Understanding the prokaryote, plant and animal cell

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  • 1. Understanding the prokaryote, plant and animal cell “anatomy”
  • 2. Prokaryote Structure
    Capsule - Found in most bacterial cells, additional outer covering protects the cell when it is eaten by other organisms, assists in retaining moisture, and helps the cell adhere to surfaces and nutrients. 
     Flagella - Long, whip-like protrusion that aids in cellular locomotion.
    Cell Wall - Outer covering of most cells that protects the bacterial cell and gives it shape.
  • 3.  Cell Membrane or Plasma Membrane - Surrounds the cell's cytoplasm and regulates the flow of substances in and out of the cell.
    Cytoplasm - A gel-like substance composed mainly of water that also contains enzymes, salts, cell components, and various organic molecules.
    Pili - Hair-like structures on the surface of the cell that attach to other bacterial cells. Shorter pili called fimbriae help bacteria attach to surfaces.
  • 4. Plasmids - Gene carrying, circular DNA structures that are not involved in reproduction.
    Nucleiod Region - Area of the cytoplasm that contains the single bacterial DNA molecule.
    Ribosomes - Cell structures responsible for protein production.
  • 5. Animal Cell
    cell membrane - the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell and is semi-permiable.
    centrosome -Where microtubules are made. During mitosis, the centrosome divides and the two parts move to opposite sides of the dividing cell.
    cytoplasm - the jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are located.
    ribosome - small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis.
  • 6. Golgi body - a flattened, layered, sac-like organelle located near the nucleus. It produces the membranes that surround the lysosomes. The Golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from the cell.
    lysosome - round organelles surrounded by a membrane and containing digestive enzymes. This is where the digestion of cell nutrients takes place.
    mitochondrion - The mitochondrion converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP for the cell.
  • 7. Golgi body - A flattened, layered, sac-like organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is located
    nuclear membrane - the membrane that surrounds the nucleus.
    nucleolus - an organelle within the nucleus - it is where ribosomal RNA is produced
    nucleus - spherical body containing many organelles, including the nucleolus. The nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell and contains DNA.
  • 8. rough endoplasmic reticulum - (rough ER)Rough ER is covered with ribosomes that give it a rough appearance. Rough ER transports materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks called cisternae.
    smooth endoplasmic reticulum - (smooth ER) The space within the ER is called the ER lumen. Smooth ER transports materials through the cell. It contains enzymes and produces and digests lipids and membrane proteins.
    vacuole - fluid-filled, membrane-surrounded cavities inside a cell. The vacuole fills with food being digested andwaste material that is on its way out of the cell.
  • 9. Plant cell
    amyloplast - an organelle in some plant cells that stores starch.
    ATP – A high-energy molecule used for energy storage by organisms.
    cell membrane - the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell, but is inside the cell wall, is semi permeable, allowing some substances to pass into the cell and blocking others.
    cell wall - This layer of cellulose fiber gives the cell most of its support and structure.
  • 10. centrosome The centrosomes is where microtubules are made. During mitosis, the centrosome divides and the two parts move to opposite sides of the dividing cell. Unlike the centrosomes in animal cells, plant cell centrosomes do not have centrioles.
    chlorophyll - chlorophyll is a molecule that can use light energy from sunlight to turn water and carbon dioxide gas into sugar and oxygen.
    chloroplast - an elongated or disc-shaped organelle containing chlorophyll. Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts.
  • 11. christae - the multiply-folded inner membrane of a cell's mitochondria that are finger-like projections.
    cytoplasm - the jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are located.
    Golgi body - The golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from the cell.
  • 12. granum - A stack of thylakoid disks within the chloroplast is called a granum.
    mitochondrion - spherical to rod-shaped organelles with a double membrane.The mitochondrion converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP for the cell.
    nuclear membrane - the membrane that surrounds the nucleus.
    nucleolus - an organelle within the nucleus - it is where ribosomal RNA is produced.
  • 13. nucleus The nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell and contains DNA. The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear membrane.
    photosynthesis - The process in which plants convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into food energy ,oxygen, and water. Chlorophyll or closely-related pigments are essential to the photosynthetic process.
    ribosome - small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis.
  • 14. rough endoplasmic reticulum - (rough ER) Rough ER transport materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks called.
    smooth endoplasmic reticulum - (smooth ER) The space within the ER is called the ER lumen. Smooth ER transport materials through the cell. It contains enzymes and produces and digests lipids and membrane proteins.
    stroma - part of the chloroplasts in plant cells, located within the inner membrane of chloroplasts, between the grana.
  • 15. thylakoid disk - thylakoid disks are disk-shaped membrane structures in chloroplastthat contain chlorophyll. Photosynthesis takes place on thylakoid disks.
    vacuole - a large, membrane-bound space within a plant cell that is filled with fluid and helps maintain the shape of the cell.
  • 16. Citation (because I had to…..)
    http://biology.about.com/od/cellanatomy/ss/prokaryotes.htm
    http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/animals/cell/
    http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/plants/cell/