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Girl Effect Your Move

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  • 1. IT'S NO BIG DEAL. JUST THE FUTURE OF HUMANITY.
  • 2. YOUR MOVE PagE 2 WORKING WITH GIRLS TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 3. THE GIRL EFFECT: YOUR MOVE. a business or an NGO, the Whether you are a funder, a policymaker, girl effect needs you to act today. We’re not talking generally this, or vaguely that. We’re talking specific actions and opportunities you can take to deliver the girl effect. Click and go now. 7 WORKING WITH GIRLS 9 Start With Five Whatever you do, it can include girls. 12 Six More To Thrive Twelve ways to sharpen your work to 15 The Number One Opportunity include girls – and accelerate progress for everyone. 19 TAKE THE TEST 20 You Are A Government Or International Organization Already include girls in what you do? 26 You Are A Private Donor Test yourself to see if your answer is 27 You Are A Practitioner Or NGO assumption or fact. There’s a test for 28 You Are a Private Employer each of you. 33 INVEST TODAY 37 SOFEA/BRAC Bangladesh 45 Berhane Hewan/Ethiopia Eight programs that are unleashing the 39 Adolescent Dvlpt Program/Africa 47 Grassroots Girls Initiative girl effect right now – and could get 41 Fundación Paraguaya 49 Young Women In Enterprise/Kenya bigger with some help. 43 The Adolescent Girl Initiative 51 Be! An Entrepreneur/India 55 WHO’S DOING SOMETHING There’s something afoot. See who else is making it happen. 59 THE BIG DEAL 60 Cost And Reward How girls are excluded today, how 62 Mapping The Girl Effect much it’s costing us, and what we’re missing out on. This is not rhetoric. See the numbers here. HAVE FEEDBACK? WE WANT TO HEAR IT. Email info@girleffect.org with “Your Move: Feedback” in the subject line. YOUR MOVE PagE 3 WORKING WITH GIRLS TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 4. CONTRIBUTORS TO THE FOLKS WHO HELPED GET THIS ON PAPER: THANK YOU. One of every six people in the world Jad Chaaban of the American is an adolescent girl living in poverty. University of Beirut, Wendy That’s 600 million people – twice the Cunningham of the World Bank population of the United States. Each and Navtej Dhillon of Wolfensohn one could change our world for the Center at Brookings were the brilliant better, if given the chance. minds behind the economic costing calculations. We’re grateful to their There are a growing number of people creativity and enthusiasm to look at who share this vision. Thanks to them data in new ways, and specifically for and their hard work, we hope this tool helping us to see the girl effect in the will enlist more. numbers. Technical contributions to this work We’re also grateful for the first-ever were made by a talented team of global maps of girls, contributed in girl experts at the Nike Foundation, lightning speed by Alyson Warhurst who oversee a growing, $55 million and her team at Maplecroft. portfolio of girl-specific investments. Their expertise builds on the deep And it all came together with generous insights and guidance of Judith Bruce, and ongoing financial contributions of Senior Associate at the Population Nike, Inc. and the NoVo Foundation. Council. The Girl Effect tent is growing, and The pioneering investments of the UN there’s always room for more. We’re Foundation supported many of the ready for you to make your move. earliest girl-focused programs that also led to the insights you’ll find here. Best, The Girl Effect Team HAVE FEEDBACK? WE WANT TO HEAR IT. Email info@girleffect.org with “Your Move: Feedback” in the subject line. YOUR MOVE PagE 4 WORKING WITH GIRLS TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 5. YOU WERE A TEENAGER ONCE You know everything changes with puberty: your body, your social circle, your economic value and needs. But Mahmuda’s life- changes affect more than just her. at 17, she is a school drop- out, a child bride and the mother of a sick baby. Brent Stirton / Getty imaGeS
  • 6. WORKING WITH GIRLS 1 IT’S NOT THAT HARD. We don’t have to start new programs for girls. We can fit girls into the work we’re doing. The return for our effort? When we use our resources to improve girls’ lives, benefits accelerate for everyone, now and in the future. That’s the girl effect -- a high return investment. If you want to fit girls into your work, But it doesn’t need to. That change just aim for this one goal: catching her is predictable. We can reach girls at the right time. precisely at this moment of transition, with what they need to take a different When a girl hits adolescence, her course. world changes. If she has to walk far away to school, she’s now at risk for Here, you’ll find twelve guidelines to assault. If her family is poor, she is now show you how. They pose a dozen marriageable, and they are forced into ways to sharpen your work to keep a sad, but practical, financial decision. girls, and the world, on a positive path. If she needs to support herself, her body is now her asset. When that window of change opens, it can slam shut fast, and forever. If she drops out of school, gets married, becomes pregnant and is exposed to HIV, the results are irreversible for her and her family. YOUR MOVE PagE START WITH FIVE 7 SIX MORE TO THRIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS THE NUMBER ONE OPPORTUNITY TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 7. TWELVE BY TWELVE. A 12-year-old girl is right on the edge. What happens to her in the next three years – 36 months – will set the course of her whole life, her future kids’ lives, her future grandkids’ lives. If these 12 factors are present in her life, things look good for all of them. START WITH FIVE. THE NUMBER ONE SIX MORE TO THRIVE. OPPORTUNITY. How to set the stage for the girl who Help her navigate her moving world, can offer the greatest change, for and give her a chance to stay on track: 12 the power oF economicS herself, her family and her community: There are no silver bullets in alleviating 6 She underStandS her Body poverty, but changing the economic 1 Find her Learning about her changes helps a girl possibilities for girls goes to the root It’s the most vulnerable girl whose life battle stigma, overcome her fears, and of the barriers she faces. will improve the most, and who will protect her health. bring the greatest return back to her A girl born into poverty is her family’s community. 7 She haS Five FriendS infrastructure and insurance policy. For boys in poverty, adolescence She’s the water carrier, the wood 2 meet her GatekeeperS brings independence. For girls: gatherer, and the caretaker of the Changing girls’ lives means gaining the isolation. Keep her connected to the young, old and sick. trust of her community, and addressing outside world. their attitudes about girls. Her family doesn’t believe she is 8 She haS an older mentor a source of future income. They 3 recruit her No one gets her like someone who’s have little incentive to invest in her Girls aren’t just out and about. Where been there before – but is not her education or in her health. As the and how you meet a girl already tells mother, sister or in-laws. mother of the next generation, she you something about her. passes her illiteracy and ill health on to 9 her hero iS a Girl her children. 