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Soc Sci Reviewer Soc Sci Reviewer Presentation Transcript

  • SOC SCI 11 Philippine History with Philippine Constitution and Governance
  • Pre-colonial (Traditional) Philippines
  • Civilization
    • the complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, moral, law, custom, and many other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society
  • Common Traits
    • Hospitality
    • Close family ties
    • Respect for elders
    • Naturally fatalistic
    • Loyalty to a friend or benefactor
    • sensitive
    • Naturally curious
    • Regionalistic
    • cooperative
  • Early Customs and Practices
    • Clothing – Kangan and bahag; baro/camisa and saya, patadyong, tapis
    • House – made up of wood, bamboo, and nipa palm
    • Social classes – (i) nobles (ii) freemen (iii) slaves
    • The position of women – women as equal of men
    • Language – more than a hundred, eight of which may be considered as major languages
  • Foreign Influences
    • Hinduization
    • Sinification
    • Islamization
  • Nation as an Imagined Community
    • Benedict Anderson
  • Imagined Community
    • 1983
    • IMAGINED - the members of even the smallest nations will never know most of their fellow-members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives the image of their communion
    • COMMUNITY - regardless of the actual inequality and exploitation that may prevail in each, the nation is always conceived as a deep, horizontal comradeship. Ultimately it is this fraternity that makes it possible, over the past two centuries, for so many millions of people, not so much to kill, as willingly to die for such limited imaginings
  • Coming of the West
  • Crusade
    • Crusaders tasted different spices that cannot easily be bought in Europe
    • Venice and Goa merchants – the only merchants who had good relations with the Sultan of Egypt
    • Portuguese and Spaniards weren’t able to join the trading system
    • They tried to find other countries rich in spice
  • Pope Alexander VI
    • Portugal – African route (East)
    • Spain – India (West)
    • 1943 – Papal Line of Demarcation –
    • (i) West – Spain (ii) Portugal
  • Magellan
    • The king of Portugal didn’t offer help to Magellan
    • He went to King Charles I of Spain
    • 20 September 1519
    • 5 ships, 235 men
    • 1519 – Guam
    • 1521 – Samar
    • Sebastian de Cano – to Moluccas – November 1521
    • 8 September 1522 – Spain
    • Victoria (the only ship left)
  • Spanish Colonization and Colonial System
  • Aims of Spanish Colonization (3Gs)
    • God – chief policy of converting the natives to Christianity
    • Gold – arose out of the keen struggle among imperialist European nations to control the fabulous spices of Mullucas
    • Glory – enhance fame and prestige of Spain
    • By acquiring the Philippines, Spain became the first global empire in modern times. King Phillip II was the first monarch in history to boast with justifiable pride that the sun never set on Spanish territory, for when it rose in Madrid, it was still early afternoon of the preceding day in Manila.
  • Colonial System
    • Encomienda System
    • Polo y Servicios
  • Awakening
    • More than 100 revolts against Spain
    • Lakan Dula, Raha Sulayman, Magat Salamat, Agustin de Legaspi, Magalat, Bankaw, Tamblot, Sumoroy, Maniago, Malong, Dagohoy, Silang, Palaris, Apolinario dela Cruz
  • Causes of Revolts Against Spain
    • Economic – agrarian disputes with the friars who grabbed the lands of the natives (Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna)
    • Religious – Spanish religious bigotry; some wanted to go back to the worship of their ancestral gods (Igorot, Tamblot, Bankaw, Tapar, Apolinario dela Cruz)
  • Historical Factors of National Awakening
    • Opening of the Philippines to the World
    • Emergence of the enlightened middle class
    • Spanish Revolution of 1868
    • Opening of the Suez Canal
    • Secularization Movement
    • Martyrdom of GOMBURZA
  • Opening of the Philippines to the World
    • Prior to 1834, with the exception of Manila-Mexico contact (1656-1821), the Philippines was virtually isolated by Spain from world influence i.e. foreign books (and ideas) were banned!
