MAINTAINING QUALITY-   POSTHARVEST KITS ANDREFERIGERATION FOR BERRIESDr. Penelope Perkins-Veazie        PHHI, NCSU        ...
DIFFERENCES FROM OTHER            CROPS• MUST BE ALMOST TO FULLY RIPE• MUST PICK INTO FINAL CONTAINER• NO WASHING• NO MECH...
WHAT IS A COLD CHAIN?-KEEP FRUIT AS COOL TOCOLD AS POSSIBLE ATALL STEPSMARKET LIFE ALL ABOUTCOOLING, ESPECIALLY INTHE SOUTH
WHAT AFFECTS SHELF LIFE?POSTHARVEST•   HARVEST SYSTEM•   CONTAINER•   RATE OF COOLING•   STORAGE TEMPERATURE•   RELATIVE H...
SMALL FRUITS•   HATE TO BE WARM•   LOSE WEIGHT•   LOSE GLOSS•   CHANGE COLOR•   LOSE FLAVOR•   GAIN MOLD
DISEASES• RHIZOPUS (LEAKY ROT)  >41 F• BOTRYTIS (GRAY MOLD)  >32 F• ANTHRACNOSE >41 F
TEMPERATURE AND SHELFLIFETEMPERATURE       DAYS SHELF LIFE       BLACKBERRY     RASPBERRY32 F        14-20         7-1041 ...
To Cool to 7/8 of field temp-32F (40F)        FRUIT TEMP             HRS TO COOL            80                        8   ...
HOW TO GAIN ON COOLING• HARVEST IN COOL PART OF DAY (EARLY  MORNING, LATE EVENING)• KEEP DIRECT LIGHT OFF FRUIT• MOVE INTO...
WAYS TO COOL• ICE CHEST PLUS GEL ICE• GOLF CARTS WITH SHADE OR IN  BOXES• REEFER IN FIELD• MOVEMENT INTO COLD ROOMS FOR  P...
CONTAINER                                    COOLINGTOP COOLING ONLY                            CLAMSHELL     CLAMSHELL   ...
MASTER FLATS                  OR CARTONS                            TOP FLATSIDES STACK VERTICALLY      GUARDFORCED AIR VE...
COOLING• ROOM/ REEFER  COOLING• FORCED AIR COOLING
AMOUNT OF COOLER SPACEDETERMINE• REFRIGERATION LOAD AND• AMOUNT OF COMMODITYEXPECT 2.5 CUBIC FOOT SPACE PER LB OF   FRUITf...
WHAT COOLER SIZE IS       NEEDED?cubic feet needed=2.5[(max no. lbs cooled atone time)+(max no. lbs stored at one time)]on...
TYPES OF COOLERS• SIZE DEPENDS ON ANTICIPATED  HARVEST• REFRIGERATORS HAVE TOO MANY  AIR EXCHANGES, TOO SMALL A  VOLUME FO...
WALK IN COLD ROOMS• STATIONARY• CONVENTIONAL ALUMINUM CLAD, 4  INCH THICK INSULATION• HOME BUILD WITH WOOD,  INSULATION, W...
REFRIGERATION• MECHANICAL WITH COMPRESSOR,  EVAPORATOR COILS, THERMOSTAT  ETC• AIR CONDITIONER (SAME THING ON  COMPRESSED ...
COOLING ROOM DIAGRAM                                       AL CHANNEL,                                       SLIDING DOOR ...
ROOM COOLING:ALLOW AIR MOVEMENT BETWEEN      BOXES AND FLATS                 VENTS IN MASTER FOR AIR                 FLOW ...
FORCED-AIR COOLING         (TUNNEL)FORCES COLD AIR THROUGH DIRECTED PATHS IN BOXED FRUIT• CAN BE FIELD PORTABLE• ROOM PORT...
STORAGE AFTER COOLING• KEEP NEAR 32 F• KEEP RELATIVE HUMIDITY >90%• HOLD NO MORE THAN 2 DAYS ON  SITE
DIRECT MARKET/FARMERS          MARKET• IF SMALL VOLUMES: USE ICE  CHESTS TO HOLD FRUIT NOT ON  DISPLAY• PRECHILL ICE CHEST...
DYI REFRIGERATION• BUILD A BOX ON A FLATBED TRAILER• BUILD A BOX OUT OF WOOD AND  INSULATION• BUILD A BOX FROM CONCRETE  B...