4 Give her Space And that girl has the skill and A safe space for her and her friends to confidence to show others how to both But give her a chance, and she’ll prove meet doesn’t sound like much, but it’s lead and follow. She’s not hard to find: them wrong. Then, the whole equation the basic building block for change. one in ten girls has what it takes to shifts. lead others. 5 Give her an id This isn’t speculation. It’s happening Simple proof of age and identity is a 10 She StayS in School today. form of protection, a badge of self Every year in secondary increases her worth, a sign of belonging — and a future income by 15-25%. Yet for every critical document to open new doors. out-of-school boy, there are three girls, worldwide. 11 She StandS up For herSelF She’s an insecure teen girl. Need we say more? Yes, we do: standing up for herself can be a matter of life and death. YOUR MOVE PagE START WITH FIVE 8 SIX MORE TO THRIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS THE NUMBER ONE OPPORTUNITY TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 8. START WITHstage for the girl who can offer the FIVE. How to find, access and set the greatest change, to herself, her family and her community. 1 2 FIND HER. MEET HER GATEKEEPERS. If half of a program’s participants are girls, are you on the road to unleashing Gaining access to girls means gaining the girl effect? Not necessarily. Look the trust of their communities: their behind the details: are these girls truly elders, families, the mothers, mothers- the most vulnerable? Are they the ones in-law, husbands and brothers. who – overlooked and left behind – will deliver the greatest return on a There are few short-cuts here: Trust program investment? is built by on-the-ground partners, over years of delivering high-quality Some categories to seek: benefits to a girl’s community. Critical the child BrideS: these girls have are the attitudes held by the men and abruptly left their childhood. Their boys that surround her. These too can potential will rapidly dwindle. change, with engagement and training. the uneducated: If she’s never A community can visibly and formally been to school, or is significantly express its support through a contract, behind in school, she’s a step behind committing to specific behaviors in and likely headed toward child exchange for program investments. marriage. very younG adoleScent GirlS Continued visibility of a girl-focused (aGeS 10-14) who, as live-in domestic program further embeds it in its help or orphans, live outside the surroundings, setting expectations and protection of family or school. reinforcing girls’ participation. Create posters, post girls’ rights and celebrate hiv-aFFected GirlS: as heads of their achievements. orphaned households, survival can depend on damaging liaisons or sex for money, increasing their already the power oF the Familiar: disproportionately high risk of In 2004, BRAC launched an contracting HIV themselves. innovative microfinance program that grew to serve 40,000 girls. Key to its success was families’ trust in BRAC. one in Five GirlS will be married After serving 110 million people in before her 15th birthday in Ethiopia. 70,000 villages for 30 years, they Berhane Hewan’s safe spaces offer had reason to. BRAC’s community high-risk girls a supportive network, contracts includes the promise: where 11,000 girls delayed their “We will treat our girls and boys equally and strive to provide equal marriages and continued their opportunities for them.” Read more schooling. Read more in Invest Today. about BRAC in Invest Today. YOUR MOVE PagE START WITH FIVE 9 SIX MORE TO THRIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS THE NUMBER ONE OPPORTUNITY TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 9. START WITH FIVE. 3 RECRUIT HER. Girls’ isolation and vulnerability can make them simply hard to find. There are different ways to look, and each will connect a program to a different profile of girl. Approach to Example leaSt moSt vulneraBle vulneraBle Recruitment Girl-to-Girl Through a cohort of 17-19 year old girls, Girls spread the word – particularly graduates Abriendo Oportunidades in Guatemala is who know the program. They reach girls like reaching rural, Mayan girls aged 10-19. themselves, knowing where and how they live. houSe-to-houSe Biruh Tesfa in Ethiopia reaches marginalized girls Trusted community women can get inside homes in cities who have come from the countryside, to find which girls live or work there, and ask often fleeing forced, early marriage. permission for girls’ participation. community StructureS Tostan consults with village leadership, and the Reach girls who already take part in public Ministries of Education, and Culture and other activities via church groups, women’s groups, government agencies in Senegal. tribal organizations and community health days. eXiStinG proGramS Freedom from Hunger recruits girls in India Particpating girls, or participants who have close by connecting to mothers and mothers-in-law contacts who are girls, can help start additional participating in self-help groups. programs for girls. SchoolS Young Women in Enterprise (YWE) in Kenya Government education officials, school reaches secondary school girls via headmasters administration leadership or parent-teacher and requesting teachers to run girls clubs. associations can help identify girl participants. puBlic placeS To recruit girls in dangerous urban slums, Bus stations and market places are unsafe for Vencedoras in Brazil rented a mini-car, a bill girls, but not always. A trained eye can tell the board and a loudspeaker to broadcast an rural girl who’s just arrived in the city from the invitation to an information meeting. girl helping her mother in a daily stall. YOUR MOVE PagE START WITH FIVE 10 SIX MORE TO THRIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS THE NUMBER ONE OPPORTUNITY TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 10. START WITH FIVE. 4 GIVE HER SPACE. Safe Space Do’s and Don’ts If there’s only one thing a program needs to deliver for an adolescent girl, Do: it’s this: a safe space where she can regularly meet friends, feel protected • Leverage existing community facilities for a low-cost solution that carves out and be encouraged to be herself. a fair share of community spaces for girls. • Get girls to help you find one: their local knowledge is invaluable. Ask them Sounds soft, doesn’t it? what they want from their space. • Make sure it’s reliable and conveniently located, ensuring girls can travel to You’d be surprised. the sites without risk or fear of endangerment. • Reinforce the space’s importance by using public signage to communicate its Here, older girls teach basic life