Arthropod Identification and Management in Southeastern Small Fruits
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Arthropod Identification and Management in Southeastern Small Fruits

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Talk at 2011 Virginia Berry Conference by Hannah Burrack

Talk at 2011 Virginia Berry Conference by Hannah Burrack

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Arthropod Identification and Management in Southeastern Small Fruits Arthropod Identification and Management in Southeastern Small Fruits Presentation Transcript

  • Arthropod identification & management in southeastern small fruits Hannah J. Burrack Dept. of Entomology North Carolina State University
    • Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium
      • www.smallfruits.org
    • NC Small Fruit, Specialty Crop, and Tobacco IPM
      • www.ncsmallfruitsipm.blogspot.com
    • NC Agricultural Chemicals Manual
      • www.ipm.ncsu.edu/agchem/agchem.html
    • eXtension Community of Practice
      • www.extension.org/grapes
      • www.extension.org/blueberries
    More information - Digital
  • The Basics: Integrated Pest Management
    • IPM hierarchically utilizes the tools at hand to manage crop pests
      • Using the least disruptive tools first and only using pesticides when other options have failed to reduce economically threatening damage
    View slide
  • The Basics: Integrated Pest Management Minimize Monitor Manage View slide
  • The Basics: Integrated Pest Management Minimize Monitor Manage Crop & variety selection, Site selection, Rotation, planting date, Nutrition, Preventative pesticides, etc. Correctly identify damage and responsible pests, Track injury and pests over time, Use appropriate tools Based on thresholds: Cultural, Biological, Chemical
  • The Basics: Integrated Pest Management Minimize Monitor Manage Crop & variety selection, Site selection, Rotation, planting date, Nutrition, Preventative pesticides, etc. Correctly identify damage and responsible pests , Track injury and pests over time, Use appropriate tools Based on thresholds: Cultural, Biological, Chemical
  • The Basics: Arthropod Biology
    • How do arthropods damage plants?
  • The Basics: Arthropod Biology
    • How do arthropods damage plants?
  • The Basics: Arthropod Biology
    • How do arthropods damage plants?
      • CHEWING
      • SUCKING
      • CONTAMINATION
      • RASPING
      • EGG LAYING
      • VECTORING PLANT DISEASES
    • Depending on developmental strategy (hemi- or holometabolis), life stages may differ in feeding behavior & damage potential
  • The Basics: Arthropod Biology
    • Insect mouthparts
    Photos: J. Meyer, ENT 425 Photo: Washington State Univ. Beetles, caterpillars, grasshoppers & others have chewing mouthparts Butterflies and moths have sucking mouthparts but are rarely pests Flies have lapping, sucking mouthparts but are rarely pests. Their offspring (maggots) may have chewing mouthparts and can be pests. Spider mites, aphids, leafhoppers, plant bugs, stink bugs, and others have piercing, sucking mouthparts
  • The Basics: Injury Identification
    • Determine the type of injury present (chewing, sucking, rasping, vector-borne disease, honeydew)
    • Determine age of injury
      • Some injury can be present long after the insect responsible has left (leaf mines, chewing damage, disease)
      • Old injury cannot be cured, management is only justified to prevent additional economic loss
  • The Basics: Injury Identification
    • For new injury, assess whether arthropods present could have caused the injury
      • Assess via direct observation, sweep netting, traps, etc.
      • Management is effective only if the potential culprits are still present in the crop
  • Key Arthropod Pests of Small Fruits: Choose Your Own Adventure
  • Crops and Categories
    • Caneberries
    • Strawberries
    • Blueberries
    • Grapes
    • Invasives
  • Caneberries: Key Pests Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec TSSM ( see Strawberries ) Green June Beetle/Japanese Beetle Thrips (?) Stink Bugs Raspberry Crown Borer Cane Borers Strawberry Clippers Dormant Bloom Fruiting Harvest Dormant
  • Strawberries: Key Pests Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Dormant Bloom & Fruiting Harvest Transplant Cutworms Thrips Sap Beetles Lygus Bugs Corn Earworms Strawberry Clipper Aphids Aphids TSSM TSSM
  • Blueberries: Key Pests Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Dormant Bloom Fruiting Harvest Dormant Fruitworms Fire Ants Thrips Sharpnosed Leafhoppers Blueberry Maggot “ Other” blueberry pests Blueberry Flea Beetle
  • Grapes: Key Pests Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Dormant Bloom Fruiting Harvest Dormant Leafhoppers/PD TSSM Vine borers Grape Berry Moth JB/GJB Multicolored Asian Lady Beetles Climbing Cutworms Grape Flea Beetle Grape root borers Grape Phylloxera Bees & Wasps
  • Invasives: Key Potential Pests Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Spotted Wing Drosophila Brown Marmorated Stink Bug
  • Spotted Wing Drosophila A threat to soft skinned fruit
    • Why are spotted wing drosophila such a great threat?
