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Biofuels

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Food as Biofuels …

Food as Biofuels

Production of Bioethanol and Biodiesel

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  • 1. Food as Biofuels Introduction to Food Science (SEC. 061)
  • 2. An Overview of the Presentation • Introduction • What are Biofuels • Classifications – Generations of Biofuels • Sugarcane as Biofuel • Maize as Biofuel • Rice as Biofuel • Mustard as Biofuel • Jatropha as Biofuel • Castor Biodiesel • Positives of Biofuel – Global benefits • Disadvantages of Biofuels • Biofuels and Food security • Discussion and Conclusion
  • 3. With the advert of the Industrial Revolution, the use of energy in the form of fossil fuels began, this occurred in stages, from the exploration of coal deposits to the exploitation of oil and natural gas But, how long can we depend on this declining fossil fuels to run our car engine, to light our kitchen stove ?? .. Not long that's for sure !! Introduction
  • 4. What is the Alternative ?
  • 5. Why Biofuels ?? Are They Green??? Use of Biofuels makes the environment clean: • by regulating carbon dioxide rates in the environment • by maintaining carbon cycle • by making a way to reduce global warming For example, a crop of plants used to produce a barrel of biofuel will absorb exactly the same amount of carbon dioxide as emitted from burning the barrel produced.
  • 6. What are Biofuels ? •Biofuels are fossil fuel substitutes that can be made from a range of agricultural crops and other sources of biomass. •Any hydrocarbon fuel that is produced from organic matter (living or once living material) in a short period of time – days, weeks, or even months, is considered as biofuel. •They are considered as an alternative source of energy Importance: 1. Energy security - increasing oil prices, need for alternative source of energy 2. To decrease greenhouse gas emission 3. To promote rural development
  • 7. Classification of Biofuels
  • 8. BIOFUELS GENERATIONS: FIRST GENERATION BIOFUEL • Biofuel made from sugar, starchy crops, vegetable oil or animal fat using conventional technology. • The starch from the basic feedstock's is fermented into Bioethanol, or the vegetable oil through chemical process to Biodiesel. Sunlight PLANTS ENZYMES SUGARS BIOFUELS
  • 9. Sugarcane as Biofuel Sugarcane is one of the most efficient photosynthesizers in the plant kingdom, able to convert up to 20% of incident solar energy into biomass.
  • 10. Sugarcane  Ethanol
  • 11. BIOETHANOL BIOMETHANOL Alcohol made by fermentation – mostly from carbohydrates produced in Sugar/starch crops -Corn/Sugarcane and cellulose biomass -- used as fuel in its pure form ---high Octane number – leads to increase of an engines compression ratio for increased thermal efficiency. Preferred over Ethanol – better mixed with Biodiesel. But TOXIC !