AC UNITS:              COOL BOT10,000 TO 25,000BTU ($300-600)NOT ALL BRANDSWORK-CHECKTHE WEBSITE!       http://www.storeit...
Pack n Cool• http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agcomm/news-  center/perspectives/n-c-states-pack-n-cool-  provides-farmers-with-mob...
PRECOOLING• SEPARATE FROM COLD ROOM IS  BEST• MOVE FRUIT INTO PRECOOLING,  BLOW OUT HEAT WITH FORCED AIR  OR KEEP PALLETTS...
CONDENSATION• GOING FROM AMBIENT TO COLD:• CONDENSATE FORMS WHEN MOVE  FROM COLD TO WARM (WATER  MOVES FROM WARM TO COLD)
WHAT TO DO?• IF SELLING QUICKLY (WITHIN A DAY)  COOL TO 60 F SO DON’T GET  CONDENSATION• REMEMBER THAT FRUIT ON OUTSIDE  O...
CAN PLACE IN PLASTIC BAGSOR WITH PLASTIC OVER FRUITWHILE WARMING TO COLLECTCONDENSATE; ALLOW TO DRY BEFORE REMOVING PLASTIC
COLD CHAIN (CONT)• LOAD INTO REFRIGERATED  TRANSIT AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE• UNLOAD INTO REFRIGERATED  STORAGE QUICKLY• MEAS...
POSTHARVEST KIT• FUNDED BY NARBA (NORTH  AMERICAN RASPBERRY AND  BLACKBERRY ASSOCIATION)• MOST PRODUCTS CAN BE  PURCHASED ...
CONTENTS• THERMOMETERS-COOLING IS THE KEY• ANEMOMETER (MEASURES WIND SPEED  FOR COOLING ESTIMATION)• SIZE MEASURMENTS (MAS...
SOURCES OF INFORMATIONBRAMBLE PRODUCTION GUIDE(CORNELL UNIVERSITY)NC BRAMBLE PORTALhttp://www.ncsu.edu/enterprises/blackbe...
SOURCES-WEB SITES• NORTH CAROLINA STATE  http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/ext  ension/publicat/postharv/• UNIV CALIFORNIA-...
postharvest.ucdavis.edu/Pubs/publications.shtml• Postharvest Technology of  Horticultural Crops publication 3311  (UC-davi...
QUESTIONS?
PICK FULL COLOR, FIRM, EASILY DETACHEDBE GENTLE!
MAINTAINING QUALITYPOSTHARVEST KITS AND  REFERIGERATION FOR BERRIES
MAINTAINING QUALITYPOSTHARVEST KITS AND  REFERIGERATION FOR BERRIES
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MAINTAINING QUALITYPOSTHARVEST KITS AND REFERIGERATION FOR BERRIES

  1. 1. MAINTAINING QUALITY- POSTHARVEST KITS ANDREFERIGERATION FOR BERRIESDr. Penelope Perkins-Veazie PHHI, NCSU VA 2010 NCRC, Kannapolis NCPenelope_perkins@ncsu.edu
  2. 2. DIFFERENCES FROM OTHER CROPS• MUST BE ALMOST TO FULLY RIPE• MUST PICK INTO FINAL CONTAINER• NO WASHING• NO MECHANICAL SORTING• CONSUMERS EAT WITHOUT WASHING• RAPID COOLING AND COLD CHAIN CRITICAL
  3. 3. WHAT IS A COLD CHAIN?-KEEP FRUIT AS COOL TOCOLD AS POSSIBLE ATALL STEPSMARKET LIFE ALL ABOUTCOOLING, ESPECIALLY INTHE SOUTH
  4. 4. WHAT AFFECTS SHELF LIFE?POSTHARVEST• HARVEST SYSTEM• CONTAINER• RATE OF COOLING• STORAGE TEMPERATURE• RELATIVE HUMIDITY• TRANSIT TEMPERATURE
  5. 5. SMALL FRUITS• HATE TO BE WARM• LOSE WEIGHT• LOSE GLOSS• CHANGE COLOR• LOSE FLAVOR• GAIN MOLD
  6. 6. DISEASES• RHIZOPUS (LEAKY ROT) >41 F• BOTRYTIS (GRAY MOLD) >32 F• ANTHRACNOSE >41 F
  7. 7. TEMPERATURE AND SHELFLIFETEMPERATURE DAYS SHELF LIFE BLACKBERRY RASPBERRY32 F 14-20 7-1041 F 5-7 3-568 F 1-2 <1IF DELAY COOLING: AFTER 2 H WILL LOSE 20% PER HOUR DELAY
