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  • Why is nitrogenous waste excreted from the body in a soluble rather than gaseous form? <br /> By what medium does urea travel to the kidneys? <br />
  • The kidneys also adjust the amount of water and electrolytes for proper muscle and nerve function. <br /> Are there other important functions performed by the kidneys? <br />
  • Have students name the organs of the urinary system labeled 1-4 in the figure. <br /> What is the size and weight of a normal kidney? <br /> What function is performed by the ureters? <br /> What function is performed by the urinary bladder? <br /> What function is performed by the urethra? <br />
  • Have students name the organs of the urinary system labeled 1-4 in the figure. <br /> What is the size and weight of a normal kidney? <br /> What function is performed by the ureters? <br /> What function is performed by the urinary bladder? <br /> What function is performed by the urethra? <br />
  • How does the female urinary system differ from the male urinary system? <br /> What is the trigone? What function does it perform? <br /> What is micturition? <br />
  • How does the female urinary system differ from the male urinary system? <br /> What is the trigone? What function does it perform? <br /> What is micturition? <br />
  • The correct answer is B: urination. <br />
  • The renal artery branches into smaller arteries, arterioles, and glomeruli located throughout the cortex of the kidneys. <br /> What is a glomerulus? <br /> There are approximately one million glomeruli in the cortex of each kidney. <br /> How does the kidney regulate blood pressure? <br /> Why is maintenance of proper blood pressure important to the kidneys’ function? <br />
  • The renal artery branches into smaller arteries, arterioles, and glomeruli located throughout the cortex of the kidneys. <br /> What is a glomerulus? <br /> There are approximately one million glomeruli in the cortex of each kidney. <br /> How does the kidney regulate blood pressure? <br /> Why is maintenance of proper blood pressure important to the kidneys’ function? <br />
  • What functions do the glomerulus, Bowman capsule, and renal tubule perform in the production of urine? <br /> Why don’t proteins and blood cells usually appear in the urine? <br /> What is the process of reabsorption? <br /> What is secretion? <br /> What substances make up urine? (Note: These substances become toxic if allowed to accumulate.) <br />
  • What functions do the glomerulus, Bowman capsule, and renal tubule perform in the production of urine? <br /> Why don’t proteins and blood cells usually appear in the urine? <br /> What is the process of reabsorption? <br /> What is secretion? <br /> What substances make up urine? (Note: These substances become toxic if allowed to accumulate.) <br />
  • What functions are performed in each of the three steps in the formation of urine? <br /> The combination of a glomerulus and a renal tubule is called a nephron. There are more than one million nephrons in a kidney. <br />
  • What functions are performed in each of the three steps in the formation of urine? <br /> The combination of a glomerulus and a renal tubule is called a nephron. There are more than one million nephrons in a kidney. <br />
  • The correct answer is C: one million. <br />
  • Notice how secretion and reabsorption are functions of the same organs. <br /> Cup-like regions in the renal pelvis are called calyces or calices. <br /> Where do all connecting tubules lead? <br /> The renal pelvis narrows to form the ureter. <br /> To which organ does the ureter lead? <br />
  • Notice how secretion and reabsorption are functions of the same organs. <br /> Cup-like regions in the renal pelvis are called calyces or calices. <br /> Where do all connecting tubules lead? <br /> The renal pelvis narrows to form the ureter. <br /> To which organ does the ureter lead? <br />
  • How is urine flow from the bladder to the urethra controlled? <br /> What triggers the need to urinate? <br /> Urine finally exits the body through the urinary meatus. <br />
  • How is urine flow from the bladder to the urethra controlled? <br /> What triggers the need to urinate? <br /> Urine finally exits the body through the urinary meatus. <br />
  • How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system? <br /> Which organs are involved in filtering urine? <br />
  • How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system? <br /> Which organs are involved in filtering urine? <br />
  • How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system? <br /> Which organs are involved in filtering urine? <br />
  • How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system? <br /> Which organs are involved in filtering urine? <br />
  • How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system? <br /> Which organs are involved in filtering urine? <br />
  • How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system? <br /> Which organs are involved in filtering urine? <br />
  • How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system? <br /> Which organs are involved in filtering urine? <br />
  • How do each of these terms play a role in the urinary system? <br /> Which organs are involved in filtering urine? <br />
