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Week 6 presentation

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  • What are external stimuli?
    How can internal chemicals be stimuli?
    What are some of the involuntary body functions controlled by the nervous system?
  • Internal and external stimuli activate the cell membranes to release stored electrical energy called the nervous impulse.
    External and internal receptors receive and transmit these impulses to the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system).
    The central nervous system recognizes, interprets, and relays impulses to other nerve cells that extend through parts of the body, such as muscles, glands, and organs.
    What is the scope of influence nerve cells have on bodily function?
  • Cranial nerves carry electrical impulses between the brain and the head and neck (except the vagus nerve).
    Spinal nerves carry impulses between the spinal cord and the chest, abdomen, and extremities.
    Why is the 10th cranial nerve called the vagus nerve? What does it do?
  • What is the difference between voluntary and involuntary functioning?
    What are parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves?
  • The autonomic nervous system contains a large group of nerves that function automatically.
    It controls the heart, blood vessels, glands, and involuntary muscles like the intestines, and hollow organs such as the stomach and urinary bladder.
    Why is the autonomic nervous system necessary?
  • How are stimuli processed by the nervous system?
    What are the parenchymal cells of the nervous system?
  • What structure carries the nerve impulse away from the cell body?
    What substances are examples of neurotransmitters?
    What is the singular form of “ganglia”?
  • Answers are on the next slide.
    What are the parts of the neurons shown in this slide?
    What structures comprise the parenchymal cells of the nervous system?
  • What are the parts of the neurons shown in this slide?
    What structures comprise the parenchymal cells of the nervous system?
  • How do the glia cells keep the nervous system healthy?
  • These are the supportive, protective, and connective cells of the central nervous system.
    (Recap) What purpose does stromal tissue serve?
  • .
  • The brain is divided into right and left hemispheres.
    The brain consists of four major lobes: the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, and occipital lobe.
    What are the parts of the left cerebral hemisphere as shown in the diagram?
    What primary functions are carried out by the different lobes of the brain?
  • What is the purpose of the cerebral cortex?
    How many major divisions can be applied to the entire cerebral cortex?
  • What is the value of the ability to sense pain?
  • How do messages travel from one side of the brain to another?
  • How does the word “crossover” apply to a function of the medulla oblongata?
  • The spinal cord is the column of nervous tissue from the medulla oblongata to the second lumbar vertebra.
    It serves as a pathway for impulses to and from the brain.
    The inner section of the cross section of the spinal cord is gray matter.
    The outer section of the cross section of the spinal cord is white matter.
    What is the difference between efferent and afferent neurons?
  • Meninges are the three layers of connective tissue membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
    What is the function of the outer dura mater? (It channels blood to brain tissue.)
    What fluid lies between the arachnoid membrane and the subarachnoid space?
    The inner pia mater offers a rich supply of blood vessels.
    Where are the layers of the meninges in the figure?
  • Meninges are the three layers of connective tissue membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
    What is the function of the outer dura mater? (It channels blood to brain tissue.)
    What fluid lies between the arachnoid membrane and the subarachnoid space?
    The inner pia mater offers a rich supply of blood vessels.
    Where are the layers of the meninges in the figure?
  • The correct answer is B: gyrus.
  • The correct answer is A: pia mater.
  • The correct answer is D: neuralgia.
  • The correct answer is B: epidural.
  • How is hydrocephalus treated?
    What are the two types of spina bifida? Ask students to describe the differences between the two types.
  • Which conditions are movement related?
    Which conditions are degenerative?
  • What is a viral infection caused by chickenpox?
    What types of meningitis exist, and how is meningitis treated?
    What is the most malignant form of brain tumor?
  • What is the primary difference between a concussion and a contusion?
  • What is the primary difference between a concussion and a contusion?
  • There are three types of cerebrovascular accident (CVA): thrombotic, embolic, and hemorrhagic.
    What is another name for CVA?
    What causes a transient ischemic attack (TIA)?
  • Which x-ray uses a contrast medium?
  • Which items are disorders or injuries?
    Which are procedures?
  • Which items are pathologies?
    Which are tests?
    What is an EEG used to measure?
  • Which of the items listed above are pathologies? Describe them.
  • What percent of oxygen does inhaled air contain? (About 21%)
    What percent of oxygen does exhaled air contain? (About 16%)
    What is the medical term for air sacs?
  • What is the singular form of bronchi? (Bronchus)
    Which lung is larger? (Right)
    How many lobes does each lung have? (Right: three, left: two)
  • Engage the class to identify the organs of the respiratory system.
    Trace the path of a breath of air.
  • Engage the class to identify the organs of the respiratory system.
    Trace the path of a breath of air.