  8. 8. To Cool to 7/8 of field temp-32F (40F) FRUIT TEMP HRS TO COOL 80 8 60 4Note that cooling is much faster when air is blown (1:8 ratio)
  9. 9. HOW TO GAIN ON COOLING• HARVEST IN COOL PART OF DAY (EARLY MORNING, LATE EVENING)• KEEP DIRECT LIGHT OFF FRUIT• MOVE INTO REEFER, PACK SHED, COOLER AS QUICKLY AS FEASIBLE
  10. 10. WAYS TO COOL• ICE CHEST PLUS GEL ICE• GOLF CARTS WITH SHADE OR IN BOXES• REEFER IN FIELD• MOVEMENT INTO COLD ROOMS FOR PRECOOLING
  11. 11. CONTAINER COOLINGTOP COOLING ONLY CLAMSHELL CLAMSHELL WITH ROUND WITH SLITS HOLESNO VENTING, DEEP=HEAT BUILDUP
  12. 12. MASTER FLATS OR CARTONS TOP FLATSIDES STACK VERTICALLY GUARDFORCED AIR VENTS TO AVOID WEIGHT LOSS MASTER WITH AIR VENTS
  13. 13. COOLING• ROOM/ REEFER COOLING• FORCED AIR COOLING
  14. 14. AMOUNT OF COOLER SPACEDETERMINE• REFRIGERATION LOAD AND• AMOUNT OF COMMODITYEXPECT 2.5 CUBIC FOOT SPACE PER LB OF FRUITfor cooling or for storageIf both, will be 5 x lbs expected maximum loadONE PALLET= 12 x 12 x 9 FOOT COOLER
  15. 15. WHAT COOLER SIZE IS NEEDED?cubic feet needed=2.5[(max no. lbs cooled atone time)+(max no. lbs stored at one time)]one pallet of blackberries at 6lbs/carton x 90 cartons perpallett=254 lbs + store 1 pallet=508 lbs x 2.5=1270 cubic feet1270 cubic feet =12 x 12 x 9
  16. 16. TYPES OF COOLERS• SIZE DEPENDS ON ANTICIPATED HARVEST• REFRIGERATORS HAVE TOO MANY AIR EXCHANGES, TOO SMALL A VOLUME FOR EFFECTIVE COOLING/COLD MAINTENANCE• WALK IN COOLERS NEED TO BE WELL INSULATED TO PREVENT WARM AIR LEAKING IN AND HIGH LOAD ON COMPRESSOR
  17. 17. WALK IN COLD ROOMS• STATIONARY• CONVENTIONAL ALUMINUM CLAD, 4 INCH THICK INSULATION• HOME BUILD WITH WOOD, INSULATION, WATERPROOFING OF WOOD TO PREVENT WATER LOSS FROM FRUIT, WOOD SWELL (MACROLITE SIDING)• SHIP CONTAINERS
  18. 18. REFRIGERATION• MECHANICAL WITH COMPRESSOR, EVAPORATOR COILS, THERMOSTAT ETC• AIR CONDITIONER (SAME THING ON COMPRESSED SIZE)• CAN ADAPT AIR CONDITIONER TO REPLACE MECHANICAL FOR SMALLER GROWERS
  19. 19. COOLING ROOM DIAGRAM AL CHANNEL, SLIDING DOOR TRACK, FOAM, RUBBER SEAL STEEL OR AL FRAME SUPPORTS, 2 M CENTERS 10 CM METAL POLY U CLADDING, FOAM CAULKED DOOR EVAPORATOR UNIT 7.5 CMREINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SOLID 5 CM RUBBER LOWER SEALCONCRETE SUB FLOOR
  20. 20. ROOM COOLING:ALLOW AIR MOVEMENT BETWEEN BOXES AND FLATS VENTS IN MASTER FOR AIR FLOW WITHIN CARTON
  21. 21. FORCED-AIR COOLING (TUNNEL)FORCES COLD AIR THROUGH DIRECTED PATHS IN BOXED FRUIT• CAN BE FIELD PORTABLE• ROOM PORTABLE• BUILT-IN
  22. 22. STORAGE AFTER COOLING• KEEP NEAR 32 F• KEEP RELATIVE HUMIDITY >90%• HOLD NO MORE THAN 2 DAYS ON SITE
  23. 23. DIRECT MARKET/FARMERS MARKET• IF SMALL VOLUMES: USE ICE CHESTS TO HOLD FRUIT NOT ON DISPLAY• PRECHILL ICE CHEST• USE GEL ICE WRAPPED IN PAPER TOWELS OR NEWSPAPER TO KEEP FROM MELTING• DON’T ALLOW DIRECT CONTACT OF ICE OR WATER WITH FRUIT