  • What path does waste take through the urinary system? <br />
  • What path does waste take through the urinary system? <br />
  • What path does waste take through the urinary system? <br />
  • What path does waste take through the urinary system? <br />
  • What path does waste take through the urinary system? <br />
  • What path does waste take through the urinary system? <br />
  • What path does waste take through the urinary system? <br />
  • What path does waste take through the urinary system? <br />
  • What is another term for urination? <br /> What is renin? Where is it formed? <br /> Where is the trigone located? <br />
  • What is another term for urination? <br /> What is renin? Where is it formed? <br /> Where is the trigone located? <br />
  • What is another term for urination? <br />
  • Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide? <br />
  • Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide? <br />
  • Define the term cystitis. <br /> Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide? <br />
  • Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide? <br />
  • Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide? <br />
  • Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide? <br />
  • Define the term hydronephrosis. <br /> Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide? <br />
  • Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide? <br />
  • Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide? <br />
  • Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide? <br />
  • Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide? <br />
  • Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide? <br />
  • Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide? <br />
  • Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide? <br />
  • Using the given combining forms, can you form and define other terms not listed in the slide? <br />
  • Colorless urine = large amount of water in the urine. Smoky-red or brown = presence of blood in the urine. <br /> Normal pH is 6.5 (slightly acidic). <br /> Protein test looks for albumin, which indicates a leak in the glomerular membrane. <br /> Glucose presence signals possibility of diabetes. <br />
  • Specific gravity reflects the amount of wastes and minerals. <br /> Ketone bodies appear when the body breaks down fat. <br /> Sediment are abnormal particles. <br /> Phenylketonuria indicates a lack of enzyme, especially in infants. PKU test measures this. <br /> Bilirubin results from a hemoglobin breakdown. <br />
  • The correct answer is D. Specific gravity compares the density of urine with that of water. <br />
  • Glomerulonephritis is the inflammation of the glomeruli within the kidney due to infection; it can lead to hypertension and renal failure if untreated. <br /> What is interstitial nephritis? <br /> What procedure might a physician recommend for a patient with nephrolithiasis? <br /> Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms caused by excessive protein loss in urine. <br /> Polycystic kidneys are a hereditary condition characterized by a progressive growth of cysts. There are two types of hereditary PKD. One type is usually asymptomatic until middle age and then is marked by maturia, urinary tract infections, and nephrolithiasis. The other type of PKD occurs in infants or children and results in renal failure. <br />
  • Polycystic kidneys are a hereditary condition characterized by a progressive growth of cysts. <br />
  • Pyelonephritis is the inflammation of the lining of the renal pelvis and renal parenchyma. <br /> Renal cell carcinoma is adult cancer of the kidney—2% of all adult cancers. <br /> What occurs during renal failure? <br /> How does renal hypertension differ from essential hypertension? <br /> Wilms tumor is a malignant tumor of the kidney occurring in childhood and is an example of an eponym. <br />
  • What risk factors are associated with bladder cancer? <br /> Diabetes insipidus: Antidiuretic hormone is not secreted adequately or the kidney is resistant to its effect. <br /> Diabetes mellitus: Insulin is not secreted adequately or not used properly in the body. <br /> How does each of these conditions affect the kidneys? <br />
  • The correct answer is B: nocturia. <br />
  • Which procedure tests for uremia? <br /> Which test measures the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood? <br /> What is azotemia? <br /> What role do the kidneys play in BUN levels? <br />
  • How do these x-rays differ? <br /> Which tests require contrast material? <br /> Why is it important to measure the size of the kidneys (KUB)? <br /> Which tests require urinary catheterization? <br /> Why would someone have RP instead of IVP? <br />
  • What is hydronephrosis? <br /> What might cause the kidney to be enlarged? <br /> What can be diagnosed in the urinary system using sound waves? <br />
  • How is an MRI of the kidney performed? <br />
  • Cystoscopy allows for visual examination through a hollow metal tube. <br /> What is the difference between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis? <br /> What procedure might be required to remove kidney stones? <br /> Describe the process of catheterization. <br />
  • How is a cytoscopy performed? <br />