  • Trace the flow, and then conduct the class activity in the lesson plan by dividing the class into two groups and assigning each a gas.
  • Trace the flow, and then conduct the class activity in the lesson plan by dividing the class into two groups and assigning each a gas.
  • See pp. 260-262 for definitions of vocabulary terms.
  • See pp. 260-262 for definitions of vocabulary terms.
  • See pp. 260-262 for definitions of vocabulary terms.
  • See pp. 260-262 for definitions of vocabulary terms.
  • The correct answer is C: apex.
  • Many of these terms are ways to help identify respiratory abnormalities that can be heard.
    Discuss the fact that auscultation, though not high tech, is still a very effective way to uncover disease.
  • Distinguish between disorders arising from infectious agents, trauma, neoplasms, or genetic disorders. Which are most often caused by smoking?
    Epistaxis is also known as rhinorrhagia, but epistaxis is the more commonly used term for nosebleed.
  • Distinguish between disorders arising from infectious agents, trauma, neoplasms, or genetic disorders. Which are most often caused by smoking?
    Epistaxis is also known as rhinorrhagia, but epistaxis is the more commonly used term for nosebleed.
  • Distinguish between disorders arising from infectious agents, trauma, neoplasms, or genetic disorders.
    What are the types of pneumoconiosis?
  • Distinguish between atelectasis and pneumothorax.
  • Distinguish between disorders arising from infectious agents, trauma, neoplasms, or genetic disorders.
    Use slides to discuss definitions, context, spelling, and derivations.
  • Explain collapsed lung.
    What conditions may cause a lung to collapse?
    What are some examples of trauma- and disease-induced collapsed lung?
  • Distinguish between disorders arising from infectious agents, trauma, neoplasms, or genetic disorders.
  • Briefly discuss the technology of each type of x-ray.
    For what kinds of information (hard tissues, soft tissue, etc.) and which conditions is each type best suited?
  • Use this slide to discuss point of view, right and left, dorsal and ventral, and landmarks.
  • Why would a physician recommend this invasive diagnostic procedure?
    What are the pros and cons?
    What can the physician expect to learn?
  • Watch an episode of ER and count how many times they do this procedure in the ER.
    Why do many people coming into the emergency room need this procedure?
    Why is this done for surgical patients?
  • Why do many of these procedures start with “thor”?
    What is the difference between laryngoscopy, mediastinoscopy, and thorascopy?
  • Under what conditions would a physician perform this invasive procedure?
    Explain the advantages and disadvantages.
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Language Of Medicine 10 edition th Davi-Ellen Chabner Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 1
    • 2. Chapter 10 Nervous System Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 2
    • 3. Chapter Goals  Name, locate, and describe major organs of the nervous system and their functions.  Learn nervous system combining forms and use them with suffixes and prefixes.  Define pathological conditions affecting the nervous system. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 3
    • 4. Chapter Goals (cont’d)  Describe laboratory tests, clinical procedures, and abbreviations that pertain to the system.  Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical terms in the proper contexts, such as medical reports and records. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 4
    • 5. Chapter 10 Lesson 10.1 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 5
    • 6. Introduction Nervous system:  Complex: 10 billion nerve cells  Voluntary and involuntary functions  Carries electrical messages  External and internal receptors Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 6
    • 7. Introduction (cont’d) Nerve cells (neurons):  Microscopic  Collected into macroscopic nerves  Carry electrical messages all over the body Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 7
    • 8. General Structure of the Nervous System Two major divisions:  Central nervous system—CNS    Brain Spinal cord Peripheral nervous system—PNS  Cranial nerves  Spinal nerves  Plexuses  Peripheral nerves throughout the body Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 8
    • 9. General Structure of the Nervous System (cont’d)  Cranial and spinal nerves   Motor nerves carry messages from the brain   Sensory nerves carry messages toward the brain Mixed nerves carry both sensory and motor fibers Sensory receptors Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 9
    • 10. General Structure of the Nervous System (cont’d) Autonomic nervous system:  Carries impulses from the central nervous system to the organs  Sympathetic nerves stimulate the body under stress  Parasympathetic nerves balance the sympathetic system  Slow heart rate  Lower blood pressure Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 10
    • 11. Divisions of the Central and Peripheral Nervous System Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 11
    • 12. Neurons, Nerves, and Glia Neuron = Individual nerve cell    Dendrite Cell nucleus Axon     Myelin sheath Neurilemma Terminal end fibers (secrete neurotransmitters) Neurotransmitters transfer impulse across synapse Ganglia = Small clusters of nerve cell bodies Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 12
    • 13. Neurons, Nerves, and Glia (cont’d) Label the parts of a neuron, and review the path of a nervous impulse. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 13
    • 14. Neurons, Nerves, and Glia (cont’d) The image shows the parts of a neuron. Review the path of a nervous impulse. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 14
    • 15. Neurons, Nerves, and Glia (cont’d) Glia cells:  Maintain the health of the nervous system  Do not transmit impulses Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 15