skills girl-only hours and program components. to their younger peers. They learn they • Ensure it’s actually safe, with trustworthy guardians, gates and locks. have rights, and they can negotiate and speak up to defend them. Don’t: They learn the difference between spending money on a want versus a • Think you need to build something from scratch. Safe spaces can be need, and how they can save their established in a variety of places at relatively low or no cost, including funds. They gain access to essential youth/community centers, schools, religious institutions, offices in off hours, public and private services like job even under a tree. training and microfinance that would otherwise be out of reach. They find a safety in numbers that extends beyond the walls of the safe An ID not only validates girls as 5 space, into often dangerous environ- individuals, it also connects them to GIVE HER AN ID. ments. a group, and links them to resources. Ultimately, IDs can give girls a sense of She can’t protect herself from child These safe spaces are where it all hap- pride and self. labor, open a bank account to protect pens – where social, human, health and her financial assets, access essential financial assets are created over time health services or vote for change if to lift girls out of poverty. she can’t prove her age and identity. kenyan GirlS are iSSued idS – All of this is true for boys too. Girls perhaps for the first time – through a Save the children’S are just less likely to be present when unique program from the Population kiShoree kontha program in IDs are issued – at a workplace, youth Council, Microsave, K-Rep Bank and rural Bangladesh brings 45,000 center or a school. And girls have Faulu-Kenya. With IDs, girls can girls into safe spaces every day the critical need to prove their age in access and manage bank accounts, with girl leaders who teach learn defense against child marriage. as well as collect other critical life skills, financial literacy, health identification documents and services. and nutrition and how to play, A health certificate, a savings sing and dance. In the community- passbook, a birth certificate, a program donated meeting areas, girls of ID card – all can establish a girl as a all ages thrive. protected citizen with rights. YOUR MOVE PagE START WITH FIVE 11 SIX MORE TO THRIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS THE NUMBER ONE OPPORTUNITY TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 11. SIX MORE TO adolescent girl’s world is THRIVE. Six powerful insights about how an changing around her. Design with these in mind to help a girl in poverty avoid trapdoors, and find opportunity. 6 7 8 SHE UNDERSTANDS SHE HAS FIVE FRIENDS. SHE HAS AN HER BODY. OLDER MENTOR. For boys living in poverty, adolescence marks an entry into public life. For girls, As she becomes a woman, a girl’s status Girls need a female mentor to serve adolescence marks the end of public in her community irrevocably shifts. as a role model, someone near but not life. That much she knows. But she may not necessarily their age, someone familiar know what’s actually happening to her but not related. Girls are withdrawn into homes for physically. their protection. Their social circle Mentors demonstrate that she can shrinks – even for school-going girls With basic health knowledge and make it through, giving her a tangible – just when they need their friends the tools, she can understand puberty, example of success and a confidant. most. overcoming her fear of the unknown. Mentors impart skills, confidence and a She can remain HIV-free. She can sense of protection. Friends are a primary resource for manage her menstruation, battling the learning how to strategize, navigate stigma that can keep her out of school When school challenges, sexual issues and negotiate life. once a month. and marriage pressures arise, girls should feel comfortable turning to her. They are the first-response team If she does become a mother, her to provide resources and support health and her knowledge will directly Mentors should be established, when they face severe pressures influence the starting point of the next flourishing girls and young women. and practical emergencies. They generation — not just in the physical Found in every community, eager are a place to stay for the night, an wellbeing of her newborn, but also mentors will provide their mentees emergency loan, a source of health through her knowledge of how to feed self-confidence and much-needed advice. and raise her children. social validation. Where does she gain five friends? In a safe space. Freedom From hunGer’S technoServe’S younG women reach india program brings in enterpriSe program matches health education to rural girls via young girls from Nairobi’s slum areas Soccer BrinGS vulneraBle a unique platform: their mothers’ with peer mentors in small-business GirlS toGether in Brazil’s microfinance and self-help groups. enterprise clubs, which are further Vencedoras employability program. Girls join their mothers in games led by university student coaches and The solidarity they form on the field developed to teach girls about community business leaders. translates off the field, into new nutrition, HIV, their bodies, and basic friendships, a strong community and hygiene. even job opportunities. YOUR MOVE PagE START WITH FIVE 12 SIX MORE TO THRIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS THE NUMBER ONE OPPORTUNITY TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 12. SIX MORE TO THRIVE. 9 HER HERO IS A GIRL. Unleash A Leader’s Girl Effect In every community, there is a hidden, untapped network of experts on girls. Hire a powerful girl as a leader, and the ripple effect takes off: Her income Who are they? The girls who have goes back into her family; her mentorship ushers younger girls onto a new path; already walked the path of the girls and her public profile shows communities that change is possible. you are trying to reach. Here are some ways to help them They have completed their education against all odds. They are ambitious on their way: survivors with the potential to lead other girls. They speak the local • recruit them puBlicly. language, know their community’s Hire girls to serve locally, and communicate to the community at large that norms, and are committed to its girl leaders are valuable. success. They are the girl leaders – and they will show girls how to be • train them. both collaborative followers and Focus on leadership, organization and negotiation skills, communications, brave leaders. mapping, functional content, and financial literacy. Give them the confidence to transmit information to others. Her contributions are irreplaceable. She knows where to find girls, connect • Form a Group. them to services, and negotiate for Connect and train them together in in girl spaces. Provide them with their participation with unsure families. continuous support, access to mentors, and ongoing skills development Her insights can shape the