HistoricalFoundationsof Philippine Education Prepared by: Labog, Michael John R. II-21 BSE Social Science
Development of Education inthe Philippines fromPre-Spanish to Present times
TimelineBefore 1521 Education before the coming of Spaniards 1521-1896 Education during the Spanish Regime 1896-1899 Education during the Philippine Revolution 1898-1935 Education during the American Occupation 1935-1941 Education during the Philippine Commonwealth 1941-1944 Education during the Japanese Occupation1944-1946 Education after the World War II1946-present Education under the Philippine Republic
Pre- Hispanic Education• Pre- Hispanic education in thePhilippines was not formal•Education was oral, practical, andhands-on•The objective was basically to promotereverence for, and adoration of Bathala,respect for laws, customs, andauthorities represented by parents andelders•When the Spaniards arrived in thePhilippines they encountered islanderswho knew how to read and write.
Education during the Spanish Regime•The Friars established parochialschools linked with churches to teachcatechism to the natives•Instruction was in the dialect•Education was managed, supervised,and controlled and the friars•Education in the country was notuniform•The system of schooling was nothierarchical nor structured, thus therewere no grade levels
Major Problems•Lack of trained teachers•Lack of teachers(150 teacher-missionaries to instruct over half amillion inhabitants)• Lack of funds, instructional materials, and in manyinstances school houses
Because of need, higher levelschools were established much later by virtue of royal decrees. •Colegios •Beaterios
Subjects: Based on the Royal Decree of 1863 •Languages(Latin, Spanish grammar and literature, elementary Greek, French and English) •History( Universal, Spanish) •Mathematics(Arithmetic, Algebra, Trigonometry, Geometry) •Philosophy(Rhethoric, Logic, Ethics) •Geography •Pshychology
Philippine Revolution•Illustrados spearheaded thePropaganda Movemnent•Curricular reforms1. Secularization of education2. Instruction of Spanish3. Greater attention to natural science4. The design of a relevant curriculum5. Improvement of higher centers of learning6. Improvement of educational system
• Jose Rizal criticized unequivocally the friars’ method of instruction in his two novels Noli Me Tangere and El filibusterismo1. Disproportionate focus on religion2. Discourage the attempt of Filipino students to speak in Spanish3. Lack of pedagogical skills4. Irrelevant courses in the curriculum
Curriculum To improve the existing curriculum, Rizal considered the ff. Subjects as required courses in secondary schools•Science•Math•History•Philosophy•Law•Language•P.E•Religion•Music•Social Sciences
Graciano- Lopez Jaena“The outstanding cause of the distressed situation ofFilipinos today is the anomalous education receivedby the youth in schools. They learn to read correctlyand write gracefully, but they do not learn anythinguseful because they are not taught any. They aretaught how to pray and never go to work”
American Occupation•The Americans used education as a vehiclefor its program benevolent asimilation•American soldiers were the first teachers•Restore damaged school houses, buildnew ones and conduct classes•Trained teachers replaced soldiers•Filipinos warmly received their newteachers, Thomasites•American teachers infused their studentsthe spirit of democracy and progress aswell as fair play
TAKE NOTE!• It is not surprising that the democratic values espoused by the Americans, whether SINCERE or NOT, touched a receptive nerve un the Filipino psyche.
•Americans discarded the religious bias•Educational Act of 1901- Separation of Church andState in education•Encourage filipino in the field of teaching•Outstanding filipino scholars were sent to US to trainas teachers
CurriculumPrimary Education•GMRC•Civics•Hygiene and Sanitation•GeographyIntermediate Curriculum•Grammar and composition•Reading, spelling•Science courses•Physiology•Hygiene and sanitation•Intensive teaching of geography
•Government established NORMAL SCHOOL for futureteachers•Courses includeMethods of teaching, practice teaching, psychology,mathematics, language, science, history andgovernment, social sciences, P.E•White collar-job bias
Philippine Commonwealth•All schools should develop moral character, personaldiscipline, civic conscience and vocational efficiency•Promote effective participation of the citizens in theprocesses of a democratic society•Educational Act of 1940“meet the increasing demand for public instructionand at the same time comply with the constitutionalmandate on public education”
Japanese Regime•6 basic principles of japanese Education1. Realization of NEW ORDER and promote friendly relations between Japan and the Philippines to the farthest extent2. Foster a new Filipino culture based3. Endeavor to elevate the morals of people, giving up over emphasis of materialism4. Diffusion of the Japanese language in the philippines5. Promotion of VOCATIONAL course6. To inspire people with the spirit to love neighbor
Curriculum•School calendar became longer•No summer vacation for students•Class size increased to 60•Deleted anti-asian opinions, banned the singing ofamerican songs, deleted american symbols, poemsand pictures•Nihongo as a means of introducing and cultivvatinglove for Japanese culture•Social Studies
Take Note!Spanish- Reign for 300 yearsAmerican- 50 yearsJapanese- about four years•It is thus not surprising that despite the measurethey had instituted, the Japanese failed to succeed intransforming the values and attitudes of the people inline with their vision of the NEW ORDER.•A contributory factor was widely reported brutalitiesthat ushered in the Japanese occupation that thefilipinos did not experience with the same degreeduring the American period
After World War IIIn 1947, by the virtue of Executive Order No. 94, theDepartment of Instruction was changed to"Department of Education." During this period, theregulation and supervision of public and privateschools belonged to the Bureau of Public and PrivateSchools.
Education after 1940• The objective of the Philippine Education was to established “integrated, nationalistic, and democracy- inspired educational system” included the ff.1. Inculcate moral and spiritual values inspired by an abiding faith in God2. To develop an enlighten, patriotic, useful and upright citizenry in a democratic society3. Conservation of the national resources4. Perpetuation of our desirable values5. Promote the science, arts and letters
•Great experiments in the community school and the useof vernacular in the first two grades of the primaryschools as the medium of instruction were some ofthem.•An experiment worth mentioning that led to a change inthe Philippine Educational Philosophy was that of schooland community collaboration pioneered by Jose V.Aguilar.Schools are increasingly using instructional materials thatare Philippine-oriented.Memorandum No. 30, 1966 sets the order of priority inthe purchase of books for use in the schools were asfollows:Books which are contributions to Phil. LiteratureBooks on character education and other library materialsLibrary equipment and permanent features
Martial Law period• The Department of Education became the Department of Education and Culture in 1972, the Ministry of Education and Culture in 1978, and with the Education Act of 1982, the Ministry of Education, Culture, and Sports.• A bilingual education scheme was established in 1974, requiring Filipino and English to be used in schools.• Science and math subjects as well as English language and literature classes were taught in English while the rest were taught in Filipino.
From 1986 to the present• The bilingual policy in education was reiterated in the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines.• (EDCOM), Congress passed Republic Act 7722 and Republic Act 7796 in 1994, creating theCommission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). The institute governing basic education was thus renamed in 2001 as the Department of Education (DepEd).
• The quality of public school education is generally considered to have declined since the post-war years, mainly due to insufficient funds. The Department of Education aims to address the major problems affecting public education by 2010.• Private schools are able to offer better facilities and education, but are also much more expensive. There is a wide variety of private schools, including all-boys’ and all-girls’ schools, religious schools, non-sectarian schools, Chinese schools, special schools, and international schools. Due to economic difficulties, there has been a recent increase in the popularity of home schooling and open universities in the Philippines.
Reference•http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Education_in_the_Philippines•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_the_Philippines•THE NATURE AND SCOPE OFCURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT(PHILIPPINE CONTEXT) by PROF. RONNIEESPERGAL PASIGUI