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Extending the Season for  Raspberries and Blackberries in Cold Climates<br />
Fall raspberries<br />fruit on their<br />primocanes<br />
Typical fall raspberry season in the North<br />% of <br />total yield<br />Frost<br />Weeks after August 20th<br />
	Prices range from $2.00 - $13.00/lb<br />
Can we extend the season of <br />raspberries to take advantage <br />of higher prices?<br />
Accelerate development and fruiting<br />
Yield (kg/ha)<br />Days after August 10th<br />
California<br />
Advantages in the Northeast<br />Reduction in wind damage<br />Protection from the rain<br />Season extension late<br />
Strategy #1:<br />Plant late cultivars or delay harvest, protect fruit, and capitalize on high prices<br />
Seven cultivars and selections<br />Heritage, Caroline, Autumn Britten, Josephine, NY 01.63, NY01.64, NY01.65<br />
Caroline<br />
Cultivar Yields Under Tunnels<br />g/12 ft plot/wk<br />Heritage<br />NY63<br />Caroline<br />Josephine<br />A. Britten<br...
Was also the favorite for flavor<br />Josephine<br />Heritage<br />
Treatments<br />Five manipulations of Heritage (applied in the second year)<br />Straw mulch<br />Mowing<br />Early pinchi...
First year at planting –<br />light mulch for establishment<br />
Beginning of treatments:<br />Middle of February of first year<br />Old canes are cut to the ground.<br />Here we removed ...
After several days, mulch is applied to keep soil cold<br />
No mulch<br />Mulch<br />
Unmowed<br />Mowed<br />
Unmowed<br />Mowed<br />
Pinching<br />
Pinched<br />Unpinched<br />
High tunnel prior to covering<br />
Mid-August<br />
September 13, 2005<br />
October 20, 2005<br />
High tunnels are a haven for bumblebees<br />
Mid-October<br />
November 5, 2005<br />
Fruit quality on November 5, 2005<br />
Cultural manipulations of Heritage<br /> 2005<br />Normal season ends here<br />g/plot<br />Weeks after Aug. 22<br />
2006 data<br />
Yield  = kg per 3.75 m or 12 ft plot.        20 kg/plot is 21,000 lbs/acre<br />
Costs per tunnel (2 yrs)<br />
Production and Harvesting<br />Yield = 4,000 half-pints X $2.50 = $10,000<br />
Equivalents<br />20,000 lbs/acre in tunnels vs. 2,000 in field<br />row spacing (2X)<br />harvest season (2.5X)<br />physi...
Strategy #2:<br />Early primocane-fruiting raspberry production<br />Early covering of the tunnel<br />Covering individual...
Field<br />High tunnel<br />
Early season extension of primocane-fruiting Heritage<br />
Yield comparison<br />Applying the plastic in September for extended fall harvest<br />Applying the plastic in early sprin...
Heritage Cane Management Study 2008<br />
Heritage Cane Management Study 2008<br />
Strategy #3:<br />Overwinter tender blackberries and raspberries in a high tunnel<br />
Blackberry Variety Trial<br />Planting established in 2006. Chester added in 2007.<br />Varieties: Ouachita, Triple Crown,...
Black Raspberries<br />
Blackberries - 2007<br />
Ouachita blackberry 2008<br />
2010<br />
Variety Trial – Yield by Date 2010<br />Weight (kg)*<br />*mean weight, 2 replications (4 plants, 16 ft row)<br />
Variety Trial – Yield 2010<br />*mean cumulative yield for 2 replications (8 plants, 32 ft row)<br />
2010 Estimated Pounds per Acre<br />Weight (lb)*<br />Blackberry Variety<br />*mean weight, 2 replications (4 plants, 16 f...
Yield per tunnel per year (half pints)<br />
Costs Per Tunnel (2 yrs)<br />
Productionand Harvesting (tunnel)<br />*$0.50/half-pint + containers and lids<br />
Economics (tunnel)<br />*excluding marketing costs<br />
Economics (tunnel)<br />*excluding marketing costs<br />
Scotland<br />
Strategy #4:<br />Grow primocane-fruting blackberries under tunnels to obtain a fall harvest<br />
Primocane-<br />fruiting blackberries<br />
Prime Jan<br />Planting established in 2007.<br />Plants were manipulated in 2009 with 1 tying and 2 tipping treatments to...