nuances of throughout their transitions. program design and innovation. She is a public role model, showing girls and • help them with Financial independence. the community alike that a different Pay them a stipend, give them a savings account, and help them protect and path is possible. save their money. She’s been through it and survived. She • honor them aS community leaderS and teacherS. is the ultimate girl leader. Give them a platform to share their knowledge, like teaching a weekly financial literacy class for mothers. Help them create and maintain social contracts with families and the community. inSide aFrica’S larGeSt Slum, the Binti Pamoja Center is a safe space for adolescent girls in Nairobi. It’s led by program graduates, recognizing them as teachers, leaders and role models within their communities and investing in them further to teach other young girls about sexual and reproductive health, financial literacy and life skills. YOUR MOVE PagE START WITH FIVE 13 SIX MORE TO THRIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS THE NUMBER ONE OPPORTUNITY TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 13. SIX MORE TO THRIVE. 11 10 SHE STANDS UP SHE STAYS IN SCHOOL. FOR HERSELF. The forces that keep a little girl out of primary school intensify when she For girls living in the developing world, grows into a teenager. As school fees the forces of poverty will try to pull increase, her family and community her out of school, expose her to early often do not see a reason to pay. marriage, childbirth, sexual violence Her value as a source of free labor and HIV, and change her life forever. or dowry is simply greater than the perceived value of her education. To resist that, she’ll need to stand up for herself. But as anyone who’s For those girls who remain in school, been a teen knows: adolescence is it needs to be a safe, productive when self-esteem takes a nose-dive, environment. Girls need a supervised, when stepping out of the norm seems safe place to complete their inconceivable. homework, away from their home environments. Girls should be trained in leadership, interpersonal, negotiation and Schools’ facilities need to be girl- communications skills. Programs should friendly to ensure privacy and build girls’ self-esteem, give them a discretion, such as separate, hygienic proud identity, equip them with basic toilets. knowledge of how communities work, develop confident self-will, and give The staff needs to have a balance girls the motivation to succeed. of female and male teachers, with teachers being held accountable for These are not add-ons or nice-to- their behavior. Schools must uphold have components of this work. They gender-based violence prohibitions are critical skills that girls will not gain and severe consequences for elsewhere. violations. If girls are not in school, they should For ethnic minority chineSe be provided with equivalent literacy GirlS on the verge of migrating skills. Training should instill in them the to cities for work, Mercy Corps’ expectation that they will use acquired Giving Leadership Opportunities to skills and have the right to participate Young Women (GLOW) program in society, make their own choices and offers the tools to be confident, seek decent work. safe and prepared. After an intensive curriculum addressing life skills, HIV, math, language literacy, GirlS learn how to operate and vocational training, girls who a calculator, write letters and participated secured better paying jobs than those who didn’t. design a community development project in Tostan’s Community Empowerment Program in Senegal. SMS texting will soon be included – giving girls access to another means of sharing information. YOUR MOVE PagE START WITH FIVE 14 SIX MORE TO THRIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS THE NUMBER ONE OPPORTUNITY TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 14. 12 THE POWER OF ECONOMICS. The global community knows that investments in women and in girls’ education reap the greatest gain in social and health progress. Yet girls still only receive less than half a cent of every international aid dollar. What’s going on? We believe an unexplored answer lies What’s left over goes to their siblings’ in economics. education, and often their family’s expenses. Suddenly she is viewed as a Today, a girl is valued in her family – in good investment. Someone who can the household ‘micro-economy’ – as generate prosperity for herself and her the caretaker of the young, old and family. With that shift, other dominoes sick, as the carrier of wood and water, fall into place. Broader attitudes about and in the most desperate situations, as girls change. Families become healthier, collateral for the debt-stricken. and wealthier. The girl effect unfolds. Families see little return on investing in a girl’s education, without visible Who’s doing this well? income for her in the future. There is little incentive for her, her family, her community and her nation to disrupt Check out Invest Today and find six programs around the world that are and transform her status quo, without economically empowering girls today — and could impact many more the hope and prospect of something tomorrow: better. • SOFEA: Social and Financial Empowerment of Adolescents / BRAC Bangladesh But that picture is changing. In Ban- • Adolescent Development Program / BRAC Africa gladesh, in India, in Africa, there are • Adolescent Girls Initiative / The World Bank and partners places where girls are starting small • She’s a Rural Entrepreneur Program / Fundación Paraguaya businesses. The first thing they do with • Young Women In Enterprise / Technoserve Kenya their income? Put themselves back in • BE! An Entrepreneur / Going to School India school. HAVE FEEDBACK? WE WANT TO HEAR IT. Email info@girleffect.org with “Your Move: Feedback” in the subject line. YOUR MOVE PagE START WITH FIVE 15 SIX MORE TO THRIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS THE NUMBER ONE OPPORTUNITY TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 15. YOUR MOVE PagE START WITH FIVE 16 SIX MORE TO THRIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS THE NUMBER ONE OPPORTUNITY TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 16. HAVE YOU MET? If you only do one thing ask her about the for the 600 million challenges she faces. girls in the developing ask her what she Brent Stirton / Getty imaGeS world, do this: spend thinks of her future. an hour or two with an You’ll learn something. adolescent girl who is guaranteed. involved in a program or business you support.