  • CAPD can be performed continuously by the patient without artificial support. <br /> What other peritoneal dialysis procedures may be performed? <br />
  • Which abbreviations stand for disorders? <br /> Which are measurements? <br /> Which are procedures? <br />
  • Which abbreviations stand for disorders? <br /> Which are measurements? <br /> Which are procedures? <br />
  • Which items are pathologies? <br /> Which are treatments? <br />
  • Which items are pathologies? <br /> Which are treatments? <br />
  • Ask students to identify the category of metabolite, treatment, condition, or test. <br />
  • Ask students to identify the category of metabolite, treatment, condition, or test. <br />
  • The correct answer is B; this is the abbreviation for retrograde pyelogram. <br /> Incorrect answer A is CAPD—continuous ambulatory periotoneal dialysis. <br /> Incorrect answer C is HD—hemodialysis. <br /> Incorrect answer D is K+ potassium. <br />
  • The correct answer is C: thirst. <br />
  • The correct answer is D: py/o. <br />
  • The correct answer is B: to hold back. <br />

Med termch7 Med termch7 Presentation Transcript

  • The Language Of Medicine 10 edition th Davi-Ellen Chabner Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
  • Chapter 7 Urinary System Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 2
  • Chapter Goals  Name essential organs of the urinary system and describe their locations and functions.  Identify common pathological conditions.  Recognize how urinalysis is used and interpreted as a diagnostic test.  Define urinary-system-related combining forms, prefixes, and suffixes. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 3 View slide
  • Chapter Goals (cont’d)  List and explain clinical procedures, laboratory tests, and abbreviations that pertain to the urinary system.  Understand medical terms in their proper contexts, such as medical reports and records. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 4 View slide
  • Chapter 7 Lesson 7.1 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 5
  • Introduction  Nitrogenous wastes  Urea  Creatinine  Uric acid Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 6
  • Introduction (cont’d)  Functions of the kidney    Filter nitrogenous wastes to form urine; about 200 quarts of blood are filtered every day to form 2 quarts of urine Maintain proper balance of water, electrolytes (sodium, potassium), and acids Release hormones:  Renin: enzymatic hormone important in adjusting blood pressure  Erythropoietin (EPO): hormone that stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow  Calciferol: active form of vitamin D necessary for the absorption of calcium from the intestine  Degrade and eliminate hormones from the bloodstream Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 7
  • Anatomy of the Major Organs Organs of the urinary system in a male Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 8
  • Anatomy of the Major Organs (cont’d) Organs of the urinary system in a male Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 9
  • Anatomy of the Major Organs (cont’d) Female urinary system Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 10
  • Anatomy of the Major Organs (cont’d) Female urinary system Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 11
  • QUICK QUIZ: 1. What is voiding? A. Nitrogenous waste B. Urination C. Outer section of the kidney D. Triangular area in the bladder Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 12
  • How Kidneys Produce Urine  Blood enters the kidneys through the right and left renal arteries  Arterioles carry blood to the capillaries  Glomeruli filter the blood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 13
  • How Kidneys Produce Urine (cont’d)  Blood enters the kidneys through the right and left renal arteries  Arterioles carry blood to the capillaries  Glomeruli filter the blood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 14
  • How Kidneys Produce Urine (cont’d) Glomerulus and glomerular/Bowman capsule  Blood passes through the glomeruli  Glomerular (Bowman) capsule surrounds each glomerulus  Renal tubule is attached to each Bowman capsule Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 15
  • How Kidneys Produce Urine (cont’d) Glomerulus and glomerular/Bowman capsule  Blood passes through the glomeruli  Glomerular (Bowman) capsule surrounds each glomerulus  Renal tubule is attached to each Bowman capsule Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 16
  • How Kidneys Produce Urine (cont’d) Three steps in the formation of urine Glomerular filtration Tubular reabsorption Tubular secretion Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 17
  • How Kidneys Produce Urine (cont’d) Three steps in the formation of urine Glomerular filtration Tubular reabsorption Tubular secretion Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 18
  • How Kidneys Produce Urine (cont’d)  The glomerulus and a renal tubule combine to form a unit called a nephron. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 19
  • How Kidneys Produce Urine (cont’d)  The glomerulus and a renal tubule combine to form a unit called a nephron. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 20
  • QUICK QUIZ: 2. Approximately how many nephrons are in a kidney? A. 100,000,000 B. 10,000,000 C. 1,000,000 D. 100,000 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 21
