. Capital View offers you the chance to make connections to your community through a close- knit group of homes & businesses. The neighborhood is comprised of residential units woven into the streetscape that we’re used to in the city - storefronts, cafes, restaurants, and local businesses. This mingling of public and private provides a sense of connection for the people who live or work in the neighborhood. Capital View furnishes people a chance to live the downtown life with a small town feel. Short walks to the park or to the center of downtown, to the Arena District and Short North provide the area with unlimited entertainment, cultural, and shopping possibilities.
  57. 57. make connections toyour community
  58. 58. There’s noplace likehome. Modern design mixed with traditional spaces create a sense of comfort in the city for people who are used to a more suburban way of life. A fusion of two distinct styles - the contemporary city condo and the idealized suburban house - the residences at Capital View are designed to fit their context and provide a place for a new kind of downtown dweller; the one who has never felt like the city had something to offer them. Each unit is arranged so that it has it’s own private outdoor space, a private entry, and plenty of views of the city. A common courtyard provides a space for community events, as well as some simple time outside with the family dog.
  59. 59. a fusion of twodistinct styles
  60. 60. think“Green” With two large parks nearby - the southern tip of the Scioto Mile/ Bicentennial Park and Columbus Commons - along with the generous courtyards that each block offers, there are numerous opportunities to experience the outdoors right within the city. Take the dog for a walk along the Scioto River, go to a concert in Columbus commons, or just relax in the grass in the courtyard behind your house. The parks help to strike a balance between man and nature in the city, giving a sense of quiet to an otherwise busy atmosphere.
  61. 61. a balance betweenman and nature
  62. 62. Ultimaterecreationresource Nourish your body and mind in one location. The community center, part of a renovated parking garage, provides residents with a wide variety of options for fitness, family fun, or free time. Housing a gym, an indoor swimming pool, racquetball courts, and studios where fitness classes are held, it satisfies any health conscious resident’s needs. Another part of the center contains an arcade, rentable community rooms for parties, and a meeting space. Outdoor attractions include a mountain bike path, high ropes course, and a climbing wall for the extreme sports fan.
  63. 63. nourish your bodyand mind
  64. 64. Living thenight life Experience Restaurant Week (http:// restaurantweekcolumbus.com/) on your own street. Some of Columbus’ finer dining experiences are now along side some of the more low key casual hang-outs, allowing the residents of Capital View to taste what the city has to offer without leaving their neighborhood. The aromas from the variety of establishments will blend together, enticing you to come try a new cuisine or just fall back on a tried and true favorite dish.
  65. 65. taste what the cityhas to offer
  66. 66. Culture Club With the historic Southern Theater just a block to the east and the grand Ohio Theater a few blocks north, the arts are right out your front door. The center of science and industry (COSI) museum to the west, the main branch of the Columbus Library a few blocks east, the Audubon center to the south, and the art galleries & small music venues in the Short North all offer a plethora of cultural experiences.
  67. 67. 9 12 The Short North Columbus Metropolitan Library 10 13 COSI The Ohio Theater 11 Grange Insurance 14 Audubon Center The Southern Theatera plethora of culturalexperiences
  68. 68. A shop-aholic’sdream A wide variety of shopping choices are located right in the neighborhood - all within walking distance from anywhere you might be in the area. Not only are there boutique stores and specialty stores right in the neighborhood, the location allows you to take an easy walk to the Short North for more shopping for things like art or music at the many galleries or record stores located there.
  69. 69. a wide variety ofshopping choices
  70. 70. Location,location,location. Work downtown. Play downtown. LIVE downtown. Capital View is located in the Riversouth district of Columbus. Formerly home to the Erie Canal’s Depot in Columbus, and lodging for union workers - now home to the most exciting neighborhood in the city and to you! To get to Capital View: from the west or the south, take interstate 70 and exit at Fulton Street, turning left on Front Street. from the east, take interstate 70 exiting at Fourth Street, turning right on Front Street. from the north, take interstate 71 south, exiting at Broad Street (west). Turn left on High Street Walking distance from all points in the city, this is the future of downtown living. See you there!