    • 16. Neurons, Nerves, and Glia (cont’d) Four types:  Astrocytes (astroglial cells)  Microglia (microglial cells)  Oligodendroglia (oligodendroglial cells)  Ependymal cells Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 16
    • 17. Chapter 10 Lesson 10.2 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 17
    • 18. The Brain Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 18
    • 19. The Brain (cont’d) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 19
    • 20. The Brain (cont’d)  Cerebrum  The largest section of the brain  Surface nerve cells called cerebral cortex  Manages speech, vision, smell, movement, hearing, and thought Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 20
    • 21. The Brain (cont’d)  Cerebellum    Coordinates voluntary movements Maintains balance Thalamus  Integrates and monitors impulses from skin (pain) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 21
    • 22. The Brain (cont’d)  Hypothalamus  Controls body temperature, sleep, appetite, sexual desire, and emotions  Regulates release of hormones from the pituitary gland  Monitors sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 22
    • 23. The Brain (cont’d) Brainstem  Pons  Bridges the cerebrum and cerebellum with the rest of the brain  Houses nerves for the face and eyes Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 23
    • 24. The Brain (cont’d) Brainstem  Medulla oblongata  Connects the spinal cord to the brain  Nerve tracts from side to side  Regulates:  Blood vessels  Heart  Respiratory system Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 24
    • 25. The Spinal Cord and Meninges Spinal cord Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 25
    • 26. The Spinal Cord and Meninges (cont’d) Meninges Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 26
    • 27. The Spinal Cord and Meninges (cont’d) Meninges Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 27
    • 28. Vocabulary  acetylcholine  afferent nerve  arachnoid membrane Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 28
    • 29. Vocabulary (cont’d)    acetylcholine afferent nerve arachnoid membrane Neurotransmitter chemical released at ends of nerve cells Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord Middle layer of the three membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 29
    • 30. Vocabulary (cont’d)  astrocyte  autonomic nervous system  axon Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 30
    • 31. Vocabulary (cont’d)    astrocyte Glial cell that transports water and salts from capillaries autonomic nervous system Nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs axon Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 31
    • 32. Vocabulary (cont’d)  blood-brain barrier  brainstem  cauda equina Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 32
    • 33. Vocabulary (cont’d)    blood-brain barrier Protective separation between the blood and brain cells that keeps substances (such as anticancer drugs) from penetrating capillary walls and entering the brain Posterior portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord brainstem cauda equina Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 33
    • 34. Vocabulary (cont’d)  cell body  central nervous system (CNS)  cerebellum Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 34
    • 35. Vocabulary (cont’d)    cell body The part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus central nervous system (CNS) cerebellum The brain and spinal cord The posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 35
    • 36. Vocabulary (cont’d)  cerebral cortex  cerebrospinal fluid  cerebrum Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 36
    • 37. Vocabulary (cont’d)  cerebral cortex Outer region of the cerebrum; contains sheets of nerve cells; gray matter  cerebrospinal fluid Circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord cerebrum The largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscle activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory  Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 37
    • 38. Vocabulary (cont’d)  cranial nerves  dendrite  dura mater Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 38
    • 39. Vocabulary (cont’d)  cranial nerves Twelve pairs; carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck (except the vagus nerve)  dendrite Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell; the first part to receive the nervous impulse  dura mater The thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 39
    • 40. Vocabulary (cont’d)  efferent nerve  ependymal cell  ganglion (plural: ganglia) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 40
    • 41. Vocabulary (cont’d)  efferent nerve Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve  ependymal cell Glial cell that lines the membranes within the brain and spinal cord; helps form cerebrospinal fluid  ganglion (plural: ganglia) Collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 41
    • 42. Vocabulary (cont’d)  glial cell (neuroglial cell)  gyrus (plural: gyri)  hypothalamus Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 42
    • 43. Vocabulary (cont’d)    glial cell (neuroglial cell) gyrus (plural: gyri) hypothalamus Supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nervous impulses; can reproduce itself Sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution The portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and pituitary gland secretions Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 43
    • 44. Vocabulary (cont’d)  medulla oblongata  meninges  microglial cell Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 44
    • 45. Vocabulary (cont’d)    medulla oblongata The part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and size of blood vessels meninges Three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord microglial cell Phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 45