  • How Kidneys Produce Urine All collecting tubules lead to the renal pelvis Calyces or calices are small, cup-like regions of the renal pelvis; the term comes from the Greek, kalux, meaning a cup or case surrounding a flower bud Illustration shows section of kidney Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 22
  • How Kidneys Produce Urine (cont’d) All collecting tubules lead to the renal pelvis Calyces or calices are small, cuplike regions of the renal pelvis; the term comes from the Greek, kalux, meaning a cup or case surrounding a flower bud Illustration shows section of kidney Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 23
  • How Kidneys Produce Urine (cont’d) Process of forming and expelling urine Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 24
  • How Kidneys Produce Urine (cont’d) Process of forming and expelling urine Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 25
  • Vocabulary  arteriole  calyx or calix Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 26
  • Vocabulary (cont’d)  arteriole Small artery  calyx Cuplike collecting region of the renal pelvis; the term comes from the Greek, kalux, meaning a cup or case surrounding a flower bud or calix Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 27
  • Vocabulary (cont’d)  catheter  cortex  creatinine Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 28
  • Vocabulary (cont’d)  catheter Tube for injecting or removing fluids  cortex Outer region of an organ  creatinine Nitrogenous waste excreted in urine Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 29
  • Vocabulary (cont’d)  electrolyte  erythropoietin (EPO) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 30
  • Vocabulary (cont’d)  electrolyte  erythropoietin (EPO) Chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water. Hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate production of red blood cells by bone marrow; -poietin means a substance that forms. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 31
  • Vocabulary (cont’d)  filtration  glomerular capsule  glomerulus  hilum Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 32
  • Vocabulary (cont’d)  filtration  glomerular capsule  hilum Enclosing structure surrounding each glomerulus; also called Bowman capsule glomerulus  Process whereby some substances pass through a filter Tiny ball of capillaries in the kidney Depression in the part of an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave; comes from the Latin meaning a small thing Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 33
  • Vocabulary (cont’d)  kidney  meatus  medulla Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 34
  • Vocabulary (cont’d)  kidney One of two bean-shaped organs that filter nitrogenous waste from the bloodstream to form urine Opening or canal  meatus Inner region of an organ; the term comes from the Latin, medulla, meaning marrow  medulla Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 35
  • Vocabulary (cont’d)  nephron  nitrogenous waste Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 36
  • Vocabulary (cont’d)  nephron The functional unit of the kidney where filtration, reabsorption, and secretion take place Substance containing nitrogen  nitrogenous waste and excreted in urine; examples are urea, uric acid, and creatinine Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 37
  • Vocabulary (cont’d)  potassium (K+)  reabsorption  renal artery Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 38
  • Vocabulary (cont’d)  potassium (K+) An electrolyte regulated by the kidney  reabsorption  renal artery Renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream Blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 39
  • Vocabulary (cont’d)  renal pelvis  renal tubules  renal vein Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 40
  • Vocabulary (cont’d)  renal pelvis Central collection region in the kidney  renal tubules Microscopic tubes in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration  renal vein Blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 41
  • Vocabulary (cont’d)  renin  sodium (Na+)  trigone Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 42
  • Vocabulary (cont’d)  renin Hormone secreted by the kidney that raises blood pressure  sodium (Na+) An electrolyte regulated in the blood and urine by the kidneys; a common form of sodium is sodium chloride (salt)  trigone Triangular area in the urinary bladder Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 43
  • Vocabulary (cont’d)  urea  ureter  urethra Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 44
  • Vocabulary (cont’d)  urea Major nitrogenous waste excreted in urine  ureter One of two tubes leading from the kidneys to the urinary bladder  urethra Tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 45
  • Vocabulary (cont’d)  uric acid  urinary bladder  urination (voiding) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 46
  • Vocabulary (cont’d)  uric acid Nitrogenous waste product excreted in the urine  urinary bladder Hollow, muscular sac that holds and stores urine  urination (voiding) Process of expelling urine; also called micturition Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 47
