Sport Management - Sport & Leisure Industry - WK13 - Monitoring and Evaluation

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  • 1. Sport Management Sport& Leisure Industry WK 13 Monitoring & Evaluation
  • 2. Monitoring & Evaluation Last week Project action plan • Setting SMART objectives • Work breakdown structure • Gantt Chart
  • 3. Monitoring & Evaluation Today‟s session 1. Understand the difference between Sport4All, Sport4Good and Sport + projects and decide or identify which term applies to your project. 2. Understand the need to identify your projects developmental focus and project rationale. 3. Understand why we monitor and evaluate sporting projects. 4. Understand one of the potential models (Coalter) for how we monitor and evaluate sporting projects.
  • 4. Monitoring & Evaluation Sport as more than just sport
  • 5. Monitoring & Evaluation Sport as more than just sport DCMS‟s Game Plan (2002) states: “The futility of arguing whether sport is good or bad has been observed by several authors. Sport, like most activities, is not a priori good or bad, but has the potential of producing both positive and negative outcomes…Questions like „What conditions are necessary for sport to have beneficial outcomes?‟ must be asked more often.”
  • 6. Monitoring & Evaluation Sport as more than just sport - Social-emotional function: sport‟s contribution to social-psychological stability. - Socialisation function: sport‟s contribution to the reinforcement of cultural norms and mores. - Integrative function: sport‟s contribution to the integration of individuals and groups in society. - Political function: sport‟s use as a political tool for ideological purposes. - Social mobility function: sport‟s potential to increase social improvement through enhanced prospects. Jarvie (2006 p. 24)
  • 7. Monitoring & Evaluation Sport as more than just sport
  • 8. Monitoring & Evaluation Sport as more than just sport
  • 9. Monitoring & Evaluation Sport as more than just sport We use sport as a tool in 3 types of sporting project / event: Sport 4 All Sport 4 Good Sport + … or … + Sport
  • 10. Monitoring & Evaluation Sport as more than just sport Sport 4 All The main aim of such programmes is sporting inclusion – „getting more people to play more sport‟ (Collins, 1995) „The process which enhances opportunities for all people of all ages, degrees of interest and levels of ability to take part, get better and excel in their chosen sporting activities‟ (Eady, 1993) …„a process whereby effective opportunities, processes, systems and structures are set up to enable and encourage people in all particular groups and areas to take part in sport and recreation or to improve their performance to whatever level they desire‟ (Collins, 1995 p.21) • Provision of opportunities to progress and to develop sporting skills and expertise • Provision of opportunities to move from recreational participation to competition or excellence • Training and support of leaders and coaches • Establishment of links between school, sports clubs and the wider community. (Coalter, 2002)
  • 11. Monitoring & Evaluation Sport as more than just sport Sport 4 Good DCMS‟s Policy Action Team made the claim that… because of its wide popularity and inherent properties, sport can contribute to neighbourhood renewal by improving communities on four indicators: • Health • Crime • Employment • Education “Community approaches to sport and physical recreation stress values of personal, social and community development, and co-operation and respect for cultural and sub-cultural diversity and pluralism” Haywood (1994 pp. 127-128)
  • 12. Monitoring & Evaluation Sport as more than just sport Sport + … or … + Sport “Incorporated into the definition of „sport‟ are all forms of physical activity that contribute to physical fitness, mental well-being and social interaction. These include: play; recreation; organized, casual or competitive sport; and indigenous sports or games.” • Individual development • Health promotion and disease prevention • Promotion of gender equality • Social integration and the development of social capital • Peace building and conflict prevention/resolution • Post-disaster/trauma relief and normalisation of life • Economic development United Nations Inter-agency Taskforce (2003)
  • 13. Monitoring & Evaluation Your project: Developing a focus Over the coming days you‟ll need to decipher what sort of project / event you are running. Sport 4 All? Sport 4 Good? Sport +? To do that you‟ll need a FOCUS beyond what we‟ve already considered…
  • 14. Monitoring & Evaluation Your project: Developing a focus So you‟re creating a Sport 4 Good, Sport 4 All or Sport + project/event, so you need a focus… Healthier Individual • Building self-confidence • Building self-efficacy • Health benefits – specifically? Healthier Society • Enabling equality of sporting access (gender, disability) • Building social capital (bridging/bonding) When choosing your focus, consider your assignment brief which requires you to… „market and run a sports event with the aim of developing cohort cohesion‟
  • 15. Monitoring & Evaluation Your project: Developing a focus • Your immediate concern should be in deciding upon an appropriate focus and then ensuring you become familiar with the concept of your focus. (Whatever that may be. E.g. Social capital, self-efficacy, etc.) • Whatever you choose, you need to investigate the concept and get to understand it as you‟ll be needing to modify your event to ensure you meet your focus based aim. You‟ll also need to understand it so as to be able to measure whether it occurred, and to what extent it occurred, as a result of your event. So, firstly, how is your event going to address your focus?...