    • 46. Vocabulary (cont’d)  motor nerve  myelin sheath  nerve Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 46
    • 47. Vocabulary (cont’d)  motor nerve Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent nerve  myelin sheath Covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell; speeds impulse conduction  nerve Macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 47
    • 48. Vocabulary (cont’d)  neuron  neurotransmitter  oligodendroglial cell Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 48
    • 49. Vocabulary (cont’d)    Nerve cell that carries impulses throughout body; parenchyma of the nervous system neuron neurotransmitter Chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell; stimulates or inhibits another cell oligodendroglial cell Glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons; oligodendrocyte Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 49
    • 50. Vocabulary (cont’d)  parasympathetic nerves  parenchyma  peripheral nervous system Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 50
    • 51. Vocabulary (cont’d)  parasympathetic nerves Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract  parenchyma Essential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or system; for the nervous system, neurons and nerves that carry impulses  peripheral nervous system Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 51
    • 52. Vocabulary (cont’d)  pia mater  plexus (plural: plexuses)  pons Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 52
    • 53. Vocabulary (cont’d)  pia mater The thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges  plexus (plural: plexuses)  pons A large, interlacing network of nerves The part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 53
    • 54. Vocabulary (cont’d)  receptor  sciatic nerve  sensory nerve Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 54
    • 55. Vocabulary (cont’d)  receptor An organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves; the skin, ears, eyes, and taste buds are receptors  sciatic nerve The nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot  sensory nerve Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from receptor; afferent nerve Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 55
    • 56. Vocabulary (cont’d)  spinal nerves  stimulus (plural: stimuli)  stroma Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 56
    • 57. Vocabulary (cont’d)    spinal nerves stimulus (plural: stimuli) stroma Thirty-one pairs arising from the spinal cord An agent of change (light, sound, touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response Connective and supporting tissue of an organ; glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 57
    • 58. Vocabulary (cont’d)  sulcus (plural: sulci)  sympathetic nerves  synapse Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 58
    • 59. Vocabulary (cont’d)  sulcus (plural: sulci) Depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure  sympathetic nerves Autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress  synapse The space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 59
    • 60. Vocabulary (cont’d)  thalamus  vagus nerve  ventricles of the brain Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 60
    • 61. Vocabulary (cont’d)  thalamus Main relay center of the brain; conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum  vagus nerve Tenth cranial nerve; branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach  ventricles of the brain Canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 61
    • 62. QUICK QUIZ: 1. A sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded fold on the surface of the cerebellum is the: A. B. C. D. microglial gyrus parenchyma stroma Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 62
    • 63. QUICK QUIZ: (cont’d) 2. The thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges is the: A. B. C. D. pia mater dura mater parenchyma stroma Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 63
    • 64. Terminology ORGANS AND STRUCTURES Combining Form Meaning  cerebell/o cerebellum  cerebr/o cerebrum  dur/o dura mater  encephal/o brain  gli/o glial cells Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 64
    • 65. Terminology (cont’d) ORGANS AND STRUCTURES Combining Form  lept/o Meaning thin, slender  mening/o, meningi/o membranes, meninges  my/o  myel/o spinal cord  neur/o nerve muscle Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 65
    • 66. Terminology (cont’d) ORGANS AND STRUCTURES Combining Form  pont/o Meaning pons  radicul/o nerve root  thalam/o thalamus  thec/o sheath (refers to meninges)  vag/o vagus nerve Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 66
    • 67. Terminology (cont’d) SYMPTOMS Combining Form  alges/o, -algesia  -algia  caus/o  comat/o  esthesi/o, -esthesia  kines/o, -kinesia Meaning excessive sensitivity to pain pain burning deep sleep feeling, nervous sensation movement Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 67
    • 68. Terminology (cont’d) SYMPTOMS Combining Form  -kinesis, kinetic  -lepsy  lex/o  -paresis  -phasia Meaning movement seizure word, phrase slight paralysis speech Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 68
    • 69. Terminology (cont’d) SYMPTOMS Combining Form Meaning  -plegia paralysis  -praxia action  -sthenia strength  syncop/o cut off  tax/o order, coordination Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 69
    • 70. QUICK QUIZ: 3. Which term means nerve pain? A. B. C. D. Cephalgia Analgesia Hypalgesia Neuralgia Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 70
    • 71. QUICK QUIZ: (cont’d) 4. Which type of hematoma occurs between the skull and the dura as a result of a ruptured meningeal artery, usually after a fracture of the skull? A. Subdural B. Epidural C. Intracerebral Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 71