  • Terminology: Structures, Substances, and Urinary Symptoms STRUCTURES Combining Form cali/o, calic/o Meaning _________ cyst/o _________ glomerul/o _________ meat/o _________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 48
  • Terminology: Structures, Substances, and Urinary Symptoms (cont’d) STRUCTURES Combining Form cali/o, calic/o Meaning calyx (calix); cup-shaped cyst/o urinary bladder glomerul/o glomerulus meat/o meatus Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 49
  • Terminology: Structures, Substances, and Urinary Symptoms (cont’d) STRUCTURES Combining Form Terminology cyst/o cystitis Meaning ________________ Bacterial infections often cause acute or chronic cystitis. In acute cystitis, the bladder contains blood as a result of mucosal hemorrhage (see figure, Acute cystitis). Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 50
  • Terminology: Structures, Substances, and Urinary Symptoms (cont’d) STRUCTURES Combining Form cyst/o Terminology Meaning cystitis inflammation of the urinary bladder Bacterial infections often cause acute or chronic cystitis. In acute cystitis, the bladder contains blood as a result of mucosal hemorrhage (see figure, Acute cystitis). Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 51
  • Terminology: Structures, Substances, and Urinary Symptoms (cont’d) STRUCTURES Combining Form nephr/o ___________ pyel/o Meaning ___________ ren/o trigon/o ____________ ____________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 52
  • Terminology: Structures, Substances, and Urinary Symptoms (cont’d) STRUCTURES Combining Form nephr/o kidney pyel/o renal pelvis ren/o Meaning kidney trigon/o trigone Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 53
  • Terminology: Structures, Substances, and Urinary Symptoms (cont’d) STRUCTURES Combining Form nephr/o Terminology Meaning hydronephrosis _________________ Obstruction of urine flow may be caused by renal calculi (stones) as shown in the figure. Notice the buildup of excess fluid in the kidney. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 54
  • Terminology: Structures, Substances, and Urinary Symptoms (cont’d) STRUCTURES Combining Form nephr/o Terminology hydronephrosis Meaning Condition of excess fluid (water) in the kidney Obstruction of urine flow may be caused by renal calculi (stones) as shown in the figure. Notice the buildup of excess fluid in the kidney. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 55
  • Terminology: Structures, Substances, and Urinary Symptoms (cont’d) STRUCTURES Combining Form ureter/o __________ urethr/o __________ vesic/o Meaning __________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 56
  • Terminology: Structures, Substances, and Urinary Symptoms (cont’d) STRUCTURES Combining Form Meaning ureter/o ureter urethr/o urethra vesic/o urinary bladder Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 57
  • Terminology: Structures, Substances, and Urinary Symptoms (cont’d) SUBSTANCES and SYMPTOMS Combining Form albumin/o azot/o bacteri/o dips/o Meaning ________ ________ ________ ________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 58
  • Terminology: Structures, Substances, and Urinary Symptoms (cont’d) SUBSTANCES and SYMPTOMS Combining Form Meaning albumin/o albumin azot/o nitrogen bacteri/o bacteria dips/o thirst Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 59
  • Terminology: Structures, Substances, and Urinary Symptoms (cont’d) SUBSTANCES and SYMPTOMS Combining Form or Suffix Meaning kal/o __________ ket/o, keton/o __________ lith/o __________ natr/o __________ noct/o olig/o __________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. ________ 60
  • Terminology: Structures, Substances, and Urinary Symptoms (cont’d) SUBSTANCES and SYMPTOMS Combining Form or Suffix Meaning kal/o potassium ket/o, keton/o ketone bodies lith/o stone natr/o sodium noct/o olig/o night scanty Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 61
  • Terminology: Structures, Substances, and Urinary Symptoms (cont’d) SUBSTANCES and SYMPTOMS Combining Form or Suffix Meaning -poietin __________ py/o __________ -tripsy __________ ur/o __________ -uria __________ urin/o __________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 62
  • Terminology: Structures, Substances, and Urinary Symptoms (cont’d) SUBSTANCES and SYMPTOMS Combining Form or Suffix Meaning -poietin substance that forms py/o pus -tripsy to crush ur/o urea -uria urination; urine condition urin/o urine Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 63
  • Urinalysis Tests included in a urinalysis 1. Color 2. Appearance 3. pH 4. Protein 5. Glucose Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 64
  • Urinalysis (cont’d) Tests included in a urinalysis 6. Specific gravity 7. Ketone bodies 8. Sediment 9. Phenylketonuria 10. Bilirubin Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 65
  • QUICK QUIZ: 3. In a urinalysis, what does the test of specific gravity reflect? A. The chemical nature of urine B. The presence of albumin C. Blood in the urine D. The amount of wastes, minerals, and solids in the urine Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 66
  • Chapter 7 Lesson 7.2 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 67