  71. 71. w o rk cu l tu re c iv ic river park parkc u lt u r ethe future ofdowntown living
  72. 72. 72
  73. 73. PrOCESS The best way for me to understand how the city and life in it worked, and how those related to the suburbs, was to experiment with trying to configure the ideal neighborhood. I experimented with the high-rise, with mid-low density housing, with a mixture of housing types, but in all cases, resorted back to having outdoor space for each unit. That became the point that I knew I needed to incorporate into the design of this neighborhood. Outdoor space can provide a feeling of connection and isolation at the same time - allowing someone to be a part of the city while feeling apart from it.PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 73
  74. 74. The focus of the design in this thesis began as housingthat mimicked the suburban condition but in an urbansetting. As the process evolved, the focus shifted tosimply creating a new type of housing that would beintended for families in cities, to offer an alternative tothe typical condo/flat/town home/apartment model.A major idea was to provide significant ‘individual’outdoor space to the people who live in this new typeof housing, unlike the typical city housing model, whichtends to limit individual outdoor space to balconies orporches. Shared outdoor space is and would remainan integral part of city living; currently, in the suburb,shared outdoor space is not as important since mosthouses include a yard of some size. So, to combinethe two - a private outdoor space with shared outdoorspace would be one step in integrating the two livingconditions.What developed out of this process was a design whichencompasses the need for medium density housingin the city in a mixed use neighborhood. It creates awalkable neighborhood by reducing the need to haveautomotive transportation to achieve daily tasks.In the design for this new neighborhood, it’s importantthat housing and business functions are not keptas separate functions, rather are mixed together tocreate a true mixed-use neighborhood. 74
  75. 75. A birds-eye view of the neighborhood. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 75
  76. 76. An important aspect to the design of the neighborhood isto understand the public space between the housing andthe street - essentially the sidewalk. The neighborhoodis intended to be a pedestrian driven area - streets areavailable for parking, but proportioned to encouragewalking whenever practical. The street is the focusof the activity in the neighborhood, so each home hasaccess to it, as well as access to the courtyard on eachblock - allowing for different experiences depending onthe method of entry. The sidewalks need to be wideenough to allow for people to stop and interact withoutobstructing the pathway for others, yet not so wide thatit becomes a wasted space. The fact that the sidewalkbecomes such a vital part of the neighborhood meansthat to incorporate it into the entry of a house in the citywould be important. The sidewalk and other elementsof the space between the street and the buildingbecome the front yard of city dwellings. Diagram showing the connection of pedestrian spaces across the street to different features/functions. 76
  77. 77. The proportions of the street & sidewalk are important to give theneighborhood a pedestrian friendly feeling. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 77
  78. 78. Most of the blocks are set up to maximize open space- whether it’s a public courtyard or a raised patio - theoutdoor space is intended to connect people to oneanother, as well as the city itself, through the views thatthe different vantage points provide and through thearrangement of the spaces. People are not necessarilyforced to interact, but there is an opportunity at eachentry or portal for neighbors to greet one another. 78
  79. 79. View into the courtyard of one block in the neighborhood. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 79
  80. 80. Through the process of studying how housing works,and how it could be set up to encourage more peopleto take up residence in the city, I struggled with finding athread to follow throughout the time. There were timesthat the focus seemed to be privacy, there were timeswhen ownership seemed to be the most important factor,then there were times when greenspace seemed likeit should have been my focus. The following samplesof the work that I did leading up to the last iterationof design I think will show the range of my thought Early attempt at a stacking scheme where each unit would have access to a ‘private yard’.processes while trying to understand what makes ahouse or location desirable. 80
  81. 81. Early master planning studies (above and bottom left) that show some of the morefocused areas of the site - the red boxes indicate areas I thought would have somekind of pull or weight on the site - due to views or adjacencies to things off site. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 81
  82. 82. To understand the positive aspects of each living con-dition, I created collages with images of the highlightsand amenities that people look for in the area theychoose to live in. In the suburbs, people usually point to the amount of ‘open space’ that you get with your house, and the fact that you can participate in a lot of outdoor activities. 82
  83. 83. City life is more commercialized - retail and dining is much more con-venient, and cultural and social activities are easier to participate in. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 83
  84. 84. It’s important for this new neighborhood to make aconnection to the area around it. I studied the visualconnections to landmarks around the site: the twoparks, the courthouse, some of the major streets. Theviews through the site created a pattern that becamea driving factor for some of the moves I would go on tomake with this idea. 84