    Spotted Wing Drosophila Host Range Capable of infesting virtually any soft skinned fruit, both crop and non crop Whether SWD actually infests this wide range is unclear Infestation Timing Preferentially infest ripe and ripening fruit There are limited insecticides that can be used during harvest in commercial crops, and we prefer not to use insecticides during harvest whenever possible Damage Damage is difficult to see until larvae are nearly mature, eggs and small larvae may be missed during sorting Environment SWD are predicted to thrive in the eastern US
  • Spotted Wing Drosophila: Potential Commercial Losses in California http://www.agecon.ucdavis.edu/extension/update/articles/v13n3_2.pdf Economic information and analyses provided by Frank Zalom and Rachel Goodhue, University of California, Davis
    • Host range
    • Crop: Strawberry, Raspberry, Blackberry, Blueberry, Grape, Peach, Nectarine, Pear, Plum, Apple, Fig, Persimmon, and possibly other soft skinned fruit
    • Non crop: Pokeweed, thimbleberry , mulberry (Suspected)
    Spotted wing drosophila: Host Range
  • Spotted Wing Drosophila: Range
    • Current Range
      • First detected in central California in late 2008
      • Rapidly spread throughout the west coast & western Canada
      • Detected in Florida in late 2009
      • Detected in South Carolina, North Carolina, Louisiana, Utah, Kentucky, Michigan, & Wisconsin in 2010
  • Spotted Wing Drosophila: Range
    • Current Range
      • NC, SC, and VA monitoring network supported by the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium
  • CLIMAX ecological modeling by Martin Damus, Canadian Food Inspection Agency Known and predicted native range, based on temperature thresholds
  • CLIMAX ecological modeling by Martin Damus, Canadian Food Inspection Agency Potential range, based on temperature thresholds
  • Spotted Wing Drosophila: Males
  • Spotted Wing Drosophila: Males (Some) Native Drosophila spp. Drosophila suzukii
  • Native Drosophila spp. Drosophila suzukii Spotted Wing Drosophila: Females
  • Spotted Wing Drosophila: Females
  • Spotted Wing Drosophila: Monitoring Tools Adult Monitoring Methods Larval Monitoring Methods Apple cider vinegar baited trap Sugar test Yeast & sugar baited trap Salt test Sweep net Floatation test Bug Vac
  • Spotted Wing Drosophila: Monitoring Methods
    • Liquid lures
      • Apple cider vinegar
      • Yeast & sugar
      • 6 - 12 oz liquid
    • Checked weekly
      • Sticky card optional
    • Various trap types being tested
      • Homemade traps
      • McPhail-type traps
      • Other commercial traps
  • Spotted Wing Drosophila: Monitoring Methods 4-8 holes 3/16 to ¼ inch in diameter Yellow sticky card (optional) Lure (Apple cider vinegar + 1-2 drops dish soap)
  • Spotted Wing Drosophila: Monitoring Methods Placement: SWD prefer shady, cool areas Avoid direct sun Check traps at least weekly!
  • Spotted Wing Drosophila: Checking traps
  • Spotted Wing Drosophila: Checking traps
    • Male flies are (relatively) easy to see in traps, females are more difficult
    Spotted Wing Drosophila: Identification
  • Spotted Wing Drosophila: Identification
    • Male flies are (relatively) easy to see in traps, females are more difficult
    • Male flies are (relatively) easy to see in traps, females are more difficult
    Spotted Wing Drosophila: Identification
  • Spotted Wing Drosophila: Larval Sampling
  • Spotted Wing Drosophila: Larval Sampling
  • Spotted Wing Drosophila: Larval Sampling
  • Spotted Wing Drosophila: Larval Sampling
  • Spotted Wing Drosophila: Larval Sampling
  • Spotted Wing Drosophila: Larval Sampling
    • Larvae cannot be identified easily to species
      • Sample only sound fruit
      • Monitor for adults
      • If using sugar test or dissecting fruit, hold larvae & pupae at room temperature until they emerge as adults and identify
    • Monitoring - NCSU monitoring will continue, grower & volunteer monitoring (with NCSU support) encouraged
    • Sanitation - Dispose of culls off site even if SWD has not yet been detected
    • Monitoring and ID workshops to be held in NC, SC, and VA in early summer
      • First workshop 24 March at the Piedmont Research station
      • Contact Hannah for more information
    Spotted Wing Drosophila: 2010 Action Plans
    • SWD*IPM at Oregon State University
    • http://swd.hort.oregonstate.edu/
    • NC Small Fruit, Specialty Crop & Tobacco IPM
    • www.smallfruitsipm.blogspot.com
    • Hannah Burrack
    • [email_address]
    For more information… Return to Invasives
    • Currently found in NJ, PA, VA, MA, MD, DE, NC
    Invasives: Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Photo: Debby Wechsler
    • Wide reproductive host range
    • Tree fruit widely attacked
    • Possible caneberry damage
    • observed in 2010
    Invasives: Brown Marmorated Stink Bug
    • Identification
    Invasives: Brown Marmorated Stink Bug