    • 72. Chapter 10 Lesson 10.3 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 72
    • 73. Pathology Congenital disorders  Hydrocephalus  Spina bifida  Spina bifida cystica  Spina bifida occulta Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 73
    • 74. Degenerative Movement, and Seizure Disorders          Alzheimer disease (AD) Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) Epilepsy Huntington disease (Huntington chorea) Multiple sclerosis (MS) Myasthenia gravis (MG) Palsy Parkinson disease Tourette syndrome Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 74
    • 75. Infectious Disorders  Herpes zoster (shingles)  Meningitis  Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 75
    • 76. Traumatic Disorders  Cerebral concussion:   There may be no evidence of structural damage to brain tissue or loss of consciousness  Rest is very important to allow the brain to heal   Temporary brain dysfunction after injury Usually clears within 24 hours Cerebral contusion:  Bruising of brain tissue through direct trauma to the head  Usually associated with skull fracture as well as edema and an increase in intracranial pressure  Neurological deficits persist longer than 24 hours Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 76
    • 77. Vascular Disorders  Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)   Embolic — A dislodged clot that travels to the cerebral arteries   Thrombotic — A blood clot in an artery leaving the brain Hemorrhagic — A blood vessel, such as the cerebral artery, breaks and bleeding occurs — A severe, recurring, unilateral, vascular headache Migraine Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 77
    • 78. Vascular Disorders (cont’d) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 78
    • 79. Clinical Procedures X-ray tests:  Cerebral angiography  Computed tomography (CT) of the brain  Myelography Other procedures:  MRI—Magnetic resonance Imaging  PET—Positron emission scan  EEG—Electroencephalography Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 79
    • 80. Abbreviations          AD AFP ALS AVM BBB CNS CT CSF CVA Alzheimer disease alpha-fetoprotein amyotrophic lateral sclerosis arteriovenous malformation blood brain barrier central nervous system computed tomography cerebrospinal fluid cerebrovascular accident Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 80
    • 81. Abbreviations (cont’d) • EEG electroencephalogram • GABA gamma-aminobutyric acid (neurotransmitter) ICP intracranial pressure; normal pressure is 5 to 15 mmHG • LP monitored anesthetic care • MAC myasthenia gravis • MG magnetic resonance angiography • MRA magnetic resonance imaging • MRI • lumbar puncture Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 81
    • 82. Abbreviations (cont’d)           1/2 P PCA PNS PET Sz TBI TENS  TIA TLE tPA          hemiparesis patient-controlled anesthesia peripheral nervous system positron emission tomography seizure traumatic brain injury transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation transient ischemic attack temporal lobe epilepsy tissue plasminogen activator Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 82
    • 83. Practical Applications  What symptoms signal nervous system problems?  What tests are conducted to diagnose these problems?  Why are an MRI and an MRA ordered?  What are common pathologies of the nervous system? Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 83
    • 84. Review Sheet COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  alges/o ___________  angi/o ___________  caus/o ___________  cephal/o ___________  cerebell/o ___________  cerebr/o ___________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 84
    • 85. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  alges/o sensitivity to pain  angi/o vessel, blood  caus/o burn, burning  cephal/o head  cerebell/o cerebellum  cerebr/o cerebrum Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 85
    • 86. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  comat/o ___________  crani/o ___________  cry/o  dur/o ___________  encephal/o ___________  esthesi/o ___________ ___________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 86
    • 87. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  comat/o deep sleep  crani/o skull  cry/o  dur/o dura mater  encephal/o brain  esthesi/o nervous sensation cold Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 87
    • 88. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  gli/o _________  hydr/o _________  kines/o _________  lept/o _________  lex/o  mening/o, meningi/o  my/o _________ _________ _________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 88
    • 89. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  gli/o glue  hydr/o water  kines/o movement  lept/o thin, slender  lex/o  mening/o, meningi/o membranes, meninges  my/o word, phrase muscle Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 89
    • 90. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  myel/o ___________  narc/o ___________  neur/o ___________  olig/o ___________  pont/o ___________  radicul/o ___________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 90
    • 91. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  myel/o spinal cord  narc/o sleep  neur/o nerve  olig/o scanty  pont/o pons  radicul/o nerve root Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 91
    • 92. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  spin/o ___________  syncop/o ___________  tax/o  thalam/o ___________  thec/o ___________  troph/o ___________  vag/o ___________ ___________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 92
    • 93. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  spin/o spine  syncop/o cut off  tax/o  thalam/o thalamus  thec/o sheath (refers to meninges)  troph/o nourishment  vag/o vagus nerve order Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 93