  85. 85. Columbus Bicentennial Commons Park Franklin county courthouseStudy showing the potential views and connections. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 85
  86. 86. By taking the sight lines from the diagram on the previous page, and infilling masses, I attempted a sort of master plan. This did create a dynamicfeeling to the way the buildings were arranged, but it didn’t seem to fostera neighborly spirit any more than a strict orthographic gridded layout wouldhave because social interaction does not necessarily depend on the viewthat one has of a landmark or destination. 86
  87. 87. Master plan based on views. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 87
  88. 88. zone stuDies The easy way to define these areas is to think about where one would normally seek permission to enterDuring the initial research phase, the theory as to why or inhabit. A person could reasonably expect to besuburban and urban living were different had to do with allowed to linger on a sidewalk without being imposing,the compression (or lack of) in each ‘zone’ that one has but to sit on the front porch uninvited could cause someto pass through to get from public to private areas. discomfort. To me, the suburb is sort of introverted: less concerned with what’s going on in the street and moreDuring the initial studies, I looked at the difference about what’s happening within the property limits - notbetween the suburban model, a town home, and a high- to say that the suburb is totally ignorant of the street,rise apartment. Here (opposite) I studied the zones but the street becomes less important in the suburb.of transition between public and private space on asuburban street. The zones of public vs. private space,while not always explicitly defined, are fairly clearlyimplied - the curb defines the edge of the public street,to show the boundary between public automobile andpublic pedestrian (usually with a transitional barrierbetween such as a tree lawn). The sidewalk marks theend of the public space and the transition to semi-public(the front yard). The front porch or stoop or garagetend to define the boundary between semi-public andthe semi-private. 88
  89. 89. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 89
  90. 90. The zones that happen on a residential property in thesuburbs are important. This provides separation and afeeling of individuality for a lot of people who live in thesuburbs. Unfortunately this also promotes isolationism,to the point where neighbors may not see each otheror interact with each other for days, weeks, months.Understanding that people see these separations asimportant is key to understanding suburbs though.People perceive the space as liberating and freeing,allowing them to do what they want in ‘their’ space. 90
  91. 91. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 91
  92. 92. While the zones in suburban living are large, in the city,they are compressed. In the graphics shown here, Istudied different ways to create a feeling of separationso that people can tell the difference in some of thezones - the difference between public and private, minevs. someone else’s. 92
  93. 93. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 93
  94. 94. In the high rise, the zones are much more blurred andtend to run together due to the amount of compression.For example: Where does the semi-public spacereally end and the semi-private space really start?Is the boundary at the door to the building, or is it inthe lobby? In the elevator? The line that divides thespaces is blurred. Here, like in the suburb, the street isnot the most important point of reference - in this case,it’s likely the corridor on each floor. It’s approaching acity-on-a-smaller-scale type feeling. 94
  95. 95. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 95
  96. 96. While studying the townhouse condition, I noticed thatthe transitions between the zones were even morecompressed. The transition from public to privatehappens within a the stoop. What’s to stop someonefrom inhabiting a zone that would be considered ‘semi-private’? Planting, small fences, a gate? If the suburbsare introverted, a city townhouse could be describedas extroverted - much more involved in the action onthe street, almost by necessity due to the proximity.The street becomes a very important datum for thetownhouse. 96
  97. 97. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 97
  98. 98. While trying to understand the significance the spacesin between units plays in the neighborhood, I lookedat how these units would interact with each other andwith the street. Where does the entry go? How doesthe living space relate the street? What does the in-between space do for shared space or for individualspace. 98
  99. 99. Sketch which helped to study the relationship of the unit to the street(Above & Left) Studying the relationship of one unit toanother, and how those could weave around, leavingspaces in between for other possibilities (such as com-mon area or private spaces) PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 99
  100. 100. Here, trying to understand how program elements would stack uptogether, I pulled apart a single unit or two. This showed me howunits could work together and, through shifting in or out and sideto side, create spaces above or below. This began an idea of howimportant the space between units becomes. 100
  101. 101. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 101
  102. 102. Images of a study model that shows how residences (blue & yellowvolumes) could interact with commercial or retail (green volume) atground level and still have some connection to the ground. 102
  103. 103. By combining multiple instances of the blocks on the previ-ous study, I began to understand how the units would worktogether to form a street face and how the spaces betweenthe units would become important. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 103
