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Elements of culture 2010

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Transcript

  • 1. The Elements of Culture
  • 2. Culture
    • The way of life of a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs
  • 3. Cultural anthropology
    • Studies: cultural variations among humans
    • The impact of global economic and political process on local cultures
  • 4. cultural diffusion
    • The process of spreading new knowledge from one culture to another
  • 5. Language
    • Through language people communicate information and experiences and pass on cultural values and traditions
  • 6. dialect
    • A local form of a language that differs from the main language
  • 7. Geographic Skills
    • Provide the tools and methods for understanding the relationships between people, places, and environments
  • 8. absolute location
    • The exact spot at which a place is found on earth
    • To pinpoint the spot geographers use latitude and logitude
  • 9. relative location
    • Locating a place in relation to other places
  • 10. Religion
    • Beliefs vary significantly around the world
    • Differences can be a source of conflict
    • Religion can provide a sense of identity
  • 11. monotheism
    • Belief in one god
    • Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
  • 12. polytheism
    • Belief in more than one god
  • 13. animism
    • Belief that spirits inhabit natural objects and forces of nature
  • 14. Social Groups
    • A social system develops to help the members of a culture work together to meet basic needs
  • 15. family
    • In all cultures the family is the most important group
  • 16. extended family
    • Includes great grandparents, grandparents, parents, children, aunts, uncles, and cousins
    • Parents and children share their home with members if the extended family
    • Sometimes extended families live in family compounds in a village or city
  • 17. nuclear family
    • Parents and children living together as a family
  • 18. patriarchal family
    • Families that are headed by a male family member
    • Usually these are also extended families
  • 19. social class
    • Groups of people ranked according to ancestry, wealth, education, or other criteria
  • 20. ethnic group
    • People who share a common language, history, place of origin, or a combination of these elements
    • Irish, German, Mexican, Hmong, Serbian
  • 21. ethnic cleansing
    • Expelling or killing a rival ethnic group
    • Former Yugoslavia
    • Rwanda
    • Darfur
    • Sometimes occurs with genocide
  • 22. ethnocentrism
    • Judging another culture according to the standards of your own culture
    • Everyone is ethnocentric
    • Sometimes it is unintentional and takes the form of simply misunderstanding another culture
  • 23. Government
    • Maintains order
    • Provides protection from outside dangers
    • Supplies services to its people
  • 24. unitary system
    • Gives all key powers to the national or central government
    • France, United Kingdom
  • 25. federal system
    • Divides the power of the government between national and state or provincial levels
    • United States
  • 26. autocracy
    • The power and authority to rule belong to a single individual
    • Oldest form of government
    • Totalitarianism is a type of this
    • Hitler’s government in Germany
  • 27. monarchy
    • A king or queen exercises the supreme control of the government
    • It is a type of autocracy
    • Saudi Arabia
  • 28. oligarchy
    • A system of government is which a small group hold power
    • China
  • 29. democracy
    • Leaders rule with the consent of the people
    • United States, France
  • 30. representative democracy
    • People elect representatives with the responsibility and power to make laws and conduct government
    • Also called a republic
  • 31. imperialism
    • Political and economic domination
  • 32. Economy
    • How a culture utilizes natural resources to meet its needs
    • How people produce, obtain, use, and sell goods and services
  • 33. market economy
    • Individuals and private groups make decisions about what to produce
    • People decide what products to buy
    • Free enterprise: the idea that individuals have the right own own and operate their own business for profit
  • 34. command economy
    • The government owns or directs the means of production(land, labor, capital)
    • The government also controls the distribution of goods
    • Taxes are used for social services
    • Communism or socialism
  • 35. socialism
    • Public ownership of essential services and factories
    • Higher taxes pay for more public services, such as free health care, free day care, and free college education
    • Western European countries
  • 36. development
    • The process of improving material conditions of people through the diffusion of knowledge and technology
    • The development process is continuous, involving never ending actions to constantly improve the health and prosperity of the people.
  • 37. More Developed Country
    • MDC
    • A country that has progressed further along the development continuum
    • U.S., Japan, Brazil
  • 38. Less Developed Country
    • LDC
    • Also called developing country
    • Democratic Republic of Congo, Pakistan
  • 39. subsistance economy
    • Also subsistance farming
    • People grow food to meet their own needs
    • People make their own products, or buy/trade from other villagers