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Issues in Urban Hydrogeology Lecture

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Companion presentation for paper "Issues in Urban Hydrogeology"

Companion presentation for paper "Issues in Urban Hydrogeology"

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  • Cover
  • Water, food, shelter. Maslow.
  • Where the water is
  • Geology and aquifers
  • Ideal vs urban

Transcript

  • 1. Water in the Megaregion Mike Dobbins Spring 2010
  • 2. Necessity of water
  • 3. Where is the Water
  • 4. Fresh Water Availability
    • Of all the Water on Earth
      • > 1% is Potable and Accessible to Use by Mankind
        • >.09% is in Surface Water
        • ≈ .9% is in Ground Water
    • All of the rest of the water on Earth is either Saltwater or is locked in the ice of the Arctic or in the Antarctica, Greenland and Iceland icesheets
  • 5. Water use
    • Thermoelectric Power Generation – 48%
    • Agricultural Irrigation – 34%
    • Public Water Supplies – 11%
    • Industrial Uses – 5%
    • Aquaculture – >1%
    • Livestock – 1%
    • Mining – >1%
    • Domestic wells – >1%
  • 6. Groundwater Primer
    • Aquifers – Subsurface water which may or may not be isolated from surface waters
      • Unconfined Aquifers – Shallow and connected to surface waters. i.e. Edwards Aquifer
      • Confined Aquifers – unconnected to surface waters. i.e. Ogallala Aquifer
    • Permeability vs. Porosity
  • 7. Edwards Aquifer
    • Recharged by Local and Regional Rainfall
  • 8. Ogallala Aquifer
    • Less then 1% Recharge by Rainfall
    • “ Ancient” water – 250,000 to 2 Million Years old
    • Water is effectively “mined”
  • 9. Water Issues in the Megaregion
    • Impervious Cover
    • Water Quality
    • Aquifer Recharge/Discharge
    • Urban Structures
    • Effects of Climate Change
    • Politics
  • 10. Impervious Cover
    • Flash Floods
    • Captures Pollutants and Debris
    • Pollutant concentration
    • Overcharge
    • Diversion – Channelization – Aquifer Bypass
  • 11. Impervious Cover
    • West Edmonton Mall – 20,000 Parking Spaces in 1,2 and 3 Levels
  • 12. Impervious Cover
    • MGM/Disney World, Epcot Center, Champion Stadium – Epcot/Disney 40,000+ parking Spaces on 1 level
  • 13. Diversion – Las Vegas
  • 14. Diversion – Las Vegas
  • 15. Las Vegas - Channelization
  • 16. Las Vegas – Diversion/Channelization
    • Artificial Riparian Habitats
      • Capture Pollution and Debris
      • Flood Control
    • Artificial Lakes
      • Erosion/Flood Control
      • Pollution and Debris Capture
      • Attempt to Recapture Aquifer Bypass
  • 17. Groundwater Cycle in the Urban Environment
    • Normal Aquifer Recharge
      • Rain
      • Infiltration to Aquifer
      • Runoff to Streams
      • Evapotranspiration
    • Urban Aquifer Recharge
      • Rain
      • Runoff
      • Infiltration to Aquifer
      • Evapotranspiration
      • Diversion
      • Leakage
      • Overdraft
      • Many More Causes
  • 18. Water Quality
    • Point Source vs. Non-Point Source – Does it Matter
    • Runoff from Impervious Cover
    • Industrial Pollutants
    • Exobiologics
    • Pharmaceuticals
  • 19. Dangers to Water Quality
    • Leaking pipes
    • Building and Construction (Old and New)
    • Underground Tanks
    • Pets
    • Lawn Care
    • Impervious Cover
  • 20. Aquifer Recharge and Discharge
    • Las Vegas – Channelization causes bypass of the Aquifer, hence no recharge
    • Austin / San Antonio
      • Impervious cover built on top if the Edwards Aquifer Recharge Zone decreasing recharge (Bad Zoning)
      • San Antonio – Single source for all water, Edwards Aquifer, but few conservation controls
  • 21.
    • Overcharge
      • Impervious Cover over capture
      • Leaking utilities (Water, Sewer)
      • Irrigation
      • Climate Change
    • Discharge
      • Overdraft (over pumping)
      • Climate Change
      • Construction
    • Both Overcharge and Overdraft can cause permanent damage to an aquifer
  • 22. Overdraft (Over pumping)
  • 23. More Overdraft
  • 24. Urban Structures
    • Refer back to Impervious Cover and Aquifer Bypass
    • Pipelines, Tunnels
    • Foundations
    • Other
  • 25.
    • Foundations
      • What happens when you dig a 60-100 foot deep foundation
      • What happens when you put 10, 20, 50 of these foundations together
      • We don’t know
    • River walls, Weirs, Dykes, etc.
      • London
        • Thames River Walls
        • Thames Barrier
      • Amsterdam
        • Below sea level
  • 26. Climate Change
    • The Great Unknown
    • More Extremes
    • Local and Regional Differences
  • 27. Politics - Water law
    • Surface Water
      • Riparian Rights
        • English “Absolute” Rule (Rule of Capture)
        • American “Reasonable Use” Rule
          • Safe Yield
          • Sustainable
      • Prior Appropriation
        • Mainly Western U.S.
        • “First in Time – First in Right”
  • 28. Politics – Water Law
    • Groundwater
      • English “Absolute” Rule (Rule of Capture) (Texas)
      • American “Reasonable Use” Rule
      • Correlative Rights
        • You own what’s under your property (Do you see a problem here?)
      • Frazer v. Brown (Ohio, 1861) – No right to regulate groundwater
        • “… the existence, origin, movement, and course of such waters, and the causes that govern and direct their movement, are so secret and occult , and concealed that an attempt to administer any set of legal rules in respect to them would be involved in hopeless uncertainty , and would, therefore, be practically impossible.”
      • Houston & Central Texas Railway v. East (Texas, 1904)
        • Based on Frazer v. Brown groundwater is occult in nature so even though cause and effect can be shown and that there were no corollary rights assigned to East then the case is damnum abs que injuria [an injury that can not be remedied]
  • 29. Politics – Water Law
    • Federal Law
      • Very little, based on Interstate Commerce and Frazer v. Brown (Ohio,1861)
    • States
      • Most water regulation is done by states or by regions within a state
      • Texas Water Development Board and Texas Water Conservation Districts
  • 30. Politics – Allocation and Management
    • “ Tragedy of the Commons” (Garret Harden)
    • Decision Support Systems (DSS)
      • Combines science, opinion and community wants and needs into a sustainability model
      • Outcome Based
    • Uses Community based decisions on future conditions to determine current and future allocations
  • 31. Politics – DSS
    • Software
      • MODFLOW
      • Custom DSS software
  • 32. So What About the Megaregion?
    • Spatial coverage
  • 33. So What About the Megaregion?
    • Spatial
      • Cross Political and Legislative Boundaries
      • Cross Cultural Boundaries
      • Cross Regulatory Boundaries
    • Diversity
      • Problems may not me one-to-one
      • Solutions may not be one-to-one
    • Increased Complexity and Quantity
  • 34. Finally….
    • Nothing about the issues or problems are new or unique
    • The scale has just increased
    • The time is past for laissez-fare management and planning and comme ci, comme ç a leadership
    • Best Practices must be developed