  104. 104. MAsterPlAnning stuDiesAs a way to begin to visualize how the spaces wouldinteract with each other, I used Lego blocks to representdifferent program pieces such as commercial/retail,residential, greenspace, etc. Using different coloredblocks to represent different programs allowed me toquickly switch their relationships around and studyingadjacencies. The ability to reconfigure the layout andsee it in three dimensions helped me to come to theconclusion that the mixture of different programs, ratherthan the separation of residential from commercial andservice and creating different zones for each type offunction. 104
  105. 105. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 105
  106. 106. Building on the Lego master planning exercise, I usedcolors to represent the individual types of retail andcommercial spaces that might be located in this newneighborhood. Here, I tried to make connections tothe area beyond the site, through the site, and to thecity as a whole. One idea that ended up coming outof this was the connection between the existing parksbecoming a boulevard though the site. 106
  107. 107. In this case, the different colors represented different householdtypes. By mixing these up, the intended effect was to create adiverse neighborhood that allows for interaction between neighborswho potentially could be at different stages of their lives. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 107
  108. 108. isoMetriC stuDiesThrough isometric studies, I was able to examine howthe residential units might relate to commercial or retailspaces on the ground floor - how they could work nextto one another. It helped me come to the conclusionthat retail & residential spaces don’t necessarily need tobe so separated to make the entrance to the residencefeel unique enough to be recognizable. This can bedone through changes in material, plane, elevation, orspacing, just to name a few ways.In initial elevation studies, I had a symmetrical approachto the form - this led to a predictable and somewhatmonotonous look to the elevations. By breaking up thefacade to be less symmetrical, it provides interest anda more dynamic, fluid look to the blocks of buildings. 108
  109. 109. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 109
  110. 110. By studying the relationships that the back yards of theresidents houses would create, I began to form opinionsabout the connections between units - each doesn’tnecessarily have to have complete visual separationfrom the others, but by changing elevations, the feelingof individualism can be enhanced. 110
  111. 111. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 111
  112. 112. MAssing stuDiesTo create interest in the building form, using Tschumi’sdesign diagrams for the follies at Parc de La Villette asan example, the method of subtraction & addition tocreate form was employed. What was most interestingwas the simple act of adding and subtracting to buildingform can create complex interest in the form itself.Beginning from a simple box, I transposed a 9 squaregrid on one face of the rectangular form, and begansubtracting and adding from there. These simplemoves helped to define a somewhat more complexand interesting form to the building.In this configuration, the building is like a group of flats- which (to equate to suburban forms) are like ranchhouses, stacked on top of one another. The subtractionand addition create outdoor spaces that act as the yardspaces for each unit. The circulation could be an openstair, or screened, and it provides the opportunity tocreate a front yard at each of the entries where the stairlandings reach an outdoor entry to each apartment. 112
  113. 113. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 113
  114. 114. The process and transformation from a simple box to a complex form through the addition & subtraction of mass.114
  115. 115. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 115
  116. 116. In this situation, the building is studied to see what canbe created differently if it’s zoned differently. Here, theground floor is still a commercial/retail zone, with asingle three story house above. The concepts are thesame - breaking the plane of the sidewalk to introducean element that distinguishes the building, creatingoutdoor space in the voids created by subtraction, anda form which leads to a certain level of playfulness. 116
  117. 117. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 117
  118. 118. Again, the process and transformation from a simple box to a complex form through the addition & subtraction of mass. Simply moving different pieces drastically alters the form from the previous study - a complex and unique form is derived from a simple box.118
  119. 119. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 119
  120. 120. seCtionAl stuDiesAfter working through the design ideas, I returned tothe zone concept - by looking at the different zones thatwere created by the buildings I was designing, I wasable to determine that they were not as compressedas a town home or high-rise condition, but were not asopen as the typical suburban condition. The zones stillleft something to be desired - they did not create theclear sense of space between public and private that Ithought was necessary.As these studies continued, I began to notice that thedifferent zones were starting to overlap, but on separatelevels - a fully public space was under a semi-privatespace. This led me to understand more about how thespace between the built space becomes habitable, andhow that space is designed can affect the usefulnessand its desirability. In the context of the city, spacesbetween other spaces become important, since thedensity of building is higher than outside of the city. 120
  121. 121. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 121
