SEMANTICS AND LOGIC
ISSUES OF FORMAL SEMANTICS
5.FREDGE: THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SENSE AND REFERENCE. THE VALUE OF A
SENTENCE IS ITS TRUTH VALUE, AND ITS SENSE IS WHAT HE CALLS GEDANKE OR
OBJECTIVE THOUGHT. TWO GROUPS OF THEORIES: REPRESENTATIONAL AND
6.SOME SCHOLARS HAVE SUPPORTED THE IDEA THAT THE WORLD CAN BE BETTER
UNDERSTOOD AND MANAGED THANKS TO THE HANDLING OF SENSES WHICH LINK THE
MENTAL WORLD AND THE REAL WORLD. THERE.
7.HOW TO DEAL WITH THE PROBLEM OF CONTEXT OR TO WHAT EXTENT IT AFFECTS
MEANING. CONTEXT CANNOT BE EASILLY INSERTED INTO THE FRAME WORK OF LOGIC
BUT IT NEED TO BE FORMALIZED ONE WAY OR ANOTHER.
LOGIC AND THE NOTION OF TRUTH.
• TRUTH IS DEFINED AS CORRESPONDING WITH FACTS/ AS CORRECT
DESCRIPTION OF SOA IN THE WORLD. THE NOTION OF EMPIRICAL TRUTH
DEPENDS ON A CORRELATION TO S.O.A IN REALITY. LOGICIANS HAVE
IDENTIFIED ANOTHER KIND OF TRUTH RELATED TO LINGUISTIC STRUCTURE;
WE CAN DISTINGUISH BETWEEN:
• A PRIORI TRUTH IS KNOWN WITHOUT PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE.
• A POSTERIORI TRUTH CAN ONLY BE KNOW ON THE BASIS OF EXPERIENCE:
LEIBNIZ ALSO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN NECESSARY AND CONTINGENT TRUTHS:
• NECESSARY CANNOT BE DENIED WITHOUT FORCING A CONTRADICTION.
• CONTINGENT TRUTHS CAN BE CONTRADICTED DEPENDING ON THE FACTS:
ALSO ANALYTIC AND SYNTHETIC TRUTHS:
• ANALYTIC STATEMENTS ARE THOSE WHERE TRUTH FOLLOWS FROM THE
MEANING RELATIONS WITHIN THE SENTENCE.
• SYNTHETIC STATEMENTS ACCORD WITH THE FACTS OF THE WORLD.
Intensionality: the property of sentences which reveals interpretative or cognitive
behaviour. In some areas it is more clearly manifested for example in modality, tense,
aspect and verbs of propositional attitude
SEMANTICS A AI (ARTIFITIAL INTELLIGENCE) TO BE DICTATED BY MIKE
MENTAL MODELS, SEMANTIC NETWORDS FRAMES AND SCRIPTS
Possible ways of approaching the representation and organization of knowledge in the mind.
Semantic networks, were developed by Johnson Laird, they are based on psychological research and
constitute the most popular basis for computational and psychological theories of meaning. Because
the meanings of words are represented by labeled associations from one word to another in a network
of links, a semantic network is an associative theory framed for a computer.
Mental models TO BE DICTATED BY MIKE
The main tenet of Frame Semantics is that one cannot understand the meaning of a word without
access to all the knowledge with which is connected. For instance, your knowledge of the word
“student” makes sense within the frame of school or university education, which includes teachers,
exams, degrees, grades, etc. That is, a word highlights a frame of semantic knowledge connected with
the specific concept to which it relates.
The notion of frame is associated to that of encyclopeadic knowledge and is based on speakers’
recurring experiences. This notion was developed by Charles Fillmore.