Bramble Plant Nutrition Eric Hanson, Department of Horticulture Michigan State University firstname.lastname@example.org 517.355.5191 x1386
Pre-plant Considerations1. Soil test for pH and nutrient levels2. Organic matter addition: cover crops, manure, compost, other organic amendments
Optimum pH Range Blueberry Brambles4 5 6 71.Lime according to soil tests2.Use dolomitic lime if Mg is low3.Apply and incorporate a year before planting
Pre-plant Phosphorus and PotassiumIncorporate prior to planting; base rates on soil tests. Fertilizer % P2O5 or K2O Superphosphate 21 Concentrated superphosphate 45 Potassium chloride 60-62 Potassium sulfate 50-54 Potassium-magnesium sulfate 22 (11% Mg)
Gypsum may help control Phytophthora root rot Gypsum (CaSO4) supplies Ca but does not alter pH. Gypsum reduced raspberry root rot caused by Phytophthora spp. in NY (Maloney et al., 2005) and WA (Pinkerton et al., 2009). Gypsum has reduced other Phytophthora diseases. High Ca concentrations specifically inhibit fungal growth and infection of plant tissues. Recommendation: Incorporate 3-6 tons gypsum prior to planting raspberries on sites with a history of Phytophthora root rot.
Average nitrogen fertilizer price trends in the US (USDA, Economic Research Service) 1.20 Urea $1.01 1.00 Ammonium nitrate Ammonium sulfate 0.80$/lb N $0.58 0.60 $0.57 0.40 0.20 0.00 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 Year
Pre-plant manure and compost – general considerationsOften beneficial, particularly on sandy soils, heavily farmed sites.Analyze material before applying to avoid: 1. Excessive total salts. 2. Excessive P or N 3. N tie-up or excess (C:N above 30:1 tie up N) 4. Specific element toxicities (heavy metals, B, Na, Cl)Apply and incorporate raw manure the fall before spring plantingAvoid manure or compost with salt levels > 10 dS/m.Apply materials with salt levels of 5-10 dS/m in the fall to allowsalts to leach.
Manure Use – Avoid Excessive Soil P (Michigan Manure GAAMP’s)Know soil and manure P levels. (Manure can vary from 10 lb P2O5 per ton to 45 lb)If soil tests indicate P is needed, apply enough manure tosupply 100 to 200 lb P2O5/acre.If Bray P1 test is 75 to 150 ppm, apply enough manure toreplace crop removal.If the Bray P1 test is above 150 ppm, do not apply manure.
Variation in C:N and salt levels of Michigan composts (J. Biernbaum)
Learn from your mistakes:To provide adequate nutrition for a new organic raspberryplanting under high tunnels, we incorporated 10 tons of afortified dairy compost in the rows before planting.
Injury to newly planted high tunnel raspberries fromcompost incorporated before planting at 10 tons/acre. Compost Analysis EC pH (dS m-1) C:N ratio N (%) 6.9 14.05 7.9:1 2.92
Raspberry Tissue SamplingCollect 50-75 mature leaves from middleof primocanes in AugustRinse briefly in tap water.Dry on table top.Send to reputable lab for nutrientanalysis.
Desired Leaf Nutrient Levels for Raspberries and Blackberries % PPMN 2.0 – 2.8 B 30-90P 0.25 – 0.40 Cu 7-20K 1.5 – 2.5 Fe 60-250Ca 0.7 – 1.7 Mn 50-200Mg 0.3 – 0.5 Zn 20-50
Nitrogen ManagementNearly all brambles need N annuallyFor efficient N use, choose the right: 1. fertilizer 2. rate 3. timing 4. placement Hart et al., 2006. EM 8903-E Oregon St. Univ. Ext
N Fertilizers Lime equivalentSource %N Reaction (lb lime/lb N)*Ammonium nitrate 32 acidic -1.8Ammonium sulfate 21 acidic -5.3Calcium nitrate 16 basic 1.3Potassium nitrate 12 basic 1.9Urea 46 acidic -1.8DAP 17 acidic -4.1MAP 11 acidic -3.5blends variable variable variable *Lb lime equivalent to alkalinity from 1 lb N (positive values) or required to neutralize the acidity from 1 lb N (negative values)
Soil salt levels based on saturated paste extractpotentially causing yield reductions in fruit crops.*Crop Soil EC (dS/m)**Olives 2.7Grapefruit 1.8Apple/pear/peach 1.7Apricots 1.6Grapes 1.5Blackberries 1.5Raspberries/strawberries 1.0Blueberries ??*Western Fertilizer Handbook (1990)**1 dS/m = 1 mmho/cm
Salt index values for some common N fertilizer Salt indexFertilizer %N Salt index* per unit NAmmonium nitrate 33 105 300Ammonium sulfate 21 69 328Calcium nitrate 12 53 442Di-ammonium phosphate 18 29 161Mono-ammonium phosphate 11 27 245Natural organic 13 3.5 70UAN 28% 28 71 222Urea 46 75 162* Salt index is the increase in osmotic pressure resulting addition of fertilizer to asolution, relative to affect of the same amount of NaNO3 (SI = 100). After: Kamburova and Kirilov, 2008
N Sources and RatesSourcesUrea and ammonium nitrate are usually cheapest and best. Rates (lb/acre) (higher rates on sandy soils and fall bearing types) Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 and older 20-40 30-60 50-100
N Timing – Brambles 1. Heavier, fertile soils: all at bud break (April-May) 2. Sandy soils: half at bud break, half 3-4 weeks later Bud break HarvestApril May June July August
Nitrogen Placement - Brambles 1st year plants Established plantsApply in a 2-3 ft wide circle Broadcast or a band or band
PotassiumBrambles have a high demand for K;regular applications are usually needed. Choose K sources based on: 1. conventional or organic 2. cost per unit of K2O 3. need for other nutrients K deficiency (T. Wallace) 4. potential hazard from chlorine K fertilizers % K2O Comments Potassium chloride 60-62 Chloride hazard Potassium sulfate 50-54 Moderate expense Sul-Po-Mag 22 (11% Mg) Expensive
PotassiumRates based on soil tests, generally: 100-200 lb K2O per acre to correct most shortages 50-100 lb K2O per acre for maintenanceTiming: anytime Fall application is best for KCl (muriate) to allow time for Cl to leach.Excessive K use can cause Mg shortages.
