Periodic Table
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Periodic Table

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    Periodic Table Periodic Table Presentation Transcript

    • The Periodic Table
    • Types of Elements
    • Metals ► Left side of periodic table (80%) ► Conduct heat and electricity ► Reflect light ► Solids at room temperature (one exception)
    • Metals ► Malleable ► Ductile
    • Nonmetals ► Upper-right ► Great variation in properties ► Most gases, some solids, one liquid at room temperature
    • Nonmetals ► Poor conductors of heat/electricity ► Brittle
    • Metalloids ► Along stair-step line ► Behave like a metal in some conditions, nonmetal in others
    • Development of the Periodic Table
    • Dimitri Mendeleev ► Russian scientist ► Published first USEFUL periodic table ► Did not know atomic structure, so he arranged atoms by mass
    • Mendeleev’s Periodic Table ► Spaces left for “missing” elements ► Were later discovered
    • Periodic Law ► When atoms are arranged by atomic number (or atomic mass, in Mendeleev’s case), there is a periodic repetition of physical and chemical properties
    • Using the Periodic Table ► Atomic Number - # of protons ► Atomic Mass/Weight – Weighted average of mass numbers of all isotopes
    • Periodic Table Layout
    • Layout ► Vertical GROUPS ► Horizontal PERIODS ► Groups are arranged by number of electrons in the VALENCE (OUTER) ENERGY LEVEL
    • Representative Groups ► Tall columns labeled 1A through 2A ► Other than H and He, number of group gives number of valence electrons
    • Alkali Metals ► Group 1A (except for hydrogen) ► Comes from arabic word meaning “the ashes” because wood ashes are rich in sodium and potassium ► EXTREMELY reactive
    • Alkaline Earth Metals ► Group 2A ► Silver-colored, soft, and low density metals ► Very reactive
    • Halogens ► ► ► ► ► From the Greek “salt-generating” Group 7A Elements end in “–ine” Only group which contains all three states of matter EXTREMELY reactive
    • Noble Gases ► Group 8A ► Rarely take part in chemical reactions ► Extremely low boiling points; rarely exist as liquids ► Used in lighting and lasers
    • Transition Metals ► “B” groups of Periodic Table ► All solid metals, except for Mercury ► Strong, dense (often silvery-blue) solids that make colorful solutions Co Cr Ni Cu Mn
    • Inner Transition Metals ► f-block of Periodic Table ► Usually unstable ► Often radioactive