2009 Prime Jan Yield by Harvest Date<br />
Prime Jan – Yield 2009<br />
Primocane vs. floricane blackberries<br />(lbs/tunnel)<br />
Trellising Systems<br />Designing trellising systems for tight spaces that are exceptionally strong yet flexible.<br />
Wind damage<br />
Snow damage<br />
Conclusions<br />Raspberries and blackberries can be manipulated in different ways to fruit over a very long period of tim...
High Tunnel Raspberries and<br />Blackberries<br />Department of Horticulture Publication No.47 (2007)<br />Authors: Cathy...
Questions?<br />Dr. Marvin Pritts, Professor and Chair<br />Cornell University Department of Horticulture<br />607-255-177...
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Extending the Season for Raspberries and Blackberries in Cold Climates

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Talk by Ken Hopps at 2011 VSU Virginia Berry Conference

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Transcript of "Extending the Season for Raspberries and Blackberries in Cold Climates"

  1. 1. Extending the Season for Raspberries and Blackberries in Cold Climates<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
  4. 4. Fall raspberries<br />fruit on their<br />primocanes<br />
  5. 5. Typical fall raspberry season in the North<br />% of <br />total yield<br />Frost<br />Weeks after August 20th<br />
  6. 6. Prices range from $2.00 - $13.00/lb<br />
  7. 7. Can we extend the season of <br />raspberries to take advantage <br />of higher prices?<br />
  8. 8. Accelerate development and fruiting<br />
  9. 9. Yield (kg/ha)<br />Days after August 10th<br />
  10. 10. California<br />
  11. 11. Advantages in the Northeast<br />Reduction in wind damage<br />Protection from the rain<br />Season extension late<br />
  12. 12. Strategy #1:<br />Plant late cultivars or delay harvest, protect fruit, and capitalize on high prices<br />
  13. 13.
  14. 14. Seven cultivars and selections<br />Heritage, Caroline, Autumn Britten, Josephine, NY 01.63, NY01.64, NY01.65<br />
  15. 15. Caroline<br />
  16. 16. Cultivar Yields Under Tunnels<br />g/12 ft plot/wk<br />Heritage<br />NY63<br />Caroline<br />Josephine<br />A. Britten<br />NY65<br />170 g per ½ pint<br />5 plants per plot<br />Weeks (Aug 22 = 1)<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
  19. 19. Was also the favorite for flavor<br />Josephine<br />Heritage<br />
  20. 20. Treatments<br />Five manipulations of Heritage (applied in the second year)<br />Straw mulch<br />Mowing<br />Early pinching<br />Late pinching<br />Control<br />
  21. 21. First year at planting –<br />light mulch for establishment<br />
  22. 22. Beginning of treatments:<br />Middle of February of first year<br />Old canes are cut to the ground.<br />Here we removed snow on <br />certain plots to freeze the soil.<br />
  23. 23. After several days, mulch is applied to keep soil cold<br />
  24. 24. No mulch<br />Mulch<br />
  25. 25. Unmowed<br />Mowed<br />
  26. 26. Unmowed<br />Mowed<br />
  27. 27. Pinching<br />
  28. 28. Pinched<br />Unpinched<br />
  29. 29. High tunnel prior to covering<br />
  30. 30. Mid-August<br />
  31. 31. September 13, 2005<br />
  32. 32.
  33. 33.
  34. 34. October 20, 2005<br />
  35. 35. High tunnels are a haven for bumblebees<br />
  36. 36. Mid-October<br />
  37. 37. November 5, 2005<br />
  38. 38. Fruit quality on November 5, 2005<br />
  39. 39. Cultural manipulations of Heritage<br /> 2005<br />Normal season ends here<br />g/plot<br />Weeks after Aug. 22<br />
  40. 40. 2006 data<br />
  41. 41. Yield = kg per 3.75 m or 12 ft plot. 20 kg/plot is 21,000 lbs/acre<br />
  42. 42. Costs per tunnel (2 yrs)<br />
  43. 43. Production and Harvesting<br />Yield = 4,000 half-pints X $2.50 = $10,000<br />
  44. 44.