    • 94. The Language Of Medicine 10 edition th Davi-Ellen Chabner Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 94
    • 95. Chapter 12 Respiratory System Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 95
    • 96. Chapter Goals  Name the organs of the respiratory system and describe their location and function.  Identify various pathological conditions that affect the system.  Learn medical terms that pertain to respiration. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 96
    • 97. Chapter Goals (cont’d)  Describe important clinical procedures related to the respiratory system, and recognize relevant abbreviations.  Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical terms in their proper contexts, such as medical reports and records. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 97
    • 98. Chapter 12 Lesson 12.1
    • 99. Introduction External respiration: Exchange of air in lung capillaries  Oxygen inhaled into the air sacs of the lungs  Immediately passes into capillaries  Carbon dioxide passes from capillaries into air sacs, to be exhaled Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 99
    • 100. Introduction (cont’d) Internal respiration: Exchange of gases in the cells  Occurs simultaneously between cells and capillaries  Oxygen passes out of the bloodstream into the tissues  Carbon dioxide passes out of tissues back into the bloodstream to travel to the lungs Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 100
    • 101. Respiratory Anatomy  Mediastinum: Middle of chest where trachea divides into two branches  Bronchi: Each leads to a separate lung  Lungs: Lobes are not mirror images  Hilum: Blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic tissue, and bronchial tubes enter and exit Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 101
    • 102. Anatomy of Respiration Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 102
    • 103. Anatomy of Respiration (cont’d) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 103
    • 104. Respiratory Structures Conduct air Exchange gases  Nose  Bronchioles  Nasal  Alveoli cavities and paranasal sinuses  Pharynx  Larynx  Trachea  Lung capillaries Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 104
    • 105. Respiratory Flow Chart Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 105
    • 106. Respiratory Flow Chart (cont’d) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 106
    • 107. Vocabulary  adenoids  alveolus (plural: alveoli)  apex of the lung Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 107
    • 108. Vocabulary (cont’d)  adenoids Lymphatic tissue in the nasopharynx; pharyngeal tonsils  alveolus (plural: alveoli) Air sac in the lung  apex of the lung Tip or uppermost portion of the lung Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 108
    • 109. Vocabulary (cont’d)  base of the lung  bronchioles  bronchus (plural: bronchi) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 109
    • 110. Vocabulary (cont’d)  base of the lung  bronchioles  bronchus (plural: bronchi) The lower portion of the lung The smallest branches of the bronchi The branch of the trachea (windpipe) that is a passageway into the lung; bronchial tube Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 110
    • 111. Vocabulary (cont’d)  carbon dioxide (CO2)  cilia  diaphragm Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 111
    • 112. Vocabulary (cont’d)  carbon dioxide (CO2)  cilia  diaphragm Gas produced by body cells when oxygen and carbon atoms from food combine; exhaled through the lungs Thin hairs attached to mucous membrane epithelium lining the respiratory tract Muscle separating the chest and abdomen; contracts to pull air into lungs; relaxes to push air out Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 112
    • 113. Vocabulary (cont’d)  epiglottis  expiration  glottis Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 113
    • 114. Vocabulary (cont’d)  epiglottis Lid-like piece of cartilage that covers the larynx; keeps food from entering the larynx and trachea during swallowing Breathing out (exhalation)  expiration Slit-like opening to the larynx  glottis Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 114
    • 115. Vocabulary (cont’d)  hilum (of lung)  inspiration  larynx Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 115
    • 116. Vocabulary (cont’d)    hilum (of lung) inspiration larynx Midline region where the bronchi, blood vessels, and nerves enter and exit the lungs Breathing in (inhalation) Voice box; contains the vocal cords Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 116
    • 117. Vocabulary (cont’d)  lobe  mediastinum  nares Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 117
    • 118. Vocabulary (cont’d)  lobe Division of a lung  mediastinum The region between lungs in the chest cavity; contains the trachea, heart, lymph nodes, aorta, esophagus, and bronchial tubes  nares Openings through the nose carrying air into the nasal cavities Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 118
    • 119. Vocabulary (cont’d)  oxygen (O2)  palatine tonsil Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 119
    • 120. Vocabulary (cont’d)   oxygen (O2) palatine tonsil Gas that makes up 21% of air; passes into the bloodstream at the lungs and travels to all body cells One of a pair of almond-shaped masses of lymphatic tissue in the oropharynx Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 120
    • 121. Vocabulary (cont’d)  paranasal sinus  parietal pleura  pharynx Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 121
    • 122. Vocabulary (cont’d) paranasal sinus One of the air cavities in the bones near the nose  parietal pleura Outer fold of pleura lying closer to the ribs and chest wall  pharynx The throat; including the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx  Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 122
