China's National Search Engine Jike

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This paper was presented at the 10th Chinese Internet Research Conference held May 21-22, 2012 at the Annenberg School of Communication @ USC. It discusses the functions and implications of China's national search engine Jike from multiple theoretical perspectives.

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China's National Search Engine Jike

  1. 1. China’s National Search Engine Jike Min Jiang (Ph.D.) Assistant Professor of Communication, UNC CharlotteAffiliate Researcher @ CGCS, University of Pennsylvania Kristen Okamoto M.A. Student, Dept. of Communication, UNC Charlotte 1 0 th C h i n e s e I n t e r n e t R e s e a r c h C o n f e r e n c e ( # C I R C 1 0 ) USC Annenberg School of Communication
  2. 2. The Party & The Vatican
  3. 3. Jike Background Branding: National identity Funding: Political economy of propaganda Surveilling: Panopticon
  4. 4. Jike ranks 643rd in China 7,412th globally (Alexa, 2012)Total # of Chinese websites: 2.3 million (CNNIC, 2012)
  5. 5. 80% of 513 million Chinese Internet users use search engine
  6. 6. A More Politicized, Nationalized Web Jan 12, 2010: Google-China conflict Jan-21, 2010: Clinton “Internet freedom” June 8, 2010: “Internet in China” white paper  Internet sovereignty June 20, 2010: Goso  June 20, 2011: Jike Dec 16, 2011: Real name registration on Weibo April 20, 2012: People’s Daily Online IPO
  7. 7. National Identity
  8. 8. (Semioticized) National Identity
  9. 9. Design60% of Chinese Internet users under age 30
  10. 10. Deng Yaping: Jike CEO
  11. 11. “National Team” Not to make money but to fulfill our national duty
  12. 12. The Political Economy of Jike Ownership & control Market regulation Power relations
  13. 13. Jike: State-Owned Enterprise (SOE) Funding Jike  50 million yuan ($7.92 milion)  81% - People’s Daily (newspaper)  19% - People’s Daily Online (online arm of PD) People’s Daily Online IPO in 2012  Raised 1.4 billion yuan ($222 million) > NYT Who owns People’s Daily Online?  66% - People’s Daily  12% - Global Times  4% - Bank of China  3% - China Mobile
  14. 14. Party Publicity Inc.
  15. 15. Propaganda for Sale
  16. 16. Panopticon Theoretical Underpinnings  Foucault and the panopticon Panopticon and Cyberspace  “Surveillance society”  The Internet and authoritarianism  China’s existing forms of panoptic control
  17. 17. Log Record
  18. 18. Jike and Panoptic Control Corporate Self- censorship Centralization of data surveillance Limitations of the panopticon
  19. 19. Summary Perspective Key Concepts Application in Jike Party Image: National Sign, Symbol, Semiotics Friendly, High-tech, Identity Design, Meaning and Nationalistic State Ownership, Capitalistic PoliticalIdeological Control, Production of Party EconomyApparatus Commodification Ideology State Surveillance ofPanopticon Postmodern Surveillance Netizen Data & Desires
  20. 20. Limitations and Future Research Users  Perception  Knowledge  Efficacy Search engine performance  Search query data  Comparative data (Baidu, Google)
  21. 21. Implications of Jike From filtering, blocking, regulating to manufacturing Propaganda: high-tech, scientific, user-friendly From coercion to attraction Let the market subsidize propaganda work Search market: regulator and player Commodification of surveillance The degenerative Web

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