Classical greece

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  • 1. Theatre History Greek Theatre
  • 2. Why the Greeks?
    • Because of what happened afterwards:
        • Hellenization (influence of Greek culture)
        • Influence of the Roman Empire
        • Renaissance values (Greece & Rome revisited)
        • Aristotle (criticism as footnotes)
  • 3. Where is Greece?
  • 4.  
  • 5. Timeline
    • 1300 BC Trojan war, worship of Dionysus arrives
    • 800 Homer (Iliad & Odyssey), origin of myths for Greek Drama
    • 800 – 600 Development of the Polis (city-state), rise of the nobles, developed writing from Phoenicians
    • 750 Development of Greek colonies - dependent on control of the sea, states compete for control
    • 650 – 500 Rule of the Tyrants
    • 560 - 510 Peristratus (tyrant) founded City Dionysia
    • 508 - 404 Democracy - Classical Greece
    • 490s War with Persians
  • 6.  
  • 7.
    • 480-404 Golden Age of Athens
      • Socrates, Plato, Aristotle - philosophers
      • Herodotus - father of history as a social science
      • Pythagorus - geometry
      • Hippocrates - oath for physicians
      • Playwrights - Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophones
    • 430-380s Pelopennesian war/Decline of Athens
    • 404 Athens falls, Sparta takes control
    • 371 Thebes takes control
    • Hellenistic Period
    • 338 Macedonia takes political control, Athens continues as cultural capital
    • 336-323 Alexander the Great
    • 146 Rome conquers Greece
  • 8. Classical Greek Culture
    • Never complete/whole, has elements of Helladic, democratic, near eastern, Egyptian, etc.
    • Religion
    • Individual ( Humanism )
    • Democracy
    • Justice
  • 9.
    • Art Concepts
    • Beauty – is part of character, aesthetic, not philosophical. Beauty is realized through actions, art is realized in artworks/not discussion. Consisted of rationality, idealism, proportion, balance.
    • Greek architects - Parthenon, Acropolis
  • 10. Sculpture
  • 11. Architecture
  • 12. Audience
    • 4 Festivals a year – Rural, City, Lenaia, Anthesteria
    • (2 Dithyrambs, satyr play)
    • City Dionysia – c. March 530 B.C. presented in honor of Dionysus, god of wine, fertility, revelry/celebration
    • c. 501, becomes dithyrambs, 3 tragedies and a satyr play, 5 writers compete
    • c. 430 B.C. Oedipus Rex - 3 actors, 1 musician, 15 chorus
    • Play selection & finance
    • Archons (magistrates) give out chorus, choregus pay for it all, playwrights direct
  • 13. Audience
    • Theatre of Dionysus held 14,000 - 17,000 people
    • Performances lasted all day
    • Women and slaves?
    • Special seats for archon, choregoi, city leaders
    • Violence punishable by death
    • Prizes for actors, representatives selected from the audience
    • Plays represent community values, are social events
  • 14. Theatre Architecture
        • orchestra (dancing place)
        • theatron (seeing place)
        • skene (background building with doors)
        • paradoi (chorus entrances)
        • pinakes (flats)
        • periaktoi (triangles)
        • ekkyklema (for revealing bodies) rolls out
        • machina (crane)
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
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  • 19.  
  • 20.  
  • 21. Plays
    • Fifth Century tragic playwrights – 31 0f 1000 survive
        • Aeschylus - introduced 2nd actor, plays dealt with noble families & lofty themes, used chorus extensively, powerful poetry in choral sections, soldier, prominent citizen, fought at Marathon, wrote 90 plays, 7 extant,
        • Sophocles - plot construction, added 3rd actor, exploration of character, focus on individual, innovations in scene painting, single dramas not trilogies, civic leader,
        • Euripides - sympathetic potrayal of women, greater realism, skeptical treatment of gods, ‘modern’, diminished use of chorus
        • Aristophones – old comedy, attacks authority figures, bold comic premise, exagerration, sexual humour
  • 22.
    • Tragic Play Structure
    • a. Prologue
    • b. Parodos - Chorus Entrance
    • c. First Episode - Characters have dialogue (scene)
    • d. First Stasimon - Chorus response
    • e. Exodos - Chorus Exits
  • 23. Aristotle
    • 1. PLOT
    • Beginning i) Exposition
    • ii) Point of Attack
    • iii) Inciting Incident
    • iv) Major Dramatic Question
    • Middle i) Complications
      • ii) Crisis
      • iii) Division of Scenes
      • End Resolution
    • 2. CHARACTERS
    • 3. THOUGHT/IDEA
    • 4. DICTION (Sound)
    • 5. MUSIC
    • 6. SPECTACLE
  • 24. Acting
    • In early days playwright was the single actor, Thespis considered the first actor in 6th Cent. B.C. (534)
    • Aeschylus added second actor
    • By Sophocles it was three semi-professional actors playing multiple roles through the use of masks.
    • Emphasis on voice’s ability to express character, no facial expression, use of body to express emotion
    • Chorus
    • 5 functions of the Greek Chorus
    • i) group character, gives advice, expresses opinion
    • ii) expresses author’s point of view
    • iii) ideal spectator, model the audience’s response
    • iv) establish mood
    • v) spectacle
  • 25.  
  • 26.