Seedless Table Grape Variety Trial


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Talk at 2011 VSU Virginia Berry Conference

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Seedless Table Grape Variety Trial

  1. 1. Seedless Table Grape Variety Trial Carl Cantaluppi Extension Area Horticulture Agent Granville and Person Counties
  2. 2. How The Project Began <ul><li>In 2005, Doreathy Booth and Celine Koropchak asked what additional high-value horticultural crop they could grow. </li></ul><ul><li>Seedless table grapes were suggested since they were not being grown on a commercial scale in the Piedmont. </li></ul><ul><li>Obtained an Innovative Program Grant from NC A&T to plant a 14 variety grape trial on her farm to compare different varieties since research on these grapes is scant. </li></ul>
  3. 4. 2005 Planting <ul><li>Grapes were planted 10 feet between vines in the row and 10 feet between rows. We planted 360 vines on the acre, using a randomized complete block design with 5 plants per plot and 5 replications on May 18, 2005 on a clay loam soil. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>During 2005 and 2006, the vines were trained and pruned, leaving one shoot to train as a trunk, tied to a bamboo stake, until it reached the top wire, which was 5 feet from the ground. </li></ul><ul><li>A lower wire, at 2 1/2 feet from the ground was used for attaching the trickle irrigation tubing. </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>Vines were trained to the two arm Cordon System, with each arm being pruned back to 8-10 buds on weak vines and to 12-15 buds on each arm if they were vigorous. </li></ul>
  6. 8. 2 Arm Cordon Pruning System
  7. 9. Grape Variety Descriptions <ul><li>A wide range of flavors and appearances are available among the seedless table grapes. Vitis labrusca grapes have a fruity or “foxy” flavor. </li></ul><ul><li>Breeding programs in New York, Ontario, and Arkansas focus on improved cold-hardiness and quality. </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Since North Carolina has warmer winters than the Northeastern U.S., these varieties should perform very well in our climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Vines will be inoculated with a benign strain of Xylella fastidiosa , the bacterium which causes Pierce’s Disease of grape to cross protect them. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Mars
  10. 12. Mars <ul><li>A University of Arkansas release with a mildly labrusca flavor, blue slipskin (having a tough skin that separates readily from the pulpy flesh). </li></ul><ul><li>Medium sized clusters, highest yielder </li></ul><ul><li>Ripens from July 27-August 10 </li></ul>
  11. 13. Marquis
  12. 14. Marquis <ul><li>NY release, white, large clusters </li></ul><ul><li>Juicy, melting texture </li></ul><ul><li>Ripe fruit holds well on vine with flavor going from a mild fruity flavor when first ripe, to a stronger labrusca flavor two weeks later. Very vigorous vine. </li></ul><ul><li>Ripens from August 2-10 </li></ul>
  13. 15. Venus
  14. 16. Venus <ul><li>A University of Arkansas release </li></ul><ul><li>Vigorous, productive blue-black grape </li></ul><ul><li>Large berries with mild labrusca flavors, slipskin </li></ul><ul><li>Seed traces may be noticeable </li></ul><ul><li>Ripens July 20 - August 3 in Oxford </li></ul>
  15. 17. Jupiter
  16. 18. Jupiter <ul><li>University of Arkansas release </li></ul><ul><li>Reddish-blue to blue when ripe </li></ul><ul><li>Large, firm, non-slipskin berries on medium sized clusters </li></ul><ul><li>A distinct muscat flavor </li></ul><ul><li>Ripens from July 20 -27 in Oxford </li></ul>
  17. 19. Lakemont
  18. 20. Lakemont <ul><li>NY release </li></ul><ul><li>Very compact and tight clusters </li></ul><ul><li>Small to medium sized berries </li></ul><ul><li>Needs to be cluster thinned to prevent overcropping </li></ul><ul><li>Ripens in Oxford July 26 - August 3 </li></ul>
  19. 21. Einset
  20. 22. Einset <ul><li>NY release </li></ul><ul><li>Oval, bright red berries with a light waxy bloom(powdery covering on fruit) </li></ul><ul><li>Medium sized berries, tough skin adheres to tender flesh </li></ul><ul><li>Fruity sweet strawberry-like taste </li></ul><ul><li>Ripens in Oxford July 20 - 26 </li></ul>