  • 12. Ethanol from corn ! Source: Enzyme Use for Corn Fuel Ethanol Production, Novozymes, July 2007
  • 13. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQ-hyv-H4jc
  • 14. Rice as Biofuel
  • 15. •Rice bran is a byproduct obtained during milling to produce polished rice. •Considered as a waste •Obtained from outer layer of the brown rice – Husk Rice bran for production of Biofuel
  • 16. Bioethanol Production from Rice straw – Popping pretreatment Method Importance : •Bioethanol produced from first generation biomass – sugarcane, wheat and corn have significant impact on food prices and food security. •Alternative sugar source – Lignocellulosic biomass (Second generation) •Rice straw – abundant Lignocellulosic waste material •Rice straw production amounts to approx. 731 million tons per year globally •Therefore considered as largest biomass feedstocks, and potentially 730 billion liters of Bioethanol can be produced per year (estimated) How it works ? Rice straw consists of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Because cellulose is embedded in a lignin matrix, pretreatment of the lignocellulosic material is needed to enhance the conversion of cellulose to glucose . - Popping pretreatment Method
  • 17. Popping pretreatment : This method is similar to water impregnated steam explosion method, which combines mechanical forces of the sudden explosion with chemical effects from hydrolysis in high temperature to obtain Ethanol from the biomass
  • 18. Key Advantages over other processes •Low environment impact •Cost effective •High saccharification efficiency •Other techniques like the use of Enzymes, ball milling, steam explosion, acid alkali lime and wet oxidation - are slow in action and have high production cost
  • 19. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=niZls2dpHjM
  • 20. Transesterification Reaction , also called as Alcoholysis is the displacement of alcohol from an ester by another alcohol in a process similar to hydrolysis except that an Alcohol is used instead of water. This process is used to prepare Bio-diesel from mustard oil It is the process of using an alcohol – Methanol / Ethanol / Butanol, in the presence of a catalyst – NaOH / KOH, to break the molecule of the oil chemically in to methyl or ethyl esters, with Glycerol as a byproduct. Transesterification Reaction
  • 21. Mustard Oil  Bio-diesel Trans catalyst alcohol
  • 22. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fSXtq2NU56c
  • 23. Biodiesel Biodiesel is an ester based oxygenated fuel derived from natural, renewable biological sources like vegetable oil ( Mustard oil) Biodiesel operates in compression ignition engines like petroleum diesel thereby requiring no essential engine modification. Unlike fossil diesel, pure biodiesel is biodegradable, non-toxic and essentially free of sulphur and aromatics.
  • 24. Biodiesel Feedstock's They are made by the Transesterification of vegetable oils •In the US, soybeans provide the most common feedstock •In Europe, rapeseed [canola] provides the most common feedstock Other Common Feedstock's •Sunflower oil is commonly used in France and Eastern Europe •Palm Oil is common in Malaysia •Used cooking oil is quickly becoming a common feedstock
  • 25. Emerging Feedstock's •Plants that can thrive under adverse conditions: Jatropha curcas •Hydroxylated Fatty Acid Triglycerides: Castor Oil and Lesquerella Oil •Short-chain Fatty Acid Triglycerides: Cuphea Viscosissima •Microalgae that produce Lipids
  • 26. Jatropha • Grows as a tree that produces fruit with oil-bearing seed • Not eaten by animals and is a vigorous, drought and pest resistant plant • Low cost and high yielding - 40-60 g oil/100 g seed kernels - Grown in many places • Methyl esters from Jatropha oil meet the standards for biodiesel Importance
  • 27. •Jatropha oil is hydroscopic - absorbs water and needs nitrogen blanketing on steel tanks so that exposure to air and moisture will be minimized. •Right from the time of expelling, the oil needs to be kept in storage conditions that prevent undue degradation. •Jatropha high in acid, therefore tendency to degrade quickly, particularly if not handled properly through the supply chain.
  • 28. CASTOR • 48% of seed is oil • High uniformity and consistency as a natural material • 90% Hydroxylated fatty acids • Allergens not present in oil • High yielding, as much as 350-650 kg oil /hectare • Requires moderate rainfall and can withstand long periods of drought • Uncomplicated crop that requires little attention LESQUERELLA •24% of seed is oil •60% Hydroxylated fatty acids •Gum with high value produced with oil
  • 29. • Castor oil (food grade) is used in food additives, flavorings, and candy • Esters are important ingredients in various cosmetics. • Increased lubricity at low levels (<1%) may provide an effective lubricity enhancer for low sulfur diesel fuels. • Castor FAME [Fatty Acid Methyl Esters] products can act as cold flow improver additives for biodiesel • Low volume, high value markets. Castor Biodiesel
  • 30. Global Benefits of Biofuels • Help small farmers • More income for 500 million smallholders • Impact not immediate but enormous over time • Keeping Energy prices down • Biofuels provide 50% of increase in non-OPEC oil supply • Biofuels keeps crude oil price from rising by 15%
  • 31. Industrial and Government Motivation • Increased use of Biofuels will decrease petrol and diesel prices. • Operators use clean fuel with less health problems. • Transport engines need little or no modifications. • Clean technology • Links agriculture to energy • Energy Independence gives strength to countries • Fuel standards for use of renewable energy • Incentives for alternate and clean fuel • Biodiesel meets international standards for clean Sulfur free diesel. • Eco-friendly
  • 32. Vehicular use and Manufacturer Acceptance • In 2007 , McDonalds of UK announced that it would start producing Biodiesel from the waste oil byproducts of its restaurants. The fuel will be used to run its fleet. • Railway usage – in 2007 Disneyland began running the park trains on B98 Biodiesel blends (98% Biodiesel).