  • 17. TAKE THE TEST 2 LOOK UNDER YOUR HOOD. Often, we don’t target girls because we think we already are. When we direct resources to women, youth or communities, we think we reach girls. But if we are, why are girls suffering higher rates of illiteracy, HIV infection and school drop-out than boys? 3 There is no plot against adolescent 1 girls, no conspiracy to exclude them. iF you are a iF you are a Government They are simply invisible. practitioner or nGo or international orGanization If you walk into a community in the There is a growing cadre of experts in developing world, it’s hard just to see the specific needs of adolescent girls. Girls will decide four of the ten an adolescent girl. Chores and social How do you grade your knowledge, Millennium Development Goals: pressures keep her hidden. skill, experience and impact? How are universal primary education, gender you building your girl expertise? equity, maternal health and the spread No wonder her unique needs are little of HIV/AIDS and other diseases. understood, much less addressed. How 4 Do you know how girls are being do we know if the resources available specifically addressed to reach those iF you are a in her community are reaching her or goals? helping her? private employer 2 To even get started, we may need to The young women in your workforce see our work differently. Maybe you iF you are a are paving the path for adolescent already do. Find out here: diagnose private donor girls. You provide the incentive for what your organization does and girls to complete school and delay doesn’t know about girls. Are your current investments achieving marriage. Does that change how you the maximum return for girls – and the do business? communities you are supporting? Do your implementing partners know how to reach and engage girls? YOU ARE A GOVERNMENT OR INT’L ORG YOUR MOVE PagE YOU ARE A PRIVATE DONOR 19 WORKING WITH GIRLS YOU ARE A PRACTITIONER OR NGO TAKE THE TEST YOU ARE A PRIVATE EMPLOYER INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 18. 1 YOU ARE A GOVERNMENT OR INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION. You control the policies, laws and resources that shape the breadth of a girl’s opportunities, and the height of her obstacles. Scour the progress reports you receive about your investments and projects. Can you find the answers to these questions in the detail? A D G can She acceSS iS She BeinG Set up For iS She in School? your ServiceS? Financial independence? The school that’s too far for her to She is the hardest to reach of all She will invest 90 percent of her safely walk to, and that her family can populations. Does your team apply income back into her family, but only only afford for her brother, is not a a specific recruitment and tracking if she has the opportunity to manage school for her. strategy for girls? resources. B E doeS She know her how doeS She Spend riGhtS and can She her time? FiGht For them? In impoverished communities, girls make up for the lack of infrastructure. Not The laws of a nation can only help much time is left over to be a child. girls if they are in place, if they are enforced, and if girls are aware of F them. who doeS She live with? C iS She healthy and SaFe Whether she lives with two parents, a grandmother, a husband, or her siblings aS her Body chanGeS? as orphans all determines what is demanded from her at a young age. These are the mothers of every child born into the next generation of poverty. This is a health check for entire nations. YOU ARE A GOVERNMENT OR INT’L ORG YOUR MOVE PagE YOU ARE A PRIVATE DONOR 20 WORKING WITH GIRLS YOU ARE A PRACTITIONER OR NGO TAKE THE TEST YOU ARE A PRIVATE EMPLOYER INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 19. A CAN SHE ACCESS YOUR SERVICES? Girls in poverty are the hardest to reach of all populations. To tap their potential, you must specifically and deliberately plan to reach them. 1 What percent of youth who walk into youth centers or health care providers are 1 girls vs. boys? Are girls able to safely access these services? 2 What have these centers specifically and proactively done to ensure girls can 2 safely access services and facilities? 3 What percent of official youth resources benefit girls (aged 10 to 19)? 3 4 Do efforts exist to specifically increase participation of girls and market directly 4 yes no no data them? B DOES SHE KNOW HER RIGHTS AND CAN SHE FIGHT FOR THEM? Girls face a double-vulnerability: youth and gender. The laws of a nation can protect them – if they are in place, if they are enforced, and if girls are aware of them. doeS the law protect her childhood? 1 1 What is the legal age of marriage? Of employment? Of consent to sexual relations? 2 yes no no data 2 Are there laws protecting adolescent girls from child marriage? 3 yes no no data 3 Are there laws protecting adolescent girls from child labor? 4 4 How many prosecutions under those laws last year? doeS the law protect her Body? 1 Are there laws protecting adolescent girls from sexual violence? 1 yes no no data 2 Are there laws protecting adolescent girls from FGM (female genital mutilation or 2 yes no no data female circumcision) yes no no data 3 Does your country have existing laws protecting girls from incest and domestic 3 violence? 4 How many prosecutions under those laws last year? 4 doeS the law allow her to Build and protect her aSSetS? 1 In your country, are women and girls entitled to inherit land? yes no no data 1 2 Are there laws to provide and enforce land rights for women and girls? yes no no data 2 YOU ARE A GOVERNMENT OR INT’L ORG YOUR MOVE PagE YOU ARE A PRIVATE DONOR 21 WORKING WITH GIRLS YOU ARE A PRACTITIONER OR NGO TAKE THE TEST YOU ARE A PRIVATE EMPLOYER INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 20. B DOES SHE KNOW HER RIGHTS AND CAN SHE FIGHT FOR THEM? iS She recoGnized aS a perSon? 1 What percent of 18-year-old girls have official government identification? Boys? 1 2 Has your country ratified international conventions protecting her rights, such 2 yes no no data as the Rights of the Child and Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women? 3 Has your country ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child? yes no no data 3 C IS SHE HEALTHY AND SAFE AS HER BODY CHANGES? Pregnancy is the leading cause of death for adolescent girls worldwide. Girls are up to five times more likely to be HIV-infected than their male peers. These are the mothers of every child born into the next generation of poverty. This is a health check for entire nations. can She manaGe her chanGinG Body? 1 1 What percent of adolescent girls have accurate knowledge of menstruation, and the privacy and means to handle it? 2 2 What percent of voluntarily sexually active adolescent girls seek to avoid pregnancy? What percent use contraception? Use condoms during high-risk sex? 3 3 What percent of adolescent girls have anemia? can She protect her chanGinG Body? 1 What percent of adolescent girls have experienced unwanted, unprotected 1 sexual relations, inside or outside marriage? 2 What percent of girls experience other forms of sexual violence? 2 3 What percent of adolescent girls report their first sexual experience as non- 3 consensual? how iS her community treatinG her chanGinG Body? 1 1 What percent of girls have been subjected to violence and battery inside or outside the family? (ages 10-14, 15-19, 20-24?) 