Ca, Mg, K Ratios are important Desired ranges for % of Bases K 10-20% Mg Ca 20-30% 60-70%
Magnesium and CalciumCa and Mg Sources % Mg % Ca %KMagnesium sulfate (epsom salts) 10Calcium sulfate (gypsum) 22Potassium-magnesium sulfate 11 22Calcitic lime <5 >30Dolomitic lime >5 <30If pH is too low, use dolomitic or calcitic lime.If pH is appropriate, use gypsum for Ca, or epsom saltsor potassium magnesium sulfate for Mg.Apply whenever need is determined.
Calcium and Fruit QualityElevated tissue Ca is often associated with improved quality: - reduced incidence of some fruit disorders (bitter pit in apple fruit) - increased firmness (Ca inhibits enzymes that degrade cell walls when tissues senescence). - reduced rot caused several fungal pathogens (Ca may inhibit fungal enzymes that degrade tissues)Ca affects on raspberry quality: - pre-harvest Ca sprays have increased firmness, prolonged shelf-life, and/or reduced Botrytis rot, but not consistently.
BoronShortages may cause poorshoot grown, reduced fruit set,or fruit deformitiesBrambles are sensitive to excess B; apply proper rates if soil or leaf analyses show a need.Application options: Foliar spray of 2 lb Solubor (20% B) per acre in June Soil spray of 3 lb Solubor in spring. Soil application of 5 lb borax (11% B) in spring.
IronDeficiencies only occur when soil pH is too high; besttreatment usually is to reduce pH. Foliar sprays of Fe chelate products relieve some leaf symptoms, but don’t usually improve vigor.
ManganeseNot often deficient. High soil pH limits availability.Treatments (if leaf analyses indicate a need): 1. Check and reduce pH if it is too high. 2. Foliar sprays of manganese sulfate or Mn-chelates. 3. Maneb, Dithane, and Manzate fungicides contain Mn. ZincNot often deficient. Most likely on sandy, high pH soils.Treatments (if leaf analysis indicates a need): 1. Check and reduce pH if it is too high. 2. Apply foliar sprays of Zn sulfate or Zn chelate products.3. Ziram fungicide contains Zn and can be a good sources
Copper, MolybdenumDeficiencies have not been documented in Midwest orEastern brambles.If leaf analysis indicate Cu is deficient:Fixed copper fungicides (e.g. Kocide, Champ) are suitablesources of Cu for labeled crops.Copper salts can potentially injure tissues so test on a fewplants before using widely.
FertigationInjecting fertilizers through trickleirrigation systems can be convenientand efficient.Most useful for delivering N andsometimes K and P. Advantages Disadvantages Greater control over nutrient Capital costs: injector, tanks, placement and timing backflow valve Improved efficiency; less fertilizer Maintenance (tanks, line required (if not over-irrigating) plugging) and calibration
Solubility of some common fertilizersFertilizer Solubility (lb/gal)*Ammonium nitrate (33-0-0) 16.0Ammonium sulfate (21-0-0) 6.2Calcium nitrate 15-0-0) 11.2Di-ammonium phosphate (21-54-0) 5.7Mono-ammonium phosphate (11-48-0) 3.1Urea (45-0-0) 8.8Potassium chloride (0-0-60) 2.1Potassium sulfate (0-0-48) 0.9* At 70 oF. Solubility of all materials is lower in colder water.1. Mixtures may reduce the solubility of some salts2. Do not mix calcium with sulfates or phosphates. Use a “jar test” to test for precipitates.3. Soluble blended fertilizers may be easiest.
Suggested N Fertigation –Brambles1. Reduce annual rate by 1/3 (assume improved efficiency)2. Split annual rate into multiple applications starting 2-3 weeks after budbreak and continuing into August BB Harvest April May June July August
Fertigation is very efficient if:1. Irrigation system has high uniformity2. Nutrients are applied when demand is high3. Plants are not over-watered (leaches nutrients).