  • 16. Monitoring & Evaluation To address any focus, your event needs to deliver two types of conditions… 1. Necessary conditions Taking part in sport is certainly a necessary condition for desired outcomes to be achieved and increased participation is a clear objective of all programmes. However, we also cannot assume that all those who take part in sport experience it the same way and obtain the intended benefits. 2. Sufficient conditions Sufficient conditions refer to the nature of processes and the various organisational and programme components which lead to the achievement of desired outcomes. For example, Patriksson (1995: 128) has argued that: “Sport, like most activities ….has the potential of producing both positive and negative outcomes. Questions like „what conditions are necessary for sport to have beneficial outcomes?‟ must be asked more often”. So, what is it about your programme that will maximise the possibility of addressing your focus? You are all delivering „necessary conditions‟ just by running a sporting event, but what „sufficient conditions‟ are you ensuring exist within your project to make sure you‟re addressing whatever your focus may be? Your project: Developing a focus
  • 17. Monitoring & Evaluation Why monitor and evaluate? •There are a vast number of resources, tools and support materials available on Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) in the development and humanitarian response sectors. • For the specific area of Sport Development this is not necessarily the case • Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) is a crucial part of assessing the extent to which Sport & Development projects are making a difference.
  • 18. Monitoring & Evaluation Why monitor and evaluate? Monitoring… ..is the regular, systematic, collection and analysis of information related to a planned and agreed programme of action. This provides evidence of the extent to which the programme is being delivered as intended, meeting its targets and making progress towards the achievement of its objectives. Monitoring information can also identify the extent to which changes and adaptations are required. Evaluation…. …. is the process of undertaking a systematic and objective examination of monitoring information in order to answer agreed questions and make judgements on the basis of agreed criteria. Concerns may relate to the efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability of an organisation or programme. The intention is not simply to assess what impacts have occurred, but why, what lessons can be learnt and how the programme might be improved. Evaluation is also an ongoing, if less regular, process and provides the basis for learning and organisational and programme development.
  • 19. Monitoring & Evaluation Why monitor and evaluate? Evaluations should help to draw conclusions about five main aspects of the intervention: • Relevance • Effectiveness • Efficiency • Impact • Sustainability Information gathered in relation to these aspects during the monitoring process provides the basis for the evaluative analysis.
  • 20. Monitoring & Evaluation How are we to monitor and evaluate? Aims / Objectives. Consultation with community / stakeholders. Audit of conditions / resources. Aims / Objectives (affirmed or revised). Performance indicators. Inputs. Outputs 1 (Staff training/development). Outputs 2. Programmes: Sporting/non-sporting (Content/process). Sporting inclusion. Equity/target groups. Sporting outcomes. Skills competencies. Intermediate outcomes. Personal/Social development. Impacts. Changed behaviors. Coalter, F. (2008) Sport-in-development: A monitoring and evaluation manual.
  • 21. Monitoring & Evaluation How are we to monitor and evaluate? Aims / Objectives. Consultation with community / stakeholders. Audit of conditions / resources. Aims / Objectives (affirmed or revised). Performance indicators. Inputs. Outputs 1 (Staff training/development). Outputs 2. Programmes: Sporting/non-sporting (Content/process). Sporting inclusion. Equity/target groups. Sporting outcomes. Skills competencies. Intermediate outcomes. Personal/Social development. Impacts. Changed behaviors. • Already have objectives. • They might change after this session. • That‟s fine – it‟s part of the process.
  • 22. Monitoring & Evaluation How are we to monitor and evaluate? Aims / Objectives. Consultation with community / stakeholders. Audit of conditions / resources. Aims / Objectives (affirmed or revised). Performance indicators. Inputs. Outputs 1 (Staff training/development). Outputs 2. Programmes: Sporting/non-sporting (Content/process). Sporting inclusion. Equity/target groups. Sporting outcomes. Skills competencies. Intermediate outcomes. Personal/Social development. Impacts. Changed behaviors. • This is where we are currently. Although you‟ll be rapidly moving through the stages of the M & E model in the coming weeks. • Two things here: 1. Conditions: investigated through internet and face to face research. Consider what your NGB is doing nationally and locally. Consider participation figures. Consider what local and Uni clubs are doing. Consider timing (seasonal & academic). Consider relevant events (tournaments). Think micro (local) and macro (national) factors as to why your event is relevant. This is all the context your event is operating within and gives you your rationale. 2. Community & Stakeholders: What do they require? What do your stakeholders require (teams, Uni? - Consider assignment brief). What does your community (target market - potential participants) require from your event? What do they want from your event? How will you find these things out? • Your assignment brief asks you to develop cohort cohesion. Do you have a baseline for how much „cohort cohesion‟ is currently occurring? If not, find out! • Consider completing a PEST analysis.