  • Pathologic Conditions Kidney  Glomerulonephritis  Interstitial nephritis  Nephrolithiasis  Nephrotic syndrome  Polycystic kidneys (PKD) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 68
  • Pathologic Conditions Kidney  Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) PKD—The kidneys contain masses of cysts. Typically polycystic kidneys weigh 20 times more than their usual weight. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 69
  • Pathologic Conditions (cont’d) Kidney  Pyelonephritis  Renal cell carcinoma  Renal failure  Renal hypertension  Wilms tumor Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 70
  • Pathologic Conditions (cont'd) Kidney  Renal cell carcinoma (Hypernephroma) Cancerous tumor of the kidney in adulthood Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 71
  • Pathologic Conditions (cont’d) Urinary bladder  Bladder cancer Associated conditions  Diabetes insipidus (DI)  Diabetes mellitus (DM) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 72
  • QUICK QUIZ: 4. A term that means frequent (voluntary) urination at night is: A. anuria B. nocturia C. diuresis D. hematuria Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 73
  • Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures Laboratory tests  Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)  Creatinine clearance test Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 74
  • Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Clinical procedures X-ray Studies  CT urography  Kidneys, ureters, and bladder (KUB)  Renal angiography  Retrograde pyelogram (RP)  Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 75
  • Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures (cont’d)  CT-Computed tomography The scan with contrast shows a benign cyst on the kidney. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 76
  • Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Voiding cystourethrogram  (VCUG)showing a normal female urethra. The bladder is filled with contrast material, followed by x-ray imaging. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 77
  • Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Clinical procedures Ultrasound examination  Ultrasonography: imaging urinary tract structures using high frequency sound waves Radioactive studies  Radioisotope scan: image of kidney after injecting a radioisotope into the bloodstream Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 78
  • Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Clinical procedures Magnetic imaging  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) urography: A changing magnetic field produces images of an organ and surrounding structures in three planes of the body Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 79
  • Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Other clinical procedures  Cystoscopy  Dialysis  Lithotripsy  Renal angioplasty  Renal biopsy  Renal transplantation  Urinary catheterization Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 80
  • Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Cytoscopy—direct visual examination of urinary bladder with an endoscope Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 81
  • Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Hemodialysis (HD) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 82
  • Laboratory Tests and Clinical Procedures (cont’d) Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 83
  • Abbreviations           ADH AKI ARF BILI BUN Ccr CAPD Cath CCPD CKD _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 84
  • Abbreviations (cont’d)           ADH ARF AKI BILI BUN Ccr CAPD Cath CCPD CKD Antidiuretic hormone Acute renal failure Acute renal injury Bilirubin Blood urea nitrogen Creatinine clearance Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis Catheter; catheterization Continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis Chronic kidney disease Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 85
  • Abbreviations (cont’d)  CL- _____________________  CrCl _____________________  CRF _____________________  C&S _____________________  Cysto _____________________  eGFR _____________________  ESRD _____________________  ESWL _____________________  HCO3- _____________________  HD _____________________  IC _____________________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 86
  • Abbreviations (cont’d)  CL- Chloride, a kidney excretion  CrCl Creatinine clearance  CRF Chronic renal failure  C&S Culture and sensitivity testing  Cysto  eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate   ESRD ESWL End-stage renal disease Extracorporeal shockwave lithrotripsy  HCO3- Bicarbonate, an electrolyte conserved by the kidney  HD IC  Cystoscopic examination Hemodialysis Interstitial cystitis, chronic inflammation of the bladder wall Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 87
  • Abbreviations (cont’d)            IVP K+ KUB Na+ PD pH PKU sp gr UA UTI VCUG __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 88
  • Abbreviations (cont’d)  IVP Intravenous pyelogram  K+ Potassium, an electrolyte  KUB Kidney ureter and bladder  Na+ Sodium, an electrolyte  PD Peritoneal dialysis  pH Potential hydrogen; degree of acidity or alkalinity  PKU Phenylketonuria  sp gr Specific gravity  UA Urinalysis  UTI Urinary tract infection  VCUG Voiding cystourethrogram Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 89
