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Blackberry Variety Primer
 

Blackberry Variety Primer

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    Blackberry Variety Primer Blackberry Variety Primer Presentation Transcript

    • Blackberry Variety Primer Virginia State University March 14, 2013 Gina_Fernandez@ncsu.edu
    • We will cover• Taxonomy• Biology• Cane types• Growth habit• Ease of management• Yield potential• Local vs. wholesale• Pests• (south)East vs (pacificnorth)West cultivars• Etc
    • 740 species RubusR. parvifoliusand others Modified from Marvin Pritts
    • Why is it so confusing?
    • Types of Caneberries• Raspberry – Black, yellow, red or purple – Primocane fruiting or floricane fruiting• Blackberry – Erect, semi erect, trailing(dewberries) – Thorny or thornless – Primocane fruiting or floricane fruiting• Blackberry X Raspberry hybrids – Tayberry, wyeberry
    • Biology 101• Biennial – 2 year life cycle – Above ground growth • Primocanes • Floricanes• Advantages – Manipulate season of harvest – Extend season of harvest• Disadvantages – Difficult to understand – Management more complicated
    • Cane TypeTwo types of canes• Primocanes – First year growth, usually no fruit on canes• Floricanes – Second year growth, produce fruit and flowers then die
    • Plant growth - plant parts Fruit Crown Perennial roots
    • Tip Floricane Lateral Branches Primocane Crown BudCrown Perennial Roots
    • Caneberry Fruiting Habits Floricane-fruiting Primocane-fruiting• 1st year: •1st year: – Vegetative growth of cane – Bear fruit in upper ⅓ to ½• 2nd year: of cane in late summer & fall – Flowering & fruiting – Fruiting portion of cane – Cane death dies in fall(most varieties of •2nd year: (OPTIONAL)blackberries, black & purple – Lower portion of caneraspberries, some red & fruitsyellow raspberries) – Entire cane dies after fruiting
    • Primocane Floricane
    • Growth Habits
    • Growth Habit• Erect• Semi Erect/Semi trailing• Trailing (Semi-trailing/Semi-erect)• Primocane fruiting?
    • Ease of management:– Thorny or thornless?– Summer-fruiting or fall-fruiting? (Growing habit)– Hardiness and growing season length?– Yield and productivity?– Flavor?– Disease and insect resistance?– Growth habit, erect, trailing
    • Things to consider when selecting a variety (cultivar): – Thorny or thornless? – Summer-fruiting or fall-fruiting? (Growing habit) – Hardiness and growing season length? – Yield and productivity? – Flavor? – Disease and insect resistance? – Growth habit (erect, trailing)
    • Blackberries- Thorny or Thornless?• Thorny – More difficult to harvest – Tall, rugged canes do not need trellising – Less susceptible to low temperatures than thornless blackberries• Thornless – Easier to harvest, train and prune – Vigorous canes need trellising Illini, photo courtesy Nourse Farms – Not hardy below 0F – Flavor as good as thorny types
    • Summer or Fall Fruiting?• Floricane fruiting “Summer” – fruit is produced on laterals of 2nd year canes• Primocane fruiting “Fall” – Fruit is produced at tips of 1st year canes
    • Blackberries- Summer or Fall Fruiting?• Summer-fruiting – Advantages • Long harvest season • High yields in warm climates – Challenges • Hot summer harvest • Postharvest warm fruit • White drupelets • Pruning is time consuming (summer and winter)
    • Blackberries- Summer or Fall Fruiting?• Fall-fruiting – Advantages • Pruning is easy • Potential for 2 crops per year • Suited for production where winters are cold if the growing season is long – Challenges • Flower development in warm climates Prime Jan, photo courtesy Nourse Farms • Tipping needed to maximize yield • May need protection for adequate growing season • Harvest labor problems in fall