  • 23. Monitoring & Evaluation How are we to monitor and evaluate? Aims / Objectives. Consultation with community / stakeholders. Audit of conditions / resources. Aims / Objectives (affirmed or revised). Performance indicators. Inputs. Outputs 1 (Staff training/development). Outputs 2. Programmes: Sporting/non-sporting (Content/process). Sporting inclusion. Equity/target groups. Sporting outcomes. Skills competencies. Intermediate outcomes. Personal/Social development. Impacts. Changed behaviors. • Considering your research in the previous stage, you now affirm or revise your aims and objectives. • Aims must consider the assignment brief, your type of event (sport4good, etc) and your event focus (enhancing social capital, developing self-efficacy, etc.) and be general. • Your objectives must be SMART. • At this stage don‟t change them again. Get them set in stone. • Performance indicators are the factors you will monitor to assess whether you are meeting/have met your aims/objectives.
  • 24. Monitoring & Evaluation How are we to monitor and evaluate? Aims / Objectives. Consultation with community / stakeholders. Audit of conditions / resources. Aims / Objectives (affirmed or revised). Performance indicators. Inputs. Outputs 1 (Staff training/development). Outputs 2. Programmes: Sporting/non-sporting (Content/process). Sporting inclusion. Equity/target groups. Sporting outcomes. Skills competencies. Intermediate outcomes. Personal/Social development. Impacts. Changed behaviors.
  • 25. Monitoring & Evaluation How are we to monitor and evaluate? Aims / Objectives. Consultation with community / stakeholders. Audit of conditions / resources. Aims / Objectives (affirmed or revised). Performance indicators. Inputs. Outputs 1 (Staff training/development). Outputs 2. Programmes: Sporting/non-sporting (Content/process). Sporting inclusion. Equity/target groups. Sporting outcomes. Skills competencies. Intermediate outcomes. Personal/Social development. Impacts. Changed behaviors. • This is your project/event. • Your inputs into the situation. • How will its structure contribute to you addressing your focus and achieving your aims and objectives. • What „necessary‟ and „sufficient conditions‟ are within your event in order to do this. • Your event may be different from what you originally envisaged.
  • 26. Monitoring & Evaluation How are we to monitor and evaluate? Aims / Objectives. Consultation with community / stakeholders. Audit of conditions / resources. Aims / Objectives (affirmed or revised). Performance indicators. Inputs. Outputs 1 (Staff training/development). Outputs 2. Programmes: Sporting/non-sporting (Content/process). Sporting inclusion. Equity/target groups. Sporting outcomes. Skills competencies. Intermediate outcomes. Personal/Social development. Impacts. Changed behaviors. • „Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime‟. • Relevant for your projects?
  • 27. Monitoring & Evaluation How are we to monitor and evaluate? Aims / Objectives. Consultation with community / stakeholders. Audit of conditions / resources. Aims / Objectives (affirmed or revised). Performance indicators. Inputs. Outputs 1 (Staff training/development). Outputs 2. Programmes: Sporting/non-sporting (Content/process). Sporting inclusion. Equity/target groups. Sporting outcomes. Skills competencies. Intermediate outcomes. Personal/Social development. Impacts. Changed behaviors. Providing your inputs (your event) was well considered and addressed your focus, aims and objectives by providing „sufficient conditions‟ to do so, then the next four stages of the M & E model are in gathering data and evaluating your projects effectiveness in four areas.
  • 28. Monitoring & Evaluation How are we to monitor and evaluate? Aims / Objectives. Consultation with community / stakeholders. Audit of conditions / resources. Aims / Objectives (affirmed or revised). Performance indicators. Inputs. Outputs 1 (Staff training/development). Outputs 2. Programmes: Sporting/non-sporting (Content/process). Sporting inclusion. Equity/target groups. Sporting outcomes. Skills competencies. Intermediate outcomes. Personal/Social development. Impacts. Changed behaviors. • Short term data on sporting inclusion. • This gathering data on who attended your event. • Very basic stats on demographics (Including, crucially, year of study) and current participation. • This data may help you access your success in some of your objectives. • This is even more significant if you are planning a Sport 4 All event. • You need to find a way to collect this data.