2 2 What percent of girls have undergone FGM (female genital mutilation / circumcision) or other severe and harmful health practices? (ages 10-14, 15-19, 20-24?) YOU ARE A GOVERNMENT OR INT’L ORG YOUR MOVE PagE YOU ARE A PRIVATE DONOR 22 WORKING WITH GIRLS YOU ARE A PRACTITIONER OR NGO TAKE THE TEST YOU ARE A PRIVATE EMPLOYER INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 21. C IS SHE HEALTHY AND SAFE AS HER BODY CHANGES? can She deFend herSelF aGainSt hiv/aidS? 1 1 What percent of adolescent girls have comprehensive and correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS? 2 2 What is the HIV prevalence rate for adolescent girls under 18? Boys? 3 3 What is the rate of new HIV infections among girls aged 20-24 years? Boys? iS She SurvivinG motherhood? 1 What percent of girls give birth before 18? 1 2 What percent of adolescent girls know the danger signs in pregnancy and 2 delivery? 3 What percent of maternal deaths occur among the youngest, first-time mothers? 3 4 How does the proportion of attended births vary by the mother’s age and parity? 4 D IS SHE BEING SET UP FOR FINANCIAL INDEPENDENCE? Give a girl the chance to earn, to save, to plan and invest in her own future and she’ll also help improve her family and community: she will invest 90 percent of earnings into family, compared to just 30-40 percent for boys. Laws and financial systems can support her or stand in her way. iS She BeinG prepared? 1 1 Is financial literacy/education part of the school curriculum? yes no no data 2 2 What percent of girls are enrolled in vocational training or entrepreneurship programs? 3 3 What percent of vocational training or entrepreneurship slots are held by girls? 4 4 What is the percent of adolescent girls who have completed a financial literacy class and mastered basic skills (i.e. budgeting)? what kind oF economic opportunitieS eXiSt For her? 1 1 What are the types/industries/sectors of work in which adolescent girls are found working today? 2 2 What percent of formal sector jobs are held by women and girls? 3 3 What percent of girls aged 15 to 19 are currently generating income or employed? 4 4 What percent of girls (10-14, 15-19): Work for family’s business? Work for external employer? Are self-employed? Work away from home? Are paid in cash for work? Are paid in kind for work? Are paid in cash and in kind for work? Are unpaid for work? YOU ARE A GOVERNMENT OR INT’L ORG YOUR MOVE PagE YOU ARE A PRIVATE DONOR 23 WORKING WITH GIRLS YOU ARE A PRACTITIONER OR NGO TAKE THE TEST YOU ARE A PRIVATE EMPLOYER INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 22. D IS SHE BEING SET UP FOR FINANCIAL INDEPENDENCE? doeS She have acceSS to Financial productS and ServiceS? 1 What is the legal age to open a bank account? 1 2 What percent of savings accounts are held by girls? 2 3 What percent of financial institutions (formal and informal) offer products for 3 girls (differentiating by profiles of girls)? 4 Given they are the first to be pulled from school to support family emergencies, 4 what percent of girls have access to or benefit from insurance products (health, crop, school fees, etc.)? 5 What percent of microcredit is given to: Females? Females 19 and under? 5 Married? Unmarried? E HOW DOES SHE SPEND HER TIME? In impoverished communities, girls make up for the lack of infrastructure. She carries wood and water, and looks after the very old and very young. When does she get to be a child? 1 1 How much time do girls spend on household chores per day? Boys? 2 2 What percent of girls aged 10 to 14 are out of school? 3 3 What percent of girls are actively involved in sports or other group-based recreational activities? 4 4 What percent of girls aged 15 to 19 is currently generating income or employed? YOU ARE A GOVERNMENT OR INT’L ORG YOUR MOVE PagE YOU ARE A PRIVATE DONOR 24 WORKING WITH GIRLS YOU ARE A PRACTITIONER OR NGO TAKE THE TEST YOU ARE A PRIVATE EMPLOYER INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 23. F WHO DOES SHE LIVE WITH? The 17-year-old head of an HIV-orphaned household. The 15-year-old rural girl driven by economic need to work as a domestic live-in worker in the city. The 16- year-old bride. How many girls are forced into early adulthood? who iS lookinG out For her? 1 1 What percent of girls aged 10-14, and 15-19, are out of school and living without either parent? 2 2 What percent of girls report having more than three friends outside of their own family? 3 3 How many households are headed by girls under 18 years? iS She married? 1 What percent of girls aged 10-24 are married by age 15? By 18? 1 2 What is the average spousal age differences for girls married by age 15 and 18, 2 compared to girls married at 20? G IS SHE IN SCHOOL? Girls’ education has long been known as a high-return investment, yet 70% of the world’s 130 million out-of-school children are girls. Availability, access and quality are all critical factors. 1 What percent of girls have a school within an hour’s walk from home? 1 2 What percent of girls can’t attend school due to school fees or lack of essentials, 2 such as feminine hygiene products? 3 What percent of out-of-school girls ages 10-14 have never been to school? Have 3 1-4 years of schooling? 4 What percent of girls in school, ages 10-14, are in an appropriate grade for their 4 age? 5 What percent of adolescent girls who started grade 1 at age 8 reach grade 5 at 5 age 12? 6 What percent of girls 15-19 complete primary school? 6 7 What percent of young women 20-24 complete secondary school? 7 8 What is the literacy rate of 18-year-old girls? 8 YOU ARE A GOVERNMENT OR INT’L ORG YOUR MOVE PagE YOU ARE A PRIVATE DONOR 25 WORKING WITH GIRLS YOU ARE A PRACTITIONER OR NGO TAKE THE TEST YOU ARE A PRIVATE EMPLOYER INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 24. 2 YOU ARE A PRIVATE DONOR. Are your current investments achieving the maximum return for girls and the communities you are supporting? Do your implementing partners know how to reach and engage girls? are you ready? 1 What percent of the programs you fund are girl-only? Boy-only? Co-ed? 1 2 What percent of the programs you fund specifically target adolescent girls aged 2 10 to 19? 3 Is your staff knowledgeable about the high return of investing in girls, and the 3 yes no no data spiraling intergenerational cost of not investing in girls? 4 Do you require all grantees (no matter the program) to count and report on girls yes no no data 4 they serve by tracking gender? Age? Marital status? 5 Does your organization have the capability and tools to actively promote/ 5 yes no no data communicate the importance of investing in girls? are you workinG with the riGht Girl eXpertS? 1 Does the organization have skilled staff on customizing programs specifically for yes no no data 1 adolescent girls? 2 How many girl-specific programs has the organization implemented? 2 3 Does the organization have knowledge and executional strength in locations 3 yes no no data where the most vulnerable adolescent girls are living in poverty? 