  45. 45. Equivalents<br />20,000 lbs/acre in tunnels vs. 2,000 in field<br />row spacing (2X)<br />harvest season (2.5X)<br />physiology (2X)<br />Price is $5.00/pt in fall vs. $2.50 in season<br />Gross revenues: $150,000 per acre equivalent<br />
  46. 46. Strategy #2:<br />Early primocane-fruiting raspberry production<br />Early covering of the tunnel<br />Covering individual rows<br />Row cover<br />Plastic<br />
  47. 47. Field<br />High tunnel<br />
  48. 48. Early season extension of primocane-fruiting Heritage<br />
  49. 49. Yield comparison<br />Applying the plastic in September for extended fall harvest<br />Applying the plastic in early spring for accelerated harvest<br />2,860 half-pints per tunnel<br />2,855 half-pints per tunnel<br />
  50. 50. Heritage Cane Management Study 2008<br />
  51. 51. Heritage Cane Management Study 2008<br />
  52. 52. Strategy #3:<br />Overwinter tender blackberries and raspberries in a high tunnel<br />
  53. 53.
  54. 54.
  55. 55.
  56. 56. Blackberry Variety Trial<br />Planting established in 2006. Chester added in 2007.<br />Varieties: Ouachita, Triple Crown, Chester, Doyle.<br />Preplant prep – compost amendment.<br />Dormant cuttings.<br />Two replications (4 plants, 16 ft row)<br />Yield, berry weight, % marketable fruit data collected for field and HT production.<br />HT blackberries girdled by rabbits during winter 2009 – no data. Exclusion fencing added in 2010; no damage, plants performed well.<br />
  57. 57.
  58. 58. Black Raspberries<br />
  59. 59. Blackberries - 2007<br />
  60. 60. Ouachita blackberry 2008<br />
  61. 61.
  62. 62.
  63. 63. 2010<br />
  64. 64.
  65. 65. Variety Trial – Yield by Date 2010<br />Weight (kg)*<br />*mean weight, 2 replications (4 plants, 16 ft row)<br />
  66. 66. Variety Trial – Yield 2010<br />*mean cumulative yield for 2 replications (8 plants, 32 ft row)<br />
  67. 67. 2010 Estimated Pounds per Acre<br />Weight (lb)*<br />Blackberry Variety<br />*mean weight, 2 replications (4 plants, 16 ft row)<br />
  68. 68. Yield per tunnel per year (half pints)<br />
  69. 69. Costs Per Tunnel (2 yrs)<br />
  70. 70. Productionand Harvesting (tunnel)<br />*$0.50/half-pint + containers and lids<br />
  71. 71. Economics (tunnel)<br />*excluding marketing costs<br />
  72. 72. Economics (tunnel)<br />*excluding marketing costs<br />
  73. 73. Scotland<br />
  74. 74.
  75. 75.
  76. 76.
  77. 77. Strategy #4:<br />Grow primocane-fruting blackberries under tunnels to obtain a fall harvest<br />
  78. 78.
  79. 79.
  80. 80. Primocane-<br />fruiting blackberries<br />
  81. 81. Prime Jan<br />Planting established in 2007.<br />Plants were manipulated in 2009 with 1 tying and 2 tipping treatments to determine effects on yield and timing of fruiting.<br />Four replications (3 plants,12 ft row ).<br /> Treatments:<br />Early Pinch – plants soft pinched/ tipped at 1m.<br />Late Pinch – plants soft pinched/ tipped at 1.5m (July just before flowering)<br />Tying – Floricanes were tied laterally to wire (1.5m) just prior to flowering<br />Control – untreated<br />
  82. 82.
  83. 83.
  84. 84.
  85. 85. 2009 Prime Jan Yield by Harvest Date<br />
  86. 86. Prime Jan – Yield 2009<br />
  87. 87. Primocane vs. floricane blackberries<br />(lbs/tunnel)<br />
  88. 88. Trellising Systems<br />Designing trellising systems for tight spaces that are exceptionally strong yet flexible.<br />
  89. 89.
  90. 90.
  91. 91.
  92. 92.
  93. 93.
  94. 94.
  95. 95.
  96. 96.
  97. 97. Wind damage<br />
  98. 98. Snow damage<br />
  99. 99.
  100. 100. Conclusions<br />Raspberries and blackberries can be manipulated in different ways to fruit over a very long period of time<br />Tunnels, coupled with cultural manipulations, can dramatically extend the season and increase yields, even in cold climates.<br />
  101. 101. High Tunnel Raspberries and<br />Blackberries<br />Department of Horticulture Publication No.47 (2007)<br />Authors: Cathy Heidenreich, Marvin Pritts, Mary Jo Kelly, and Kathy Demchak<br />On line at: http://www.fruit.cornell.edu/berry.html<br />
  102. 102. Questions?<br />Dr. Marvin Pritts, Professor and Chair<br />Cornell University Department of Horticulture<br />607-255-1778<br />mpp3@cornell.edu<br />
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