  • QUICK QUIZ: 5. The abbreviation RP is associated with which of the following? A. Fluid is injected into the peritoneal cavity and then drained out. B. Contrast is injected into the urinary bladder and ureters, and x-rays are taken of the urinary tract. C. Nitrogenous wastes are removed from the patient’s blood. D. An electrolyte is secreted by renal tubules. Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 90
  • Review Sheet Combining forms albumino/o ____________ angi/o ____________ azot/o ____________ bacteri/o ____________ cali/o, calic/o ____________ cyst/o ____________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 91
  • Review Sheet (cont’d) Combining forms albumino/o albumin (protein) angi/o vessel (blood) azot/o urea; nitrogen bacteri/o bacteria cali/o, calic/o calyx (calix); cup-shaped cyst/o urinary bladder Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 92
  • Review Sheet (cont’d) Combining forms dips/o ____________ glomerul/o ____________ glycos/o ____________ hydr/o ____________ isch/o ____________ kal/o ____________ ket/o; keton/o ____________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 93
  • Review Sheet (cont’d) Combining forms dips/o thirst glomerul/o glomerulus glycos/o sugar hydr/o water isch/o to hold back; back kal/o potassium ket/o; keton/o ketones; acetones Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 94
  • Review Sheet (cont’d) Combining forms lith/o ____________ meat/o ____________ natr/o ____________ necr/o ____________ nephr/o ____________ noct/o ____________ ogli/o ____________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 95
  • Review Sheet (cont’d) Combining forms lith/o stone meat/o meatus natr/o sodium necr/o death nephr/o kidney noct/o night ogli/o scanty Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 96
  • Review Sheet (cont’d) Combining forms py/o pyel/o ren/o trigon/o ur/o __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 97
  • Review Sheet (cont’d) Combining forms py/o pus pyel/o renal pelvis ren/o kidney trigon/o ur/o trigone urine; urinary tract Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 98
  • Review Sheet (cont’d) Combining forms ureter/o ____________ urethr/o ____________ urin/o ____________ vesic/o ____________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 99
  • Review Sheet (cont’d) Combining forms ureter/o ureter urethr/o urethra urin/o urine vesic/o urinary bladder Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 100
  • Review Sheet Suffixes -ectasis ______________ -ectomy ______________ -emia ______________ -esis ______________ -gram ______________ -lithiasis ______________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 101
  • Review Sheet (cont’d) Suffixes -ectasis stretching; dilation -ectomy removal; excision -emia blood condition -esis condition -gram record -lithiasis condition of stones Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 102
  • Review Sheet (cont’d) Suffixes -lithotomy ____________________ -lysis ______________ -megaly ______________ -ole -osis -pathy ______________ ______________ ______________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 103
  • Review Sheet (cont’d) Suffixes -lithotomy incision for removal of a stone -lysis breakdown -megaly enlargement -ole little; small -osis condition -pathy disease Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 104
  • Review Sheet (cont’d) Suffixes -plasty _________________ -poietin _______________ -ptosis _______________ -rrhea -sclerosis -stomy _______________ _______________ ___________________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 105
  • Review Sheet (cont’d) Suffixes -plasty surgical repair -poietin substance that forms -ptosis droop; sag -rrhea -sclerosis -stomy flow; discharge hardening new opening (to form a mouth) Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 106
  • Review Sheet (cont’d) Suffixes -tomy _____________ -tripsy ___________ -uria ___________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 107
  • Review Sheet (cont’d) Suffixes -tomy process of cutting -tripsy to crush -uria urination Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 108
  • Review Sheet Prefixes a-, an- _____________ anti- _____________ dia- _____________ dys- _____________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 109
  • Review Sheet (cont’d) Prefixes a-, an- not; without anti- again dia- complete dys- bad; painful Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 110
  • Review Sheet (cont’d) Prefixes en- __________ peri- __________ poly- __________ retro- __________ Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 111
  • Review Sheet (cont’d) Prefixes en- in; within peri- surrounding poly- many, much retro- behind; back Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 112
  • QUICK QUIZ: 6. The combining form dips/o means: A. stone B. scanty C. thirst D. water Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 113
  • QUICK QUIZ: (cont’d) 7. Which combining form means pus? A. pyel/o B. lith/o C. ogli/o D. py/o Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 114
  • QUICK QUIZ: (cont’d) 8. The combining form isch/o means: A. scanty B. to hold back; back C. night D. trigon Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 115