    • 123. Vocabulary (cont’d)  pleura  pleural cavity  pulmonary parenchyma Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 123
    • 124. Vocabulary (cont’d)  pleura Double-folded membrane surrounding each lung Space between the folds of the pleura   pleural cavity pulmonary parenchyma Essential parts of the lung, responsible for respiration; bronchioles and alveoli Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 124
    • 125. Vocabulary (cont’d)  respiration  trachea  visceral pleura Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 125
    • 126. Vocabulary (cont’d)  respiration The process of moving air into and out of the lungs; breathing  trachea Windpipe  visceral pleura Inner fold of pleura lying closer to the lung tissue Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 126
    • 127. QUICK QUIZ: 1. What is the tip or uppermost portion of the lung? A. Base B. Lobe C. Apex D. Nares Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 127
    • 128. Combining Forms and Terminology Combining Form Meaning  adenoid/o adenoids  alveol/o alveolus, air sac  bronch/o bronchial tube  bronchi/o bronchus  bronchiol/o bronchiole, small bronchus  capn/o carbon dioxide Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 128
    • 129. Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d) Combining Form Meaning  coni/o dust  cyan/o blue  epiglott/o epiglottis  laryng/o larynx, voice box  lob/o  mediastin/o lobe of the lung mediastinum Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 129
    • 130. Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d) Combining Form Meaning  nas/o nose  orth/o straight, upright  ox/o  pector/o chest  pharyng/o pharynx, throat  phon/o voice oxygen Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 130
    • 131. Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d) Combining Form Meaning  phren/o diaphragm  pleur/o pleura  pneum/o  pneumon/o  pulmon/o  rhin/o air, lung lung lung nose Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 131
    • 132. Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d) Combining Form Meaning  sinus/o sinus cavity  spir/o breathing  tel/o  thorac/o chest  tonsill/o tonsils  trache/o trachea, windpipe complete Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 132
    • 133. Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Terminology SUFFIXES Suffix -ema Meaning condition -osmia smell -pnea breathing -ptysis spitting -sphyxia pulse -thorax pleural cavity, chest Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 133
    • 134. Chapter 12 Lesson 12.2 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 134
    • 135. Diagnostic Terms  Auscultation  Percussion  Pleural rub  Rale (crackle)  Rhonchus  Sputum  Stridor  Wheeze Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 135
    • 136. Pathology Upper respiratory disorders  Croup  Diphtheria  Epistaxis  Pertussis Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 136
    • 137. Pathology (cont’d) Bronchial tube disorders  Asthma  Bronchiectasis  Chronic bronchitis  Cystic fibrosis Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 137
    • 138. Pathology (cont’d) Lung disorders  Atelectasis  Pulmonary edema  Emphysema  Pulmonary embolism (PE)  Pulmonary fibrosis  Sarcoidosis  Tuberculosis (TB)  Lung cancer  Pneumoconiosis  Pneumonia  Pulmonary abscess Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 138
    • 139. Pathology Atelectasis Lung Disorders  Two forms  Proximal obstruction of distal airways  Accumulations of fluid, blood, or air in the pleural cavity Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 139
    • 140. Pathology Pleural disorders  Mesothelioma  Pleural effusion  Pleurisy (pleuritis)  Pneumothorax Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 140
    • 141. Pathology Pleural Disorders Pneumothorax: Air gathers in the pleural cavity Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 141
    • 142. Study Section  Anthracosis  Hydrothorax  Asbestosis  Infiltrate  Bacilli  Palliative  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)  Paroxysmal  Pulmonary infarction  Cor pulmonale  Purulent  Exudate  Silicosis Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 142
    • 143. Chapter 12 Lesson 12.3 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 143
    • 144. Clinical Procedures X-rays  Chest x-ray (CXR)  Computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest  Pulmonary angiography Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 144
    • 145. Clinical Procedures (cont’d) X-rays: radiographic imaging Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 145
    • 146. Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): magnetic waves create images Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 146
    • 147. Clinical Procedures (cont’d)  Nuclear tests  Positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the lung  Ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan: inhalation of radioactive gas for imaging, followed by injection of different radioactive material for imaging Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 147
    • 148. Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Bronchoscopy: fiberoptic or rigid endoscope inserted into the bronchial tubes for diagnosis, biopsy, or collection of secretions Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 148
    • 149. Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Endotracheal intubation: placement of tube from mouth to trachea to establish airway Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 149
    • 150. Clinical Procedures (cont’d)  Laryngoscopy  Thoracotomy  Lung biopsy  Thorascopy  Mediastinoscopy  Tracheostomy  Pulmonary function tests (PFTs)  Tuberculin test  Thoracentesis  Tube thoracostomy Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 150
    • 151. Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Thoracentesis: surgical puncture to remove fluid from pleural space Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 151