  122. 122. Taking a closer look at how these ‘niche’ spaces areused, I realized that much of the time, these wouldbecome the semi-private, or patio sort of space thatwould be used when people want to be outdoors, butnot feel confined to a balcony or not be in the publicway (such as in the park). It becomes a sort of yard forthese houses. 122
  123. 123. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 123
  124. 124. Section studies showing the relationship of housing to the street, it’s connection,and the study of the proportions of the spaces between street & building 124
  125. 125. Section through entry. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 125
  126. 126. To more closely study the spaces between units,whether it be something of an alley condition or abackyard/front yard condition, or a park condition, Istudied how spaces would feel at different scales:a small gathering (BBQ), medium sized gathering(Birthday party), or larger scale gathering (BlockParty). By breaking it down to the different scales,the different transitions between indoor and outdoorspace, public and private space, etc, could be studied.Spaces for these different functions can vary, but forthe most part, the spaces in between buildings couldbe used for these different types of social functions. Plan of the block used for the spatial studies of BBQ, Birthday party, Block party charette. 126
  127. 127. Sketch of a typical street view of two units.PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 127
  128. 128. One of the draws of suburban living is that each homeincludes a space outside where social activities orplay activities can happen, in what someone couldconsider ‘their’ yard. Therefore, an outdoor claimablespace located so that each home has access to onecan provide the residents with the feeling of ownershipof outside space. The sectional studies were doneto explore the volume of space that is allocated fordifferent outdoor social activities - in this case, lookingat a birthday party or a smaller back yard barbecue. Thespace required for each of these activities, obviously, isnot a set amount - there’s no formula. 128
  129. 129. ‘A backyard BBQ party” PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 129
  130. 130. Looking at the conditions for a social event such as anoutdoor birthday party, I considered factors in whetherthe space was appropriate for the function or not -factors such as:Space for 20-30 peopleQuick access to the indoorsA separation to allow a feeling of exclusivityBy considering those factors, I was able to determinewhether the space I was designing could actuallyfunction in the event someone used it for a party.Taking that thinking a step further, what would happenif the factors were to change? Could the party holdmore people comfortably? What is considered quick oreasy access to the indoor spaces? Answers to thosesorts of questions helped me to decide that the spaceneeded to be flexible enough to accommodate fairlyextreme conditions. 130
  131. 131. A birthday party PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 131
  132. 132. During the study of these in-between spaces, I wasaware of the issue of visual privacy. By having an outdoorspace that is intended to be semi-private, how do theunits deal with visual connection (or disconnection)from the neighbors? Creating a visual screen or barriercan serve the purpose of allowing two sets of people toinhabit virtually the same outdoor space, but feeling asthough they have the space to themselves. The visualseparation can create a sense private space out of anarea that is not truly private. 132
  133. 133. Study of visual separation between units . PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 133
  134. 134. entrAnCe visibilityWhile studying the gathering spaces at differentscales, I digressed to looking solely at the visibilityof the entrances. If each of three units (for example)all shared one smaller space to begin their entrance,how could that space be subdivided so that it didn’tfeel like the hallway to an apartment? In this case,I explored three units having entrances within onecorner of the courtyard, and found that by raising theentrances to different levels, it really provided a feelingof individuality. Perspective from the courtyard showing three individual entries into homes. 134
  135. 135. Perspective from a unit’s private patio space - connections to the neighbors arepossible, but there is still a sense of individuality. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 135
  136. 136. Going back to re-examine the residential courtyardarea, the materiality seemed to be a simple wayto define individual spaces and places. Simplyintroducing material changes from one unit to the nextand in the ground plane help to differentiate betweenthe houses and what’s considered public vs. private.The material can be used as an identifying featureallowing the residents to feel a sense of individualityabout their particular unit, or even as a threshold(changing materials between the sidewalk and frontsteps by adding pavers or something similar). Addingother elements to the material changes begins togive character to the units, adding another layer ofindividuality to them. The materials should fit with thecontext of the city to tie it to the surroundings evenfurther - for example, in Columbus, a palette of brick,metal, and limestone would be appropriate, while inother cities, that may not fit as well. Model with no material demarcation. 136
  137. 137. Adding color or material can help to define the pieces of the whole, PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 137
  138. 138. The passage from the sidewalk into the courtyard couldend up feeling like a long dark tunnel if it’s not allowedto open up, creating an uninviting, unused space. Theconnection this passage provides is important, sincethe courtyard becomes less active if it’s closed off fromthe street - the direct connection allows it to be woveninto the city. Not only does a corridor in the public way give a shortcut through the building, but without proper care in design, it would be an unused passage 138