  • 29. Monitoring & Evaluation How are we to monitor and evaluate? Aims / Objectives. Consultation with community / stakeholders. Audit of conditions / resources. Aims / Objectives (affirmed or revised). Performance indicators. Inputs. Outputs 1 (Staff training/development). Outputs 2. Programmes: Sporting/non-sporting (Content/process). Sporting inclusion. Equity/target groups. Sporting outcomes. Skills competencies. Intermediate outcomes. Personal/Social development. Impacts. Changed behaviors. • Short term data on sporting outcomes . • This relates to the core sporting aims of the programme – the extent to which participants develop core physical literacy and sporting skills and lay the basis for ongoing commitment to sport. • Have participants improved certain sporting/physical skills as a result of their participation. • More significant if you have a focus upon health benefits as this data will help you to ascertain whether you‟ve achieved your aims & objectives. • You need to find a way to collect this data.
  • 30. Monitoring & Evaluation How are we to monitor and evaluate? Aims / Objectives. Consultation with community / stakeholders. Audit of conditions / resources. Aims / Objectives (affirmed or revised). Performance indicators. Inputs. Outputs 1 (Staff training/development). Outputs 2. Programmes: Sporting/non-sporting (Content/process). Sporting inclusion. Equity/target groups. Sporting outcomes. Skills competencies. Intermediate outcomes. Personal/Social development. Impacts. Changed behaviors. • Medium term data on personal and social development. • You may be wanting to find out data regarding whether „cohort cohesion‟ has been potentially increased by your event or whether social capital has been built because of your event (if that was your focus). • What you ask and how you ask it depends upon your focus, aims and objectives and the method you use to get the data.
  • 31. Monitoring & Evaluation How are we to monitor and evaluate? Aims / Objectives. Consultation with community / stakeholders. Audit of conditions / resources. Aims / Objectives (affirmed or revised). Performance indicators. Inputs. Outputs 1 (Staff training/development). Outputs 2. Programmes: Sporting/non-sporting (Content/process). Sporting inclusion. Equity/target groups. Sporting outcomes. Skills competencies. Intermediate outcomes. Personal/Social development. Impacts. Changed behaviors. • Longer term data on whether you‟ve changed a person‟s behavior because of your program. • Have they joined a dodgeball club because of your event? • Are they more likely to socialise with others from different study years? • Remember your focus/aims/objectives (don‟t seek to find out things which are irrelevant to your focus/aims/objectives). • Potentially not done in your timeframe, but you can propose a follow up questionnaire a month into next year, or whenever you feel it‟s appropriate.
  • 32. Monitoring & Evaluation How are we to monitor and evaluate? Aims / Objectives. Consultation with community / stakeholders. Audit of conditions / resources. Aims / Objectives (affirmed or revised). Performance indicators. Inputs. Outputs 1 (Staff training/development). Outputs 2 Programmes: Sporting/non-sporting (Content/process). Sporting inclusion. Equity/target groups. Sporting outcomes. Skills competencies. Intermediate outcomes. Personal/Social development. Impacts. Changed behaviors. Coalter, F. (2008) Sport-in-development: A monitoring and evaluation manual.
  • 33. Monitoring & Evaluation Next week: Progress presentations WHAT YOU’RE DOING 1. Type of project/event (e.g Sport +, Sport 4 All, etc.). 2. Focus (e.g Social Capital.) 3. Aims (Remember, they are general.) 4. Objectives (Must be SMART.) 5. Yourorganisations mission statement. WHY YOU’RE DOING IT 6. Project Rationale. (The macro and micro factors as to why your event/project is necessary, timely and relevant. This is the context your event is operating within. Justify why your project/event is important). HOW YOU’RE DOING IT 7. How are you addressing the 4 P‟s (product, price, place, promotion) 8. Work breakdown structure. 9. Gantt Chart (Including who‟s been responsible, or is responsible, for which tasks.) 10. Yourorganisations brand (visual and verbal identity). 11. How are you going to fulfill the 10 stages of the Coalter M & E model? Construct and present a professional PowerPoint presentation. Imagine you are reporting your progress to the commissioners of your project/event. It should include…
  • 34. Monitoring & Evaluation Essential Reading Coalter‟s Monitoring and Evaluation model we used today: Coalter, F. (2008) Sport-in-development: A monitoring and evaluation manual. Available at: http://assets.sportanddev.org/downloads/10__sport_in_development__a_monit oring_and_evaluation_manual.pdf The IOC‟s sport management guide: International Olympic Committee (2013) Get moving: The IOC guide to managing sport for all programmes. Available at: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Olympism_in_action/Sport%20for%20all/spt -tk-en.pdf You‟ll also need to invest significant time into investigating whatever your focus is (e.g. Social Capital) and into your projects rationale (The context it‟s operating in).
  • 35. Monitoring & Evaluation Today‟s session 1. Understand the difference between Sport4All, Sport4Good and Sport + projects and decide or identify which term applies to your project. 2. Understand the need to identify your projects developmental focus and project rationale. 3. Understand why we monitor and evaluate sporting projects. 4. Understand one of the potential models for how we monitor and evaluate sporting projects.