Chapter 10 <ul><li>Molecular Biology of the Gene </li></ul><ul><li>Part 1 </li></ul>
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>Molecular genetics looks at how genes work on the  molecular level. </li></ul><ul><li>Studying ...
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Our  genes are located on the DNA  which combines with proteins to make o...
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>Nitrogen bases </li></ul>
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>Nucleotide </li></ul>
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><li>The strands of the DNA molecule are composed of the nucleotides  connecte...
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA strand </li></ul>
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><li>DNA has 2 strands that link to each other with hydrogen bonds between the...
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA double strand </li></ul>
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><li>The two strands run in opposite directions from one another. One strand i...
<ul><li>DNA  </li></ul><ul><li>antiparallel  </li></ul><ul><li>strands </li></ul>
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>During the S phase of the cell cycle, the  DNA must replicate...
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>One new strand  of DNA will form along each of the two  origi...
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul>
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>Older, now discarded theories were: 1) that the old DNA was d...
Molecular Genetics This is a short piece of DNA. This will serve as the template or “mother” DNA upon which copies can be ...
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>The process of DNA replication begins with the DNA molecule o...
Molecular Genetics DNA polymerase Original 5  3 strand Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C T C A G G C A A T T T A C G T A...
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>Once the  DNA  has begun to  open ,  nucleotides , floating f...
Molecular Genetics nucleotides A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 5  3 strand Original  3  5 strand A ...
Molecular Genetics nucleotides A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 5  3 strand Original  3  5 strand A ...
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>The DNA polymerase connects the  sugar-phosphate backbones  o...
Molecular Genetics nucleotides Original  3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C T G A A G C T C T G A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G ...
Molecular Genetics A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G...
Molecular Genetics A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G...
Molecular Genetics A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G...
Molecular Genetics A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G...
Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C T G A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C T G A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C T G A C C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C G A A C T C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C G A A C T C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C G A A C T C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C G A A C T C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C G A A C T C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C G A A C T C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C G A A C T C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G ...
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>Building the new 3  5 strand using the original 5  3 strand...
Molecular Genetics nucleotides A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 5  3 strand Original  3  5 strand A ...
Molecular Genetics Original 5  3 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A...
Molecular Genetics A A G G C C T T C C T T G A G C T C T G A Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T ...
Molecular Genetics A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A ...
Molecular Genetics A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A ...
Molecular Genetics A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A ...
Molecular Genetics A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T A G C Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T A G C Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T A G C Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T A G C Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T A G C Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T A G C Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C...
Molecular Genetics A C T A G C Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T A G G C T C C T T ...
Molecular Genetics A C T A G C Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T A G G C T C C T T ...
Molecular Genetics A C T A G C Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T A G G C T C C T T ...
Molecular Genetics A C T A G C Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T A G G C T C C T T ...
Molecular Genetics A C T A G C Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T A G G C T C C T T ...
Molecular Genetics A C T A G C Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T A G G C T C C T T ...
Molecular Genetics A C T A G C Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T A G G C T C C T T ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A C T A G C Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T A...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A C T A G C Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T A...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A C T A G C Original  3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T A...
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>Once the fragments are made, another enzyme,  DNA ligase , mo...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand C C T T G A C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand C C T T G A C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand C C T T G A C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand C C T T G A C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand C C T T G A C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand C C T T G A C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G ...
Molecular Genetics C C T T G A C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand C C T T G A C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand C C T T G A C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G ...
Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand C C T T G A C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G ...
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>The result is  two identical “daughter” copies  of the double...
Molecular Genetics Now we have two DNA molecules that are identical to each other and to the original DNA.  These are sist...
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>This process  does not just start at one end  of the DNA and ...
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul>
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>At each replication site, DNA  polymerase attaches  to each s...
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>As the enzyme moves, the DNA  opens more and the bubbles get ...
Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul>
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Intro chapter 10 part1a

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Intro chapter 10 part1a

  1. 1. Chapter 10 <ul><li>Molecular Biology of the Gene </li></ul><ul><li>Part 1 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>Molecular genetics looks at how genes work on the molecular level. </li></ul><ul><li>Studying molecular genetics means studying DNA, RNA and proteins . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Our genes are located on the DNA which combines with proteins to make our chromosomes. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is composed of many monomer units called nucleotides (composed of a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate and 1 of 4 nitrogen bases. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>Nitrogen bases </li></ul>
  5. 5. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>Nucleotide </li></ul>
  6. 6. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><li>The strands of the DNA molecule are composed of the nucleotides connected sugar to phosphate (making a sugar-phosphate backbone) with the nitrogen bases dangling off to one side. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA strand </li></ul>
  8. 8. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><li>DNA has 2 strands that link to each other with hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen bases. </li></ul><ul><li>When matching DNA with DNA the bases always match up as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Adenine – Thymine </li></ul><ul><li>Thymine – Adenine </li></ul><ul><li>Guanine – Cytosine </li></ul><ul><li>Cytosine – Guanine . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA double strand </li></ul>
  10. 10. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><li>The two strands run in opposite directions from one another. One strand is called the 3  5 strand , while the other is called the 5  3 strand . </li></ul><ul><li>The numbers just refer to how the phosphates attach to the sugar’s carbon atoms. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><li>antiparallel </li></ul><ul><li>strands </li></ul>
  12. 12. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>During the S phase of the cell cycle, the DNA must replicate itself so that the cell can divide. </li></ul><ul><li>The DNA present in the cell serves as a template upon which new DNA will form. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>One new strand of DNA will form along each of the two original strands of DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>The resulting sister chromatids will each have one original strand and one new strand. This is called the semi-conservative model. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul>
  15. 15. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>Older, now discarded theories were: 1) that the old DNA was destroyed and two brand new DNA molecules made ( non-conservative ). </li></ul><ul><li>2) that one of the final 2 DNA molecules was the original and the other was entirely new ( conservative ). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Molecular Genetics This is a short piece of DNA. This will serve as the template or “mother” DNA upon which copies can be made. Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A
  17. 17. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>The process of DNA replication begins with the DNA molecule opening up to allow the strands to be copied. </li></ul><ul><li>This is initiated by an enzyme called DNA polymerase . (an enzyme that makes the DNA polymer). </li></ul>
  18. 18. Molecular Genetics DNA polymerase Original 5  3 strand Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C T C A G G C A A T T T A C G T A G C A T A T C G C G T A A T A T G C C G C G A T C G T A
  19. 19. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>Once the DNA has begun to open , nucleotides , floating freely in the nucleoplasm, begin to come in and align themselves with their complementary mates on the original DNA strands. </li></ul><ul><li>These nucleotides will become new strands connecting to each original strand. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Molecular Genetics nucleotides A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 5  3 strand Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C T C A G G C A A T T T A C G T A G C A T A T C G C G T A A T A T G C C G C G A T C G T A
  21. 21. Molecular Genetics nucleotides A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 5  3 strand Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C T C A G G C A A T T T A C G T A G C A T A T C G C G T A A T A T G C C G C G A T C G T A
  22. 22. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>The DNA polymerase connects the sugar-phosphate backbones of the new strands but it can only add nucleotides from the 5 end to the three end. </li></ul><ul><li>On the original 3  5 strand , a new 5  3 strand will be built . This strand is simple for the polymerase to join together. The enzyme connects the nucleotides smoothly one by one all along the strand to the end. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Molecular Genetics nucleotides Original 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C T G A A G C T C T G A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A
  24. 24. Molecular Genetics A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G
  25. 25. Molecular Genetics A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G
  26. 26. Molecular Genetics A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G
  27. 27. Molecular Genetics A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G
  28. 28. Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G G C A
  29. 29. Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G G C A
  30. 30. Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G G C A
  31. 31. Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G G C A T A G
  32. 32. Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G G C A T A G
  33. 33. Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G G C A T A G
  34. 34. Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G G C A T A G C A T
  35. 35. Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G G C A T A G C A T
  36. 36. Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand A C C T C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G G C A T A G C A T
  37. 37. Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C T G A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A A T Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G G C A T A G C A T C G A
  38. 38. Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C T G A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A A T Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G G C A T A G C A T C G A
  39. 39. Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C T G A C C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A A T Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G G C A T A G C A T C G A T
  40. 40. Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A A T Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G G C A T A G C A T C A G T C A
  41. 41. Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C T G A A C T C T G C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A A T Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G G C A T A G C A T C A G T C A G
  42. 42. Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C G A A C T C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T T C G A T Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G G C A T A G C A T C A G T C G A A C G G T
  43. 43. Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C G A A C T C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T T C G A T Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G G C A T A G C A T C A G T C G A A C G G T
  44. 44. Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C G A A C T C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T T C G A T Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G G C A T A G C A T C A G T C G A A C G G T
  45. 45. Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C G A A C T C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T T C G A T Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G G C A T A G C A T C A G T C G A A C G G T
  46. 46. Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C G A A C T C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T T C G A T Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G G C A T A G C A T C A G T C G A A C G G T T A
  47. 47. Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C G A A C T C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T T C G A T Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G G C A T A G C A T C A G T C G A A C G G T T A
