Resumen Unit 2 Patricia (2)
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Resumen Unit 2 Patricia (2)

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Resumen Unit 2 Patricia (2) Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. REPRESENTATIONAL AND DENOTATIONAL APPROACHES TO SEMANTIC ANALYSIS REPRESENTATIONAL THEORIES TEND TO BE MORE LINKED TO RATIONALISM AND REFERENTIAL/DENOTATIONAL APPROACHES TEND TO BE ALIGNED WITH EMPIRICISM. ALTHOUGH THERE ARE CROSS-INFLUENCES AND CROSS FERTILIZATIONS BETWEEN THE TWO- REPRESENTATIONA APPROACH : INVOLVES TO DISCOVER THE CONCEPTUAL STRUCTURE WHICH UNDERLIES LANGUAGE. EMPHASIZED THE LINK BETWEEN LANGUAGE AND CONCEPTUAL STRUCTURE. DENOTATIONAL APPROACH: EMPHASIZED THE LINK BETWEEN LANGUAGE AND EXTERNAL REALITY. SAEED SAYS : UNDERSTANDING MEANING OF AN UTTERANCE IS BEING ABLE TO MATCH IT WITH THE SITUATION IT DESCRIBES. HENCE THE SEARCH FOR MEANING FROM THE DENOTATIONAL PERSPECTIVE, IS THE SEARCH FOR HOW THE SYMBOLS OF LANGUAGE RELATE TO REALITY. FOR FORMAL SEMANTICS BASED ON DENOTATIONAL APPROACHES MEANING IS ARRIVED AT FROM A COMMUNICATIVE PERSPECTIVE. SINCE FOR FORMAL SEMANTICIST A PRIMARY FUNCTION OF LANGUAGE IS THAT IT ALLOWS AS TO TALK ABOUT THE WORLD AROUND US THERE MUST BE A RELIABLE LINK BETWEEN THE WORLD AROUND US AND THE LANGUAGE WE USE TO TALK ABOUT IT. THIS LINK IS BASED ON THE NOTION OF TRUTH. JACKENDOFF, GENERATIVIST TRADITION ALTHOUGH INFLUENCED BY THE RATIONALIST TRADITION IS FROM THE REPRESENTATIONAL APPROACH, SEMANTIC ANALYSIS INVOLVES TO DISCOVER THE CONCEPTUAL STRUCTURE WHICH UNDERLIES LANGUAGE , THE SEARCH FOR MEANING IS THE SEARCH FOR MENTAL REPRESENTATIONS. THE EMPHASIS LIES IN THE WAY OUR REPORT ABOUT REALITY ARE INFLUENCED BY THE CONCEPTUAL STRUCTURES CONVENTIONALIZED IN OUR LANGUAGE. LANGACKER, ALSO INFLUENCED BY THE RATIONALIST TRADITION, RECOGNISES THAT MENTAL EXPERIENCE IS REAL AND SUSCEPTIBLE TO EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATIONS BUT THE UNITS OF ANALYSIS HE DEFINES IN HIS COGNITIVE GRAMMAR CONSTITUTE IDEALISED OBJECTS. THE EMPIRISIST/FUNCTIONALIST TRADITION HOLDS THAT BECAUSE LANGUAGE IS BASICALLY AN INSTRUMENT TO TRANSMIT AND COMMUNICATE MESSAGES.
  • 3. COMPONENTIAL ANALYSIS IT USES A LIST OF IDENTIFIED MEANING COMPONENTS TO DEFINE WORDS. AKA SEMANTIC PRIMITIVES, AKA SEMANTIC COMPONENTS. BACKGROUND – THE DANISH LINGUIST LOUIS HJELMSLEV, A REPRESENTATIVE OF EARLY EUROPEAN STRUCTURALISM, APPLIED SAUSSURE’S PHONOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES TO SEMANTIC ANALYSIS. HE WANTED TO FIND A SET OF BASIC WORDS, OUT OF WHOSE MEANINGS ALL OTHER WORD MEANINGS COULD BE CONSTRUCTED. THIS METHOD WAS BASED ON COMMUTATION. A PHONEMIC DIFFERENCE WAS SAID TO EXIST BETWEEN TWO DIFFERENT ELEMENTS WHEN IF CHANGED ENTAILED A DIFFERENCE IN MEANING. MAPA≠ MAMA. THE IDEA IS THAT THE MEANING OF A WORD IS CONSTRUCTED OUT OF SMALLER, ELEMENTARY AND INVARIANT UNITS OF MEANING: MARE = [HORSE] [FEMALE] STALLION = [HORSE] [MALE]
  • 4. TWO VIEWS OF C.A.
    • LOCALIST VIEW
    • THE MEANING OF A WORD CAN BE SPECIFIED IN ISOLATION FROM THE MEANINGS OF OTHER WORDS IN A LANGUAGE
    • HOLISTIC VIEW
    • MEANING CANNOT BE KNOWN WITHOUT TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE MEANINGS OF OTHER WORDS IN A LANGUAGE.
    • FOR HAS AND WITTGENSTEIN MEANING IS CLOSELY RELATED TO USE AND THE MEANING OF A WORD IS RELATED TO THE SEMATNIC FIELD IT BELONGS TO.
  • 5. THREE REASONS TO IDENTIFY MEANING COMPONENTS
  • 6. THREE VIEWS ON C.A. IN THE MIDLE IS JACKENDOFF WHO ARGUES FOR SOME KIND OF DECOMPOSITION BUT OBSERVES THAT SOME INFORMATION MUST BE REPRESENTED IN OTHER MODALITIES
  • 7. CONCEPTUALIZATION/CATEGORAZATION
  • 8. LINGUISTIC CODIFICATION
  • 9. ARGUMENT STRUCTURE ALL ELEMENTS IN THE WORLD CAN BE ONTOLOGICALLY UNDERSTOOD AS EITHER ENTITIES OR RELATIONS. IN MOST LANGUAGES ENTITIES ARE NOUNS. A VERB OR AN ADJECTIVE CAN BE UNDERSTOOD AS A PEDICATE LINKING A NUMBER OF ENTITIES. THESE ENTITIES CAN BE CONSIDERED JUST AS PLACES OR SLOTS OR THEMATIC ROLES IN RELATION WITH A FUNCTION AND IN LOGICAL NOTATION THEY ARE CALLED THE ARGUMENTS OF THAT FUNCTION. SHE IS BEAUTIFUL = BE BEATIFUL (SHE) = F (A) = ONE PLACE PREDICATE THIS FUNCTION HAS ONE ARGUMENT. WHILE AN ARGUMENT DESIGNATES SOME ENTITY OR GROUP OF ENTITIES, A PREDICATE ATTRIBUTES SOME PROPERTY OR RELATION TO THE ENTITIES DENOTED BY THE ARGUMENT (S).