  24. 24. DYI REFRIGERATION• BUILD A BOX ON A FLATBED TRAILER• BUILD A BOX OUT OF WOOD AND INSULATION• BUILD A BOX FROM CONCRETE BLOCKS AND INSULATION• USE A CARGO CONTAINER AND ADAPT IT FOR COLD STORAGESEE: STOREITCOLD.COM
  25. 25. AC UNITS: COOL BOT10,000 TO 25,000BTU ($300-600)NOT ALL BRANDSWORK-CHECKTHE WEBSITE! http://www.storeitcold.com/
  26. 26. Pack n Cool• http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agcomm/news- center/perspectives/n-c-states-pack-n-cool- provides-farmers-with-mobile-refrigeration- solution/
  27. 27. PRECOOLING• SEPARATE FROM COLD ROOM IS BEST• MOVE FRUIT INTO PRECOOLING, BLOW OUT HEAT WITH FORCED AIR OR KEEP PALLETTS A FOOT APART TO CHANNEL COLD AIR• MOVE INTO COLD ROOM ONCE FRUIT AT DESIRED TEMPERATURE• ADD PLASTIC CURTAINS TO MINIMIZE WARM AIR EXCHANGE
  28. 28. CONDENSATION• GOING FROM AMBIENT TO COLD:• CONDENSATE FORMS WHEN MOVE FROM COLD TO WARM (WATER MOVES FROM WARM TO COLD)
  29. 29. WHAT TO DO?• IF SELLING QUICKLY (WITHIN A DAY) COOL TO 60 F SO DON’T GET CONDENSATION• REMEMBER THAT FRUIT ON OUTSIDE OF PALLET OR CARTON WILL BE 10 F COOLER THAN CENTER!!
  30. 30. CAN PLACE IN PLASTIC BAGSOR WITH PLASTIC OVER FRUITWHILE WARMING TO COLLECTCONDENSATE; ALLOW TO DRY BEFORE REMOVING PLASTIC
  31. 31. COLD CHAIN (CONT)• LOAD INTO REFRIGERATED TRANSIT AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE• UNLOAD INTO REFRIGERATED STORAGE QUICKLY• MEASURE/MONITOR TEMPERATURE AT EACH STEP AND DURING TRANSIT USING RECORDERS (STOW AWAY)
  32. 32. POSTHARVEST KIT• FUNDED BY NARBA (NORTH AMERICAN RASPBERRY AND BLACKBERRY ASSOCIATION)• MOST PRODUCTS CAN BE PURCHASED FROM AMAZON, HARBOR FREIGHT, WALMART
  33. 33. CONTENTS• THERMOMETERS-COOLING IS THE KEY• ANEMOMETER (MEASURES WIND SPEED FOR COOLING ESTIMATION)• SIZE MEASURMENTS (MASS, FRUIT GRADE)• REFRACTOMETER, PH PAPER (MEASURE FRUIT QUALITY)• CHLORINE PAPER TO MEASURE FREE CHLORINE IN WASH WATER
  34. 34. SOURCES OF INFORMATIONBRAMBLE PRODUCTION GUIDE(CORNELL UNIVERSITY)NC BRAMBLE PORTALhttp://www.ncsu.edu/enterprises/blackberries-raspberrieshttp://www.georgiaorganics.org/forfarmers/cropproduction/postharvest/WalkinCoolerConstruction.pdf James Bartsch , Cornell, WALKIN COOLER 1986 Bull. No. 453
  35. 35. SOURCES-WEB SITES• NORTH CAROLINA STATE http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/ext ension/publicat/postharv/• UNIV CALIFORNIA-DAVIS AND UC- KEARNEYSVILLE http://postharvest.ucdavis.edu/• http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu• USDA HANDBOOK 66 http://www.ba.ars.usda.gov/hb66/conte nts.html
  36. 36. postharvest.ucdavis.edu/Pubs/publications.shtml• Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops publication 3311 (UC-davis) 2002 •Postharvest Technology for Small- Scale Produce Marketers: Economic Opportunities, Quality and Food Safety
  37. 37. QUESTIONS?
  38. 38. PICK FULL COLOR, FIRM, EASILY DETACHEDBE GENTLE!
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