  48. 48. Molecular Genetics NEW 5  3 strand C C C G A A C T C T A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T T C G A T Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T G T G G C A T A G C A T C A G T C G A A C G G T T A
  49. 49. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>Building the new 3  5 strand using the original 5  3 strand as the template is a little more difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>Since polymerase can only add new bases from the 5 end to the 3 end, it can only join the nucleotides together in short fragments when building a 3  5 strand. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Molecular Genetics nucleotides A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 5  3 strand Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C T C A G G C A A T T T A C G T A G C A T A T C G C G T A A T A T G C C G C G A T C G T A
  51. 51. Molecular Genetics Original 5  3 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T A
  52. 52. Molecular Genetics A A G G C C T T C C T T G A G C T C T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C
  53. 53. Molecular Genetics A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C
  54. 54. Molecular Genetics A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C
  55. 55. Molecular Genetics A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C
  56. 56. Molecular Genetics A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C
  57. 57. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T
  58. 58. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T
  59. 59. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T
  60. 60. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T
  61. 61. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T
  62. 62. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T
  63. 63. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T
  64. 64. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T
  65. 65. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T
  66. 66. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T
  67. 67. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T
  68. 68. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G
  69. 69. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A
  70. 70. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T C C T T G A A G C T C T G A Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A
  71. 71. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T A G C Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T C C T T G A T C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A
  72. 72. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T A G C Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T C C T T G A T C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C
  73. 73. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T A G C Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T C C T T G A T C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G
  74. 74. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T A G C Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T C C T T G A T C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A
  75. 75. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T A G C Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T C C T T G A T C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C
  76. 76. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A A G G C C T T A G C Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T C C T T G A T C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C
  77. 77. Molecular Genetics A C T A G C Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T A G G C T C C T T G A T C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C
  78. 78. Molecular Genetics A C T A G C Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T A G G C T C C T T G A T C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C A
  79. 79. Molecular Genetics A C T A G C Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T A G G C T C C T T G A T C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C A C
  80. 80. Molecular Genetics A C T A G C Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T A G G C T C C T T G A T C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C A C G
  81. 81. Molecular Genetics A C T A G C Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T A G G C T C C T T G A T C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C A C G T
  82. 82. Molecular Genetics A C T A G C Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T A G G C T C C T T G A T C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C A C G T
  83. 83. Molecular Genetics A C T A G C Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T A G G C T C C T T G A T C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C A C G T T
  84. 84. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A C T A G C Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T A G G C T C C T T G A T C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C A C G T T A
  85. 85. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A C T A G C Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T A G G C T C C T T G A T C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C A C G T T A
  86. 86. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand A C T A G C Original 3  5 strand A G T C G C A A T C T G A T G C T A T G C C A C T A G G C T C C T T G A T C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C A C G T T A
  87. 87. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>Once the fragments are made, another enzyme, DNA ligase , moves along the chain, connecting the fragments to each other. </li></ul>
  88. 88. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand C C T T G A C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C A C G T T A DNA ligase
  89. 89. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand C C T T G A C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C A C G T T A DNA ligase
  90. 90. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand C C T T G A C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C A C G T T A DNA ligase
  91. 91. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand C C T T G A C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C A C G T T A DNA ligase
  92. 92. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand C C T T G A C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C A C G T T A DNA ligase
  93. 93. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand C C T T G A C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C A C G T T A DNA ligase
  94. 94. Molecular Genetics C C T T G A C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C A C G T T A NEW 3  5 strand DNA ligase
  95. 95. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand C C T T G A C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C A C G T T A DNA ligase
  96. 96. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand C C T T G A C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C A C G T T A DNA ligase
  97. 97. Molecular Genetics NEW 3  5 strand C C T T G A C T G A Original 5  3 strand T C A G G C T T A G A C T A C G A T A C G G T G A T C T G A C G A C A C G T T A DNA ligase
  98. 98. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>The result is two identical “daughter” copies of the double stranded DNA which are also identical to the original “mother” double stranded DNA. </li></ul>
  99. 99. Molecular Genetics Now we have two DNA molecules that are identical to each other and to the original DNA. These are sister chromatids. They are still connected to each other at the centromere Newly formed 5  3 strand Original 3  5 strand Original 5  3 strand Newly formed 3  5 strand centromere A G T C G C T C A G G C A A T T T A C G T A G C A T A T C G C G T A A T A T G C C G C G A T C G T A A G T C G C T C A G G C A A T T T A C G T A G C A T A T C G C G T A A T A T G C C G C G A T C G T A
  100. 100. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>This process does not just start at one end of the DNA and run through to the other end. That would take a very long time and there is too much risk of error. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead several points along the DNA open up simultaneously. These points are called replication origin sites. As the DNA opens wider, these sites form replication bubbles. </li></ul>
  101. 101. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul>
  102. 102. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>At each replication site, DNA polymerase attaches to each strand and begins to run down the strand, bringing in DNA nucleotides to line up with the nucleotides on the strand. </li></ul>
  103. 103. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul><ul><li>As the enzyme moves, the DNA opens more and the bubbles get larger until they finally merge as the replication process is completed. </li></ul>
  104. 104. Molecular Genetics <ul><li>DNA Replication </li></ul>

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