  139. 139. Just by adding materials, the corridor becomes a more inviting place, making itless likely to become an unused element, inviting loitering and things like crimethat have become (unfairly) associated with the city by some suburbanites. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 139
  140. 140. PArking gArAge renovAtionAs part of studying how the neighborhood could connectto the surroundings, I studied how I could better utilizesome of the more under-used areas close to the site; amajor one being the parking garage that used to servethe City Center Mall (now demolished). The garage islightly used, and is a massive form that I thought couldbetter be served by being re-purposed. This garagewould be renovated to become the community centerin the new scheme. 140
  141. 141. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 141
  142. 142. PreCeDent:111 LincolnMiami, FloridaHerzog & deMeuronMixed Use Parking Garage containing commercial,residential, community space.This example is particularly interesting because it isnot the typical concrete parking garage - while it servesthat purpose, it also serves other functions. Theuneven floor spacing allows the garage to house otherfunctions without making those feel so utilitarian andlets them receive light further into the garage, making itacceptable for an office or an apartment to be situatedin the middle of the garage - mixed within the functionof the garage - instead of on top of or under the garageas would typically be found. 15 142
  143. 143. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 143
  144. 144. The first steps in understanding how to utilize thegarage involved understanding the scale. In relation tothe site surrounding it, the garage is a large, monolithicstructure. It still serves a traffic purpose as it canprovide parking for the hotel and other businessesacross the street to the south & east.Sectionally, the garage is comparable in scale to thebuildings adjacent to it - (4) stories tall. In looking atthe effect renovating the garage would have, I focusedon three of the corners of the building, and ended updeveloping one of them more extensively than theothers. Parking garage plan, with areas highlighted where an intervention could be appropriate due to the context surrounding the building. 144
  145. 145. Section through the existing garage PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 145
  146. 146. The corner that seemed to have the most potentialimpact on the design was the South-West corner- it sits directly across from the site and has a directconnection to the Westin Hotel and historic SouthernTheater across the street. I imagined a form reachingout of the existing building and becoming a landmarkfeature for the parking structure. As the idea evolved,this became a fitness center, where the occupants havea clear view of the activity on the street below, whileproviding a sense of interest to the people looking atthe building. 146
  147. 147. (Above & Left) The form is generated as an extension of the parkinggarage, but differs from the main structure is that it opens up to thesurroundings through the large expanses of glass. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 147
  148. 148. vertiCAl PArkThe ‘vertical park’, as I came to think of it, was an ideaborn of peeling back the parking garage decks to allowthe penetration of light into the middle of the garageat its lowest levels. This park would house a skatepark, climbing wall, mountain bike path, and high-ropes course. Other than the skateboarding, not manyof those activities are usually found in the city, so thisprovided an opportunity to allow the people who live inthe new neighborhood to participate in activities thatthey would usually have to drive somewhere to do. Thesize of the garage allowed for such diverse functions tobe housed in one place - and by nature of the activitiesit becomes a community center. Adding things likea swimming pool, fitness club, meeting rooms, andother spaces that can be used by the public gives lifeto a garage that may otherwise sit half full at it’s besttimes. 148
  149. 149. By opening up the decks of the parking garage, it opened up the interiorand lent itself to creating an open-air sports park. The openings notonly provide the means for a high-ropes course & climbing wall, butthey allow light into the levels below. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 149
  150. 150. Mountain bike trail created from the parking garage ramps. 150
  151. 151. Opening up an interior deck allows a skateboarding park to be installed, with half-pipe and observationarea. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 151
  152. 152. ACCess & PAtHFollowing the design of the community center/verticalpark, I studied how people might get there, and whatthat would do for the life of the neighborhood. In onescenario, I looked at a potential path for someone wholives in the neighborhood and the potential path forsomeone who lives just outside of the city.In the scenario of a person who lives within theneighborhood going to the park, I imagined thatsince this person would be fairly familiar with theneighborhood, they would probably take a fairly directroute to the park - making a stop here or there, butoverall, just heading for their destination. Obviouslythere are multitudes of different paths that one couldtake, but this graphic illustrates just one. The sidewalk becomes one of the most important features of the neighborhood. 152
  153. 153. Diagram showing one potential path to and from the park. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 153