  21. 23. Glenora
  22. 24. Glenora <ul><li>NY release </li></ul><ul><li>Produces medium sized blue berries </li></ul><ul><li>Loose clusters </li></ul><ul><li>Ripens in Oxford from July 20 - 27 </li></ul>
  23. 25. Canadice
  24. 26. Canadice <ul><li>NY release </li></ul><ul><li>Produces medium sized, excessively compact clusters with small red berries </li></ul><ul><li>Ripens in Oxford July 26 </li></ul>
  25. 27. Vanessa
  26. 28. Vanessa <ul><li>Developed by the Horticultural Research Institute of Ontario, Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Medium sized, well filled clusters </li></ul><ul><li>Mild and fruity flavor, crisp berry texture </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent fruit quality </li></ul><ul><li>Ripens in Oxford July 20 - 27 </li></ul>
  27. 29. Concord Seedless
  28. 30. Concord Seedless <ul><li>Similar in flavor and texture to Concord </li></ul><ul><li>Clusters and berries are smaller than concord. It is not seedless here. </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity is erratic, due to its uneven ripening under hot temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Might replace with the seeded Sunbelt variety, which ripens evenly </li></ul>
  29. 31. Suffolk Red
  30. 32. Suffolk Red <ul><li>NY release </li></ul><ul><li>Produces medium to large (somewhat loose) clusters of mild-flavored red berries </li></ul><ul><li>Ripens in Oxford on August 10 </li></ul>
  31. 33. Himrod
  32. 34. Himrod <ul><li>NY release </li></ul><ul><li>Medium sized white grapes </li></ul><ul><li>Loose clusters </li></ul><ul><li>Honey-like flavor </li></ul><ul><li>Ripens in Oxford July 20 - 27 </li></ul>
  33. 35. Variety lbs./A &Harvest Date 2007 2009 2010 Mars 4329a 11954a 3818a 7/27-8/10 Marquis 4295a 4341 b 2645 b 8/2-10 Venus 1972 b 4344 b 1623 c 7/20-8/3 Jupiter 1686 b 1795 b 411 d 7/20-26 Lakemont 970 b 4256 b 545 d 7/26-8/3 Glenora 705 b 2450 b 739 cd 7/20-27
  34. 36. Variety lbs./A & Harvest Date 2007 2009 2010 Einset 668 b 3228 b 347 d 7/20-26 Canadice 559 b 1847 b 1579c 7/26 Vanessa 503 b 3668 b 1126cd 7/20-27 Con. Sdls. 341 b ---------- ---------- 8/10 Suff. Red 250 b 1064 b 222 d 8/10 Himrod 241 b 1536 b 486 d 7/20-27
  35. 37. Vineyard Establishment Costs <ul><li>Deer Fence and Trellis $15,000.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Bamboo Stakes 121.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Fiberglass Stakes 462.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Drip Irrigation pump, pipe hookups, faucets 2,340.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Grape Vines 2,460.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Snap and Grow Tubes 1,462.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Tapener Guns to attach vines to trellis 133.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Fungicides 540.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Round-Up for 3 years 387.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetable Wash 49.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Protective Gear for Spraying 214.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Grape Lugs for Harvesting 308.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer 234.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticide Private Applicator License 6.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Marking Spray for vines 11.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Grass Seed for row-middles 358.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel Fuel 200.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Gasoline for Lawn Mower 210.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective Tape to Scare Birds 108.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Labor (800 hours) --------- </li></ul><ul><li>Other Irrigation Installation Help 1,000.00 </li></ul><ul><li>Total $25,603.00 </li></ul>
  36. 38. Grape Variety Source for Trial <ul><li>Double A Vineyards </li></ul><ul><li>10277 Christy Road </li></ul><ul><li>Fredonia, NY 14063 </li></ul><ul><li>716-672-8493 </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Website: </li></ul>