    • 152. Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Tracheostomy: surgical creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 152
    • 153. Abbreviations  ABGs  AFB  ARDS  BAL  Bronch  CF  CO2  COPD  CPAP  CPR Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 153
    • 154. Abbreviations (cont’d)  ABGs Arterial blood gases  AFB Acid-fast bacillus  ARDS Acute respiratory distress syndrome  BAL Bronchioalveolar lavage  Bronch Bronchoscopy  CF Cystic fibrosis  CO2 Carbon dioxide  COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  CPAP Continuous positive airway pressure  CPR Cardiopulmonary resuscitation Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 154
    • 155. Abbreviations (cont’d)  C&S  CTPA  CXR  DICO  DOE  DPT  FEV1  FVC  HCO3-  ICU Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 155
    • 156. Abbreviations (cont’d)  C&S Culture and sensitivity testing (of sputum)  CTPA Computed tomography pulmonary angiography  CXR Chest x-ray (film)  DICO Diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide  DOE Dyspnea on exertion  DPT Diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus  FEV1 Forced expiratory volume in 1 second  FVC Forced vital capacity  HCO3- Bicarbonate  ICU Intensive care unit Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 156
    • 157. Abbreviations (cont’d)  LLL  LUL  MDI  NSCLC  O2  OSA  PaCO2  PaO2  PCP  PE Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 157
    • 158. Abbreviations (cont’d)  LLL Left lower lobe (of lung)  LUL Left upper lobe (of lung)  MDI Metered-dose inhaler  NSCLC Non-small cell lung cancer  O2 Oxygen  OSA Obstructive sleep apnea  PaCO2 Carbon dioxide partial pressure  PaO2 Oxygen partial pressure  PCP Pneumocystis pneumonia  PE Pulmonary embolism Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 158
    • 159. Abbreviations (cont’d)  PEP  PEEP  PFTs  PND  PPD  RDS  RLL  RSV  RUL  RV Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 159
    • 160. Abbreviations (cont’d)  PEP Positive expiratory pressure  PEEP Positive end-expiratory pressure  PFTs Pulmonary function tests  PND Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea  PPD Purified protein derivative  RDS Respiratory distress syndrome  RLL Right lower lobe (of lung)  RSV Respiratory syncytial virus  RUL Right upper lobe (of lung)  RV Residual volume Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 160
    • 161. Abbreviations (cont’d)  SABA  SCLC  SOB  TB  TLC  URI  VT  VATS  VC  V/Q scan Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 161
    • 162. Abbreviations (cont’d)  SABA Short-acting beta agonist  SCLC Small cell lung cancer  SOB Shortness of breath  TB Tuberculosis  TLC Total lung capacity  URI Upper respiratory infection  VT Tidal volume  VATS Video-assisted thoracic surgery  VC Vital capacity  V/Q scan Ventilation-perfusion scan Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 162
    • 163. Review Sheet COMBINING FORMS Combining Form adenoid/o alveol/o Meaning ____________ ____________ bronch/o ____________ bronchi/o ____________ bronchiol/o ____________ capn/o ____________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 163
    • 164. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  adenoid/o adenoids  alveol/o alveolus; air sac; small sac  bronch/o bronchial tube  bronchi/o bronchial tube  bronchiol/o bronchiole  capn/o carbon dioxide Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 164
    • 165. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form coni/o ___________ cyan/o Meaning ___________ epiglott/o ___________ laryng/o ___________ lob/o ___________ mediastin/o ___________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 165
    • 166. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  coni/o dust  cyan/o blue  epiglott/o epiglottis  laryng/o larynx (voice box)  lob/o  mediastin/o lobe mediastinum Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 166
    • 167. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form nas/o __________ orth/o Meaning __________ ox/o __________ pector/o __________ pharyng/o __________ phon/o __________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 167
    • 168. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  nas/o nose  orth/o straight  ox/o  pector/o chest  pharyng/o throat (pharynx)  phon/o voice; sound oxygen Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 168
    • 169. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form phren/o ___________ pleur/o Meaning ___________ pneum/o ___________ pneumon/o ___________ pulmon/o rhin/o ___________ ___________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 169
    • 170. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  phren/o diaphragm; mind  pleur/o pleura  pneum/o lung; air; gas  pneumon/o  pulmon/o lung  rhin/o lung; air; gas nose Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 170
    • 171. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form sinus/o ___________ spir/o Meaning ___________ tel/o ___________ thorac/o ___________ tonsill/o ___________ trache/o ___________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 171
    • 172. Review Sheet (cont’d) COMBINING FORMS Combining Form Meaning  sinus/o sinus  spir/o to breathe  tel/o  thorac/o chest  tonsill/o tonsil  trache/o trachea (windpipe) complete Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 172
    • 173. Review Sheet (cont’d) SUFFIXES Suffix Meaning -ema ___________ -osmia ___________ -pnea ___________ -ptysis ___________ -sphyxia ___________ -thorax ___________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 173
    • 174. Review Sheet (cont’d) SUFFIXES Suffix Meaning  -ema condition  -osmia smell  -pnea breathing  -ptysis spitting  -sphyxia pulse  -thorax chest; pleural cavity Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 174

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