  154. 154. In the scenario of a person who lives outside of theneighborhood, I took the fictional path that someonewho lives just west of downtown might follow. Thisperson, not living IN the neighborhood, might makemore stops at the retail or commercial features locatedwithin, causing their path to differentiate slightly fromthe resident.In both cases, the interest the neighborhood andcommunity center would draw to a part of town that iscurrently somewhat disconnected from the rest of thecity would be positive. People would have a reasonto be in the southern part of downtown for extendedperiods of time - be it going to the community center, themany restaurants and other establishments that couldbe developed, or because they now live there - thisneighborhood could become a feature of downtown,and the hub of the southern end of downtown. The combination of functions along the street activates the sidewalk. 154
  155. 155. Diagram showing one potential path to and from the park. PrOCESS & DEVELOPMENT 155
  156. 156. 156
  157. 157. 157
  158. 158. ConClusion Beyond housing, I have formed stronger opinions about the importance of creating a neighborhood that is selfThroughout the process of studying housing, the city, sustaining. By creating a neighborhood that doesn’tand the relationships between them, a few things have require it’s residents to drive all over the place, we canbecome apparent: reduce things like pollutants that are associated with driving, reduce traffic congestion, increase the amountThe largest difference in the styles of living between of activity and exercise that people get by makingsuburban and city dwelling are the attitude toward the walking a more desirable way to get from point to point,street: the suburban model tends to be introverted or and bring life back to the cities that are currently on lifeinward focused, while the city dwelling seems to be support.more extroverted and conscious of the street and it’sactivity.City dwelling, while efficient and convenient, may not bea desirable thing for everyone for a variety of reasons(maybe a job being located in the suburbs making cityliving impractical, concern over quality of education, oraffordability among other factors)Access to outdoor space, private vs shared space, andthe amount of physical separation are some of the mostimportant factors that affect whether housing works ornot for city living. 158
  159. 159. CONCLuSION 159
  160. 160. 160
  161. 161. 161
  162. 162. 1 - www.franklincountyauditor.org2-blog.epconcommunities.com3 -clermontauditor.org4 - http://www.businessweek.com/the_thread/hotproperty/archives/2008/08/latest_prediction_californias_housing_market_will_hit_bottom_first.html5 - http://mycolumbuscondo.com/SixtySpringStreetColumbusCondosforSale.aspx6 - http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photo-new-york-apartment-building-image75357657 - http://www.greenbeanchicago.com/900-clark/8 - http://denverinfill.com/blog/2007/12/new-jefferson-park-project-jefferson.html9 - http://www.experiencecolumbus.com/blog/?p=83910 - http://www.cosi.org/files/Image/photos/press/Cosi-East.jpg11 - http://www.examiner.com/family-travel-in-columbus/scioto-audubon-metropark-downtown-columbus-will-please-families-birds12 - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Columbus_Main_Library.jpg13 - http://www.zappa.com/messageboard/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=8966&start=40014 - http://www.flickr.com/photos/79761301@N00/1801896421/15 - http://www.rockmyblog.com/1111-lincoln-road-herzog-de-meuron/16 - http://blogs.world-changers.net/category/2010/columbus-oh-june-14-17/ 162
  163. 163. 16 IMAGE CrEDITS 163
  164. 164. 164
  165. 165. 165
  166. 166. Duany, Andres; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Speck, Jeff. Subur- Divided into two parts, this book explores the history and identityban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American of cities, and then goes into specifics about seven cities, diagram-Dream. New York: North Point Press, 2000. ming their layouts and explaining what’s significant about the ur-This group of authors, all urban planners, offers insights into the ban aspects of streets, buildings, etc.problems associated with suburbia ranging from isolation to trafficcongestion to behavioral issues in children. Suggests some ways de Sola-Morales, Manuel. A Matter of Things. Rotterdam: NAito reduce suburban sprawl through careful community planning Publishers, 2008.and by creating walk able communities. Thoughtful urban interventions designed by the author. Examples include civic projects, urban renewal, and urban housing.Dunham-Jones, Ellen; Williamson, June. Retrofitting Suburbia:Urban Design Solutions for Redesigning Suburbs. New Jersey: Sherwood, Roger. Modern Housing Prototypes. Massachusetts:John Wiley & Sons, 2009. Harvard University Press, 1978.Authors describe ways to redesign suburbs that are set up with Presents many examples of housing solutions that were built priorthe automobile in mind into more pedestrian friendly and usable to 1978. Categorically grouped; detached/semi-detached, row-communities. Examples include adaptive reuse of big box stores housing, party-wall housing, block housing, slabs, & towers. Eachto create town centers and other community amenities, how to project is dissected and critiqued.retrofit subdivisions so that they are more efficient. Cooper Marcus, Claire; Sarkissian, Wendy. Housing as if PeopleKelbaugh, Doug; et. al. The Pedestrian Pocket Book: A New Sub- Mattered: Site Design Guidelines for the Planning of Medium-urban Design Strategy. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, Density Family Housing (California Series in Urban Development).1989. California: University of California Press, 1988.Provides design ideas for suburbs that would be walk able and Studies the needs of the users/occupants of housing - families -provide easy access to public transportation and other necessi- and breaks those needs down into designable guides. Useful forties. designing housing with children in mind.Saunders, William S. Sprawl and Suburbia. Minnesota: University Architectural Record Article about Steven Holl’s Linked Hybridof Minnesota Press, 2005. Building - January 2010, pages 48-54.A series of essays which analyze the issues related to suburban Mixed-use urban housing building in Beijing, contains roughly 650sprawl, offering ideas for smart growth and New Urbanism. Pro- apartment. Contains community functions that connect the tow-vided examples of social problems related to sprawl. ers, creating a use and separation from the street.Gandelsonas, Mario. X-Urbanism: Architecture and the American http://www.djc.com/news/re/11161830.htmlCity. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999. Article about creating multifamily housing that actually works for 166