4 Does the organization take a holistic approach to designing for girls – from social 4 yes no no data systems, health and education to economic empowerment programs? 5 Does the organization have a way to regularly engage girls in program-related yes no no data 5 or activities? 6 What percent of the staff that will be working with girls are female? 6 7 Does the organization have systems in place to prevent, detect and sanction 7 yes no no data sexual harassment of girls by trainers/leaders? 8 Does the organization have the ability (and opportunity) to link with other 8 yes no no data organizations that deliver programs to adolescent girls (i.e. partners that can help with skills training, knowledge on reproductive health, microfinance institutions)? 9 Does the organization advocate for girls internally and externally? yes no no data 9 10 Is the organization actively seeking new and innovative approaches to 10 yes no no data girl programming? YOU ARE A GOVERNMENT OR INT’L ORG YOUR MOVE PagE YOU ARE A PRIVATE DONOR 26 WORKING WITH GIRLS YOU ARE A PRACTITIONER OR NGO TAKE THE TEST YOU ARE A PRIVATE EMPLOYER INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 25. 3 YOU ARE A PRACTITIONER OR NGO. There is a growing cadre of experts in the specific needs of adolescent girls. How do you grade your knowledge, skill, experience and impact? How are you building your girl expertise? your work with GirlS – iS it aSSumption, or Fact? 1 What percent of youth that your organization supports are adolescent girls? 1 2 Do you segment and target girls according to their needs and profiles (for 2 yes no no data example rural, urban, married girls, out of school girls, orphans)? 3 Do you ensure your programs are age-, context- and gender-specific? 3 yes no no data 4 In your monitoring and evaluation activities, do you specifically track 4 yes no no data demographic information on girls (such as age, sex, marital status, etc.)? 5 Do you do follow-up work with girls who complete your programs? 5 yes no no data have you covered the BaSicS? 1 Do you issue girls personal identification? 1 yes no no data 2 Do you have dedicated spaces for girls (and girl-only hours) to deliver your 2 yes no no data programs? 3 Do you offer a network of social support (i.e. mentors, access to peers and 3 yes no no data friends)? 4 Do you deliver knowledge and skills training specific to her (i.e. life skills, basic 4 yes no no data literacy, financial education, legal rights)? 5 Do you educate girls on reproductive health to help them manage bodily changes 5 yes no no data (e.g. menstruation, proper hygiene)? 6 Is your training curriculum specifically tailored to or adapted for adolescent girls? 6 yes no no data are you enGaGinG inFluencerS and GatekeeperS? 1 1 Do you use two cohorts of girls in your programming (older girls who can serve yes no no data as mentors/teachers, and younger girls who are the direct beneficiaries of program intervention)? yes no no data 2 2 Do you actively engage girls’ families, men and boys, and their communities as key stakeholders for effectively reaching girls (as mentors, role models, gatekeepers, etc.)? 3 3 Do you address competing responsibilities of adolescent girls, including yes no no data adolescent girl mothers (i.e. school, children and providing childcare, household responsibilities/chores)? 4 4 Do you have strategies and means to enable girls to access financial products and yes no no data services and/or other appropriate economic opportunities? YOU ARE A GOVERNMENT OR INT’L ORG YOUR MOVE PagE YOU ARE A PRIVATE DONOR 27 WORKING WITH GIRLS YOU ARE A PRACTITIONER OR NGO TAKE THE TEST YOU ARE A PRIVATE EMPLOYER INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 26. 4 YOU ARE A PRIVATE EMPLOYER. The young women in your workforce are paving the path for adolescent girls. You provide the incentive for girls to complete school and delay marriage. Does that change how you do business? your BaSic Girl Scorecard 1 What percent of your business enterprise labor force (including supplier 1 workforce) are young women between the ILO minimum working age of 15 and 24 years of age? Do you know how many have migrated from distant homes and live without family or social support? 2 Do your hiring practices consider gender, marital status or pregnancy as part of yes no no data 2 consideration of employment? (They should not. Private sector employers should practice nondiscrimination in hiring.) 3 What percent of your applicant pool are young women? How do you 3 specifically find and recruit them? 4 Do young men and women receive the same pay and employment benefits? (They yes no no data 4 should. Fair wages and benefits should applicable to all employees.) 5 What is your retention rate for young women in the workforce? How does it 5 compare to that of their male peers? 6 Are your workforce training programs equally available and accessed by young yes no no data 6 women and men? 7 Do you provide some kind of incentive for goal-oriented savings i.e. education 7 yes no no data funds for children, matching funds, etc.? the Girl eFFect champion Scorecard 1 Does management training include specific mention of the value of gender 1 yes no no data diversity to the business and training to address sexual vulnerability, sexual harassment and violence? 2 Does workforce training address gender norms and behaviors to reduce the risk yes no no data 2 of violence? 3 Do you provide specific measures to protect the safety and security of young 3 yes no no data women in your workforce? (e.g. private and adequate sanitation facilities, secure dormitories) 4 Do you provide rights training for girls and women in your workforce? 4 yes no no data 5 Do girls at your worksites have a safe space to network, socialize, exchange 5 yes no no data work-related knowledge and life skills? 6 Do you facilitate access to safe savings to all employees under independent yes no no data 6 control (taking into account that women may face special needs/requirements)? YOU ARE A GOVERNMENT OR INT’L ORG YOUR MOVE PagE YOU ARE A PRIVATE DONOR 28 WORKING WITH GIRLS YOU ARE A PRACTITIONER OR NGO TAKE THE TEST YOU ARE A PRIVATE EMPLOYER INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 27. 4 YOU ARE A PRIVATE EMPLOYER. 7 7 Does your organization help to provide community resources and services that yes no no data build personal assets and maintain wellbeing? For example, do you help young women build and manage their financial assets by providing financial literacy training, access to savings products and financial institutions? Do you facilitate linkage of young women to existing government entitlements and health resources? 8 8 Do you offer any of your business facilities after hours to the community to use as yes no no data safe spaces or learning and study centers for girls? 9 yes no no data 9 Do you have incentive plans in place to ensure the children of your workers (both boys and girls) are in school? yes no no data 10 10 Do you have incentive plans in place to ensure your business and your workers are reinvesting in and contributing to the surrounding community with a special emphasis on protection and investment of girls? 