    • Blackberry varieties• Erect (Upright) – Arapaho, Apache, Ouachita, Osage, Natchez, Navaho, Von – Kiowa, Chickasaw, Illini Hardy, Shawnee• Trailing (Semi-trailing/Semi-erect, Semi- Upright) – Black Satin, Doyle Thornless, Hull, Chester, Natchez, Triple Crown (?),• Primocane fruiting? – Black Magic, Prime-Jim and Prime-Jan, APF-45
    • Apache• Thornless, erect• Large, 7-10 g; (ave. 8 g)• Yield med.-high• Flavor between Navaho and Arapaho – Good! 11% SS• DB/R – resistant -similar resistance as other Ark. Thornless• White drupe limitation• Not recommended
    • Arapaho• Characteristics – Thornless – Early – Low yield – Semi erect/erect – May be more cold hardy? – DB resistant – Plant closer than others – Local and commercial if need early crop
    • Chester• Late season• Small fruit• Long clusters• High yield• PH not great• DB resistant??• Local only
    • Doyles Thornless• Late• Productive in PA• Small firm fruit• Flavor good• Winter hardiness similar to TC• Trailing• Local
    • Illini Hardy• Early• Thorny• Small berries, size decreases through season• Most cold hardy• Secondary bud crop• Phytopthora root rot resistant
    • Natchez• Arapaho season (early)• High yields• Overcropping potential• Large berries (10g)• Excellent shipping potential• Hardiness can be problem• Released as erect but trailing tendancies• Local and commercial
    • Ouachita• Characteristics – High yields – 6-7 g – Great flavor – Good post harvest shelf life (PH) – Shiny berries taste good
    • Navaho• Characteristics – UArk – Thornless – Mid-late season – Med-high yield – PH great – DB resistant – Orange rust susceptible – Local and commercial – If you want only one variety for a home garden, this is the one
    • Chester• Characteristics – Thornless – Semi-erect – Late – 5 -7 g – Late – Great PH – Heat in south may limit large scale production
    • Triple Crown• Characteristics – Thornless – late – Semi-erect – 6-8 g – High yield – PH fair – Great flavor – Fairly cold hardy – Adapted to mid-Atlantic, lower midwest, New England, PNW, and did OK in NC
    • Shawnee• Early• Thorny• Good fruit size• Less productive• Resistant to OR• Susceptible to DB• Old• 23+ year planting still very productive
    • Prime-Jan v Prime-Jan• Primocane fruiting • Primocane fruiting• Thorny • Thorny• Flavor acceptable • Flavor acceptable• Low yield • Low yield• Must be tipped • Must be tipped• Better than Prime-Jim
    • Prime-Ark 45• High yield• Thorny• Large fruit• Excellent flavor• Sweetest of the PF blackberries• Must be tipped• Very late• Commercial
    • Black Magic• Large• Soft• Excellent flavor• Very late• Local only, homeowner
    • Newer Cultivars
    • Von• ‘Von’ is a new erect, thornless, floricane-fruiting blackberry.• High yield• Medium size (6.6 g) has smaller drupelet and seed size compared to other cultivars.• Post harvest trials – very good, some red drupelet.
    • Piedmont Floricane Fruiting Blackberry Marketable Yield (g/plant) 2008- 2010120001000080006000 Mean Outside Mean Tunnel40002000 0 Apache Arapaho Natchez Navaho NC 430 Ouachita
    • Mean harvest dates for blackberry cultivars in NC,when yields were at 5, 50 and 95 percent total yieldduring 2008-2010.Cultivar 5% 50% 95%Apache 26-Jund 12-Julcd 3-AugcdArapaho 6-Juna 15-Juna 3-JulaNatchez 9-Junab 24-Junab 13-JulabNavaho 24-Juncd 16-Juld 9-AugdVon 22-Juncd 7-Julcd 2-AugcdOuachita 16-Junbc 1-Julbc 23-Julbc
    • Post harvest attributes of blackberries harvested at Salisbury, NCin 2010 and held 7 days at 4° C, 90% RH in pint clamshells. Percent berries (%) Red Cultivar Moldy Leaky Soft drupe Overallz Marketabley Apache 5.7 37.9 23.6 7.9 32.8 77.6 Tupy 4.7 24.8 11.4 10.5 59 86.4 Navaho 2 13.8 15.4 5.7 68.8 89.6 Von 3.1 12.8 12.4 12.1 71.7 90.6 Ouachita 4.1 15 7.4 7.7 73.4 91.2 Natchez 0.8 7.3 4.4 17.2 87.5 95.8 Arapaho 0.5 10 0 4.1 89.5 96.5zOverall: 100- sum (moldy+leaky+soft)yMarketable: 100- sum (moldy+leaky+soft)/3)
    • Blackberry Harvest Season