  • 33. • Virgin Boeing 747 jumbo jet • The plane used a biofuel blend of Babassu oil – extracted from the nuts of babassu tree , and coconut oil. • Both products are more commonly found in cosmetics – lip balm and shaving cream. • The Czechoslovakian-made aircraft is rated to fly on a variety of fuels including heating oil, making it the preferred platform for testing Biodiesel in jet engines.
  • 34. • Poorly made Biofuel can cause engine problems – cause nitrogen oxide emission. • Transportation and storage requires special managements – cause increase in total cost. • Biodiesel is less suitable for use in low-temperatures than petro-diesel • Slightly more expensive to produce (production cost high on large scale) Main concerns: • Some countries have limited water sources (cultivation) • A suitable climate is needed to grow most crops. • Crops grown for biodiesel use land for food crops.
  • 35. FOOD BIOFUELSLIMITED NATURAL RESOURCES CROPS INCREASED COMPETITION A NEW DILEMMA IN FOOD SECURITY
  • 36. Biofuels and Food security • Have Biofuels really caused the food crisis ? • Should we support Biofuels ? The question ….
  • 37. Myth in the Media • Biofuels compete directly with food for land • We must choose between food and fuel Reality! • MISLEADING Facts • If Oil prices remain high, BIOFUELS WILL BE HERE TO STAY
  • 38. How can we support Biofuels? • Grow Biofuels without harming the environment or displacing food crop lands • Explore more waste lands (non-cultivate lands) – Jatropha capable of growing in harsh environment. • Commercialize Second and Future /Third Generation Biofuels – from Cellulose and Algae (Non-food source) Cellulose biofuel Technologies – can use Agricultural waste or Biomass Algae biofuel Technologies – No exploitation of land, 30 times more energy yield.
  • 39. Think FOOD and FUEL
  • 40. References A.K Azad, S.M Ameer Uddin and M.M Alam, Global advanced research journal of engineering, ‘Mustard oil, an alternative fuel: an experimental investigation’, Dhaka , June 14-2012. Retrieved from http://garj.org/garjeti/pdf/2012/June/Azad%20et%20al.pdf Bruce A. Babcock, Center for agriculture and rural development CARD, ‘ Breaking the link between food and biofuels ‘ Vol.14 No.3, Retrieved from http://www.card.iastate.edu/iowa_ag_review/summer_08/article1.aspx Biotechnology for Biofuels, ‘Bioethanol production form rice straw by popping pretreatment’ ISAF 2013. Retrieved from http://www.biotechnologyforbiofuels.com/content/6/1/166 Discovery News ‘ Top 10 sources of Biofuel’ Online article, December 12, 2012. Retrieved from http://news.discovery.com/tech/alternative-power-sources/top-ten-sources-biofuel.htm howstuffworks? ‘ Do Biofuels compete with food ‘ Online article. Retrieved from http://auto.howstuffworks.com/fuel-efficiency/biofuels/biofuels-compete-with-food.htm
  • 41. Presented by • Naveen Cheema [300774182] • Navdeep Bains [300769430] • Basani Prashanth Reddy [300778111] • Romil Patel [300779128] • Bharath Battina [300776818] • Jithin M J [300778750]