  • Emergence of the enlightened middle class
    • Were able to send their children to school (UST, Ateneo, Letran, Santa Isabel, Santa Catalina, La Concordia)
    • Rizal, del Pilar, Paterno, Ponce
  • Spanish Revolution of 1868
    • Resulted to the triumph of liberalism in Spain
    • Led to the restoration of Philippine representation in the Philippines
  • Opening of the Suez Canal
    • 17 November 1869
    • Shortened the sailing distance between Barcelona and Manila
    • Facilitated travel and communication
  • Influx of Liberal Ideas
    • Enlightened ideas of Rouseau (Social Contract), Candide (Voltaire)
    • Filipino intellectuals imbibed the liberal ideas read
  • GOMBURZA’s martyrdom
    • Cavite Mutiny of 1872
    • El Fili – Rizal’s tribute to the Martyrs
  • Spread of Nationalism
  • The Propaganda Movement
    • Since 1872, matters went from bad to worse in the Philippines– deportation of Filipino leaders to the Spanish penal colonies, persecution of innocent intellectuals etc.)
    • Publicity to expose to the Spanish nation and the world the anomalies of Spanish rule in the Philippines
    • Propagandist – not revolutionaries who advocated a bloody revolution against Spain, they were reformist who desired only reforms for the better government and for the welfare of their oppressed people
  • The Propagandists
    • Triumvirate – Rizal (Laguna); del Pilar (Bulacan); Lopez Jaena (Iloilo)
    • Mariano Ponce – Medical student, historian, folklorist
    • Antonio Luna – pharmacist, essayist
    • Pedro Paterno – doctor of law
    • Jomapa – linguist and essayist
    • Isabelo delos Reyes – folklorist, historian
    • Apolinario Mabini – lawyer and political prisoner
    • Juan Luna
    • FR Hidalgo
  • Supporters of the Propaganda Movement
    • Ferdinand Blumentritt – Austrian scholar
    • Miguel Morayta – Spanish historian, Rizal’s professor at Universidad de Madrid
    • Francisco Pi y Margal – Spanish statesman and former President of the first Spanish Republic
  • Reforms Advocated by the Propaganda Movement
    • Restoration of Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortes
    • Equality before the law
    • Filipinization or secularization
    • Establishment of a public school system, without friar supervision, with qualified teachers receiving good salaries
    • Creation of vocational schools of arts and trades in the capital towns of the provinces
  • La Solidaridad
    • Organ of the Propaganda (lived for almost seven years)
    • MH Del Pilar – Plaridel
    • Rizal – Laong Laan
    • Mariano Ponce – Naning, Tigbalang, Kalipulako
    • Antonio Luna – Taga-Ilog
  • Ten Commandments of the Friars
    • Thou shalt worship and love the friars above all.
    • Thou shalt not cheat them of their stipends.
    • Thou shalt sanctify the friars, Sundays or holidays.
    • Thou shall pawn thyself to pay for the burial of thy father and mother.
    • Thou shouldst not die if thou hast not the money to pay for thine internment.
    • Thou shalt not covet his wife.
    • Thou shalt not steal with him.
    • Thou shalt not accuse him even if thou be called a liar.
    • Though shalt not refuse him your wife.
    • Thou shalt not deny him your property.
  • Enemies of the propaganda movement
    • Fray Miguel Lucio Bustamante – wrote the malicious book in Tagalog language ‘Si Tandang Basio Maconat’ (1885) – asserted that the Filipinos are stupid and incapable of attaining high culture; hence, they should be happy to love in ignorance
    • Father Jose Rodriguez and Salvador Font – attackers of Rizal’s ‘Noli Me Tangere’
  • KATIPUNAN
    • Andres Bonifacio founded the Katipunan on the very night that the news of Rizal’s deportation to Dapitan leaked out.
    • 7 July 1892 – Andres Bonifacio, Valentin Diaz, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, Deodata Arellano and a few others
    • Objectives
    • Moral – good manners, hygiene, good moral, etc.
    • Political – separation of the Philippines from Spain
    • Civic – defense of the poor and oppressed