    • Pest status in caneberry unclear
    • Control will be difficult
    • NCSU led project beginning in 2011
    Invasives: Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Return to Invasives
  • Strawberries: Spider Mites
    • Twospotted spider mites ( Tetranychus urticae ) are the most common economically important pest of strawberries in the southeast
    Adult Female Diapausing Adult Female Adult Male and Eggs
  • Strawberries: Spider Mites
    • TSSM are also economically significant pests of caneberries & grapes
    http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/eb1959e/eb1959e.pdf http:// whatcom.wsu.edu/ag/comhort/nooksack/ipmweb/Insec_4_Sheet.html
  • Strawberries: Other Mites
    • Cyclamen mites( Phytonemus pallidus ) and Carmine mites ( Tetranychus cinnabarinus ) may also occur in NC
      • Distribution in SE not clear
    Cyclamen mites Carmine mites
  • Strawberries: Spider Mite Management
  • Strawberries: Spider Mite Management
  • Strawberries: Spider Mite Management with thresholds b a
  • Strawberries: Spider Mite Monitoring
    • Monitoring
      • Sample 10 mid tier leaflets/acre for fields < 10 acres, 5 leaflets/acre for fields > 10 acres
      • Observe with 10x hand lens or use mite brush/microscope
    • Thresholds
      • CA research
        • 5 mites/leaflet, early season
        • 10 mites/leaflet, fruiting
      • FL research
        • 2 mites/leaflet
    Return to Strawberries
    • Several species of stink bugs may be present in SE blackberries
      • Brown SB
      • Green SB
      • Brown marmorated?
    • Direct feeding damage & contamination
    Caneberries: Stink Bugs
    • Brown, green, and other stink bugs can be present
      • Acrosternum hilare (green)
      • Euschistus servus (brown)
      • Nezara viridula (SGSB)
    • Fruit damage unclear, contamination
    Caneberries: Stink Bugs
    • No threshold or scouting procedures
    • Only broad spectrum insecticide registered/recommended
    Caneberries: Stink Bugs
  • Images from Laura Maxey & Doug Pfeiffer, Department of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic University Caneberries: Stink Bugs
  • Images from Laura Maxey & Doug Pfeiffer, Department of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic University Caneberries: Stink Bugs Return to Caneberries
    • Raspberry cane borer
    Red necked cane borer Caneberries: Cane Borers
    • Raspberry cane borer
    • Adults appear in June, eggs hatch in July, larvae overwinter in cane
    • Girdling 1/2 apart, 4-6 inches below growth point
    • Tips wilt
    • As the larvae moves down the cane, the entire cane can die
    • Red necked cane borer
    • Adults feed and mate on leaves and lay eggs only in primocanes (May-June)
    • Larva girdles cane
    • Girdling produces gall in July-August
    • Larvae overwinters in pith
    • Gall predisposes canes to winter injury
    Caneberries: Cane Borers
  • Rednecked Cane Borer (RNCB)
    • Adults feed and mate on leaves and lay eggs only in primocanes (May-June)
    • Larva girdles cane
    • Girdling produces gall in July-August
    • Larvae overwinters in pith
    • Gall predisposes canes to winter injury
    Damaged
  • RNCB Management
    • When not to treat for cane borers
      • During winter, if < 5% galled canes
        • Prune off galled commercial canes and nearby wild canes at ground and burn canes to kill RNCB larvae
      • Mid June , at end of RNCB egg laying period
        • Cut off blackberry primocanes at the soil surface (Walton 1951)
          • Reduced galling by > 83 percent
  • Methods: cultural control confirmed
    • Hypothesis : avoid galls on primocanes emerging after RNCB egg laying during May and June
    • Date primocanes pruned to ground:
        • May 15
        • June 15
        • July 15
    • Record number of galls at leaf drop (Nov.)
  • RNCB Galling Differs By Cane Removal Date for Primocane-bearing Blackberries Source: Johnson and Rom, unpublished data Return to Caneberries Cane removal date No. RNCB galls/plot Yield May 15 3.1a Fruit June 15 1.4b Fruit July 15 0.6c No fruit Prob. F > P < 0.0001
  • Raspberry Crown Borer
  • Raspberry Crown Borer Pupal skin emerges in Sept. - Oct. Eggs on underside of leaves Larva overwinters in cane below soil (WSU photo) Adults mate Laying egg
  • Raspberry crown borer
    • When to treat for RCB
      • Late fall & early spring
        • Scout for RBC damage in July and adult moths in September (on primocanes)
    • What are we treating in fall & early spring?
    Return to Caneberries
  • Japanese beetles feed on both foliage and fruit. Injured plants are more attractive. Beetles feed from top of plant down (keep in mind while scouting). Conventional materials provide good control, but can flare other pests (mites). Caneberries: Japanese Beetle
  • Images from Donn Johnson, grapes Caneberries: Japanese Beetle Return to Caneberries