    • Osage– The Newest Arkansas Blackberry• Ripens (In Ark.) between Natchez and Ouachita, ave. June 10 beginning harvest• Yields have been consistent and good, comparable to higher than Ouachita• Berry size is medium, 5.0 g, slightly smaller than Ouachita• Flavor is a key attribute of Osage, lower acid flavor with notable flavor components coupled with high soluble solids• Good even on “bad flavor days” as noted by JRC over the years• Great postharvest handling potential
    • Osage– Why Consider?• A complement to Ouachita in size and season to diversify cultivars for this harvest period• Consistently uniform in drupelet fill whereas Ouachita can have uneven fill• Is hoped to expand on flavor and enjoyment of blackberries by consumers• Available in 2013 from tissue culture propagators, wider availability in 2014
    • Yields of three blackberry cultivars in plantings established in replicated trials at the Universityof Arkansas Fruit Research Station, Clarksville Arkansas in 2007 with data collected in 2008and 2009 and a planting established in 2010 with data collected in 2011 and 2012.Genotype Yield (lb·acre-1) 2008 2009 2011 2012 Average yOsage 12,341 a 7,849 a 12,206 ab 12,902 a 11,324Natchez 12,613 a 6,030 a 17,641 a 17,351 a 13,409Ouachita 7,851 b 4,361 a 10,774 b 14,021 a 9,252zMeans followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level within singlecolumns.y Average is a mean of the 4 years presented in this table (2008, 2009, 2011, 2012).
    • Postharvest evaluations of several cultivars of blackberries at Clarksville, AR,Fruit Research Station.Cultivar Overallz Marketabilityz Red (%) Leak (%) Soft (%)Natchez 42.6 x 89.7 18.8 20.6 9.2Osage 59.7 90.5 4.0 16.1 6.9Ouachita 41.3 88.8 5.7 21.2 6.3Prime-Ark®45 57.1 90.7 6.6 18.7 4.1Tupy 3.0 72.1 15.7 48.1 26.5zOverall=100-(%decay+%leak+%soft). Percent marketability is calculated as:100-[sum(% decayed + % soft + % leaky)/3]. A minimum of 85 is desired.x All entries are means of 5 years (2008 - 2012), except Tupy entries which aremissing 2011 data and therefore means of only 4 years.
    • Plant and fruit characteristics of three thornless blackberry cultivars at the University ofArkansas Fruit Research Station, Clarksville.Characteristic Osage Natchez Ouachita50% bloom datez 2 May 29 Apr 6 MayFirst harvest datez 10 June 5 June 13 JunePlant health yx 7.6 7.3w 7.6z Means of 3 years (2008, 2009, 2011) from replicated trials in Clarksville, AR.y Means of 7 years, 2005-2011.x Rating scale of 1 to 10 where 10=best.w Missing 2008 data.
    • ‘Obsidian’ Fresh market, thorny Very early ripening! It & Metolius are earliest on the market. In PNW 3 weeks ahead of earliest Arkansas CVs Large, good flavor, Stays black in freezer & refrigeration Very productive Ships well but just barely firm enough Fills early niche in Calif. & Northwest Silvan Metolius Obsidian
    • Obsidian NC
    • Metolius Fresh Market Thorny, trailing Very early Productive Excellent flavor V. uniform shape Firmer than Obsidian in field Very uniform shape & size Working well in some wholesale fresh programs
    • Metolius NC
    • Wild Treasure Combines ‘Waldo’s disease resistance, thornlessness, machine harvestability & productivity with wild R. ursinus excellent flavor and good growth habit V. small fruit!! Bakery or “wild” mkt. Wild Treasure Needs careful training- canes v. thin Marion
    • Wild Treasure
    • Resources• Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium – www.smallfruits.org – Quarterly newsletter, chores, production guides• Blackberry and Rapsberry Portal – http://rubus.ces.ncsu.edu/ – General production info, yield data, post harvest data• Team Rubus Blog http://teamrubus.blogspot.com• Team Rubus Facebook• Twitter @NCteamrubus• Gina_Fernandez@ncsu.edu
    • Keep in touch! • http://teamrubus.blogspot.com/ • TeamRubus • @NCTeamRubus