  167. 167. families. Explains how urban housing currently focuses on young cfm?file_id=120634&program_id=88professionals without children or empty nesters. Suggests ways Update on the status of Urban Housing in the city of Columbus.that more family focused housing can be built. http://www.ccc.unc.edu/documents/CC_housingCrunch.pdfFrench, Hillary. New Urban Housing. New Haven, CT: Yale Uni- Article about how the housing crisis, how to find affordable hous-versity Press. 2006. ing, has become a suburban problem – used to primarily be an ur-Case studies of multifamily housing: terraces, courtyards, infill, & ban problem. Lower income housing is moving further and furthertowers. out into the suburbs, challenging the illusion that suburbs are all happy middle class families.www.DPZ.com/research.aspxNew Urbanists. Website contains information on the new urbanist http://efinancedirectory.com/articles/High_Gas_Prices_Affect_philosophy. Suburban_Housing_Market.html Describes how the fluctuation in gas prices has affected the desir-http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Alexandra_Road_Hous- ability of suburban homes.ing.htmlResearched the Alexandra Road housing development as a prec- http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst;jsessionid=LWlJPGjLedent for high density terrace housing. CJLjnV50Tr3XFTGmXQ4cjCWRW2xRWWMzT7TCrh6VYyt8!-16 71297380!742347710?docId=5001896003http://www.thecoolist.com/housing-design-10-masterpieces-of- Report about the link between urban and suburban job growthurban-community/ and the value of suburban housing.Interesting site with images and information about 10 urban hous-ing projects. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/16/nyregion/the-inner-mean- ings-of-suburban-housing.html?pagewanted=1http://www.nahb.org/generic.aspx?genericContentID=36678 Article about an artist whose exhibits focus on the impact televi-Article from the National Association of Home Builders about the sion and movies have on promoting the image of suburbia – howdifferent housing markets emerging. Specifically the trend toward the image can be manipulated by those media and promote aUrban Housing. false reality.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentrification http://htaindex.cnt.org/model_summaryGentrification is a concern I’ve had, so I used the wikipedia article http://htaindex.cnt.org/mapping_tool.phpto get some background information about gentrification. Modeling the actual costs of transportation related to suburban living.http://www.ohiochannel.org/multimedia/programs/media. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGrAPHy 167
  168. 168. http://www.cnbc.com/id/35316715/Housing_Crash_Crushes_ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bayshore_Beautiful_(Tampa),_FloridaSuburban_Ideal Wikipedia entry about a suburb of Tampa, Florida that actually in- Article about the future of housing – divides demographics into cluded “Beautiful” in the name of the town. Almost as if the found-four basic groups: Aging baby boomers, younger baby boomers, ers felt like they needed to add it to make it desirable.children of baby boomers (Gen Y) and immigrants http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.treehug-http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2008/03/the-next- ger.com/2008-04-04_110538-Treehugger-suburb-eating-robot.slum/6653/ jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.treehugger.com/files/2008/04/andrew- Article that explains how suburbs are destined to become the maynards-suburb-eating-robots.php&usg=__utyhkYNJYA_Ip44Vnext ‘slums’ GwSD7gbsgfo=&h=380&w=468&sz=71&hl=en&start=8&um=1&it bs=1&tbnid=kb0jGyCzg2QQcM:&tbnh=104&tbnw=128&prev=/imhttp://www.washdiplomat.com/June%202008/c1_06_08.html ages%3Fq%3Dsuburb%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN Article about the real estate market, mentions the appeal of mul- %26tbs%3Disch:1tifamily housing. Satirical design of a robot that recycles suburbs and attempts to reclaim the land that suburbs have overtaken. The waste producthttp://www.modative.com/venice-boulevard-urban-dwellings-0/ from suburban developments that are eaten by this robot is bi-Precedent for urban singlefamily and multifamily dwellings. cycles for the displaced residents to use to get back into shape.Lewis, Sally. Front to Back: A Design Agenda for Urban Housing.Oxford: Architectural Press. 2005.Presents a variety of ways that urban housing can be thought ofso that designs can be considerate of their surroundings, occu-pants, and ecological footprint.The tragedy of suburbia - James Howard Kunstler (2004) -h t t p : / / f e e d p r o x y. g o o g l e . c o m / ~ r / T E D Ta l k s _ v i d e o / ~ 3 /mv8zoAAMgPA/121Discusses the problems with suburban design - how places thatare designed in the suburbs are forgettable and incapable ofcausing anyone to care about them. Places are too desolate anddesigned for automobiles instead of people. Urges the audienceto think about living locally. 168
  169. 169. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGrAPHy 169

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