11 yes no no data 11 Have you used influence to press governments to prepare and protect girls and women? (You can. The private sector can use its considerable influence to increase the pool of skilled female workers and to enact and enforce measures that protect the safety of girls and young women. Encouraging investment in water, transportation, and other infrastructure simultaneously enhances the potential for economic growth and reduces the burden on girls and women.) 12 yes no no data 12 Have you worked with government to press for implementation of national identity papers for all individuals? HAVE FEEDBACK? WE WANT TO HEAR IT. Email info@girleffect.org with “Your Move: Feedback” in the subject line. YOU ARE A GOVERNMENT OR INT’L ORG YOUR MOVE PagE YOU ARE A PRIVATE DONOR 29 WORKING WITH GIRLS YOU ARE A PRACTITIONER OR NGO TAKE THE TEST YOU ARE A PRIVATE EMPLOYER INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 28. YOU ARE A GOVERNMENT OR INT’L ORG YOUR MOVE PagE YOU ARE A PRIVATE DONOR 30 WORKING WITH GIRLS YOU ARE A PRACTITIONER OR NGO TAKE THE TEST YOU ARE A PRIVATE EMPLOYER INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 29. JUTHIKA IS BUSY She has ducks. She has her vegetable garden to look after. She tutors schoolboys, and embroiders handkerchiefs. She makes $37 dollars a month, and has put herself back into school, along with her brother. She supports her father, and her mother. She will come up to you and look you in the eye. She is 15 years old. Brent Stirton / Getty imaGeS
  • 30. INVEST TODAY 3 GETTING MORE THAN YOU BARGAINED FOR. Today, 600 million overlooked adolescent girls are 600 million chances for long-term change. Today, less than half a cent of every international aid dollar is directed to them. Today, there are successful, girl-focused programs ready for more. The girl effect is real. Programs on In India, innovators are encouraging a the ground have put it into action, new generation of girl entrepreneurs and fostered it with innovation upon by blending practical funding with innovation. creative media campaigns. Committed, girl-focused practitioners These organizations are not plentiful, customized a microfinance program but they are making powerful changes for girls in Bangladesh, so 40,000 girls for girls. For funders, each is an could start small businesses to keep opportunity to extend impact and themselves in school. unleash the profound multiplier impact of the girl effect. Turn the page to meet Others created savings groups for eight that can get you started. girls and young women in the slums of Nairobi, providing alternative economic assets in a punishing environment where a girl often only has one: her body. YOUR MOVE PagE SOFEA/BANGLADESH BERHANE HEWAN/ETHIOPIA 33 ADOLESCENT DVLPT PROGRAM/AFRICA GRASSROOTS GIRLS INITIATIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA YOUNG WOMEN ENT./KENYA TAKE THE TEST ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR/INDIA INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 31. TO THOSE WHO SAY YOU CAN’T END POVERTY THROUGH GIRLS, WE SAY: GET A LOAD OF THIS. Here are eight programs that are built on positive change. They’ve seen girls’ lives For contributions of $100k improve – and how one girl’s success ripples out to her family, community or less, please go to and beyond. globalgiving.com/girleffect. Interested in a higher level of Each of these eight is based on either a proven success, or a powerful insight. Each engagement? Click through to offers either a scale-up or a start-up opportunity. Each one touches a part of the see the full investment opportunity, world where girls are particularly vulnerable. Each one represents a high return on as well as contact details. any investment. SOFEA / BANGLADESH ADOLESCENT SHE’S A RURAL DEVELOPMENT ENTREPRENEUR / BRAC BANGLADESH PROGRAM PARAGUAY From Burden to Breadwinner BRAC TANZANIA & BRAC UGANDA FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA – For $26 replicatinG SucceSS For GirlS a GirlS’ School that payS For In Bangladesh, almost 90% of girls are acroSS BorderS itSelF married before 18 in some regions. Here, BRAC pioneered a microfinance In its SOFEA project in Bangladesh, A school that all local girls can attend, program for girls in 2004. Three BRAC proved girls don’t need much regardless of income. A school that’s a years later, 40,000 adolescent girls to unleash the girl effect. That pilot functioning farm, where girls grow the had gained the confidence, skills and demonstrated that with a $150 loan, school’s revenue stream – and become capital to run their own businesses and skills training and a support network, agricultural professionals, gaining manage their own resources. With girls started businesses that immediately skills and expertise that their farm ducks, tomatoes, embroidery, these benefited themselves and their families worker fathers never had. A school entrepreneurs paid their school fees, – and provided incentives for everyone that’s fine-tuned to the needs of girls. delayed marriage and often paid their to delay girls’ marriage. In a south-to- A school that will support itself in five siblings’ tuition — all for $26 per girl. south transmission of knowledge, this years. That’s the vision of Fundación The program’s next phase is called project brings that success to Uganda Paraguaya: a triple bottom line of SOFEA. Its operating model builds in and Tanzania, where 70% of girls are social, economic and environmental financial sustainability, so one-time married before age 18 in some regions. returns, for the entire community. investments can benefit generations of girls to come. YOUR MOVE PagE SOFEA/BANGLADESH BERHANE HEWAN/ETHIOPIA 34 ADOLESCENT DVLPT PROGRAM/AFRICA GRASSROOTS GIRLS INITIATIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA YOUNG WOMEN ENT./KENYA TAKE THE TEST ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR/INDIA INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 32. PROGRAMS GRASSROOTS GIRLS BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE / MULTI- / INDIA INITIATIVE / LIBERIA COUNTRY AND BEYOND GOING TO SCHOOL INDIA A CONSORTIUM OF THE WORLD BANK AND PARTNERS FindinG entrepreneurS-in- GRASSROOTS DONORS traininG in india’S pooreSt what happenS when GirlS are communitieS community-driven chanGe a national priority For GirlS A girl living in poverty is already an Africa’s first female head-of-state saw entrepreneur-in-training. To simply Across the developing world, there are what the rest of her continent’s leaders survive, she has already learned groups working inside village walls and have not: adolescent girls are more to be resourceful. A negotiator. A family compounds. They are grassroots than victims in war-torn, post-conflict networker. She could be further down organizations, and they are one of nations. They are part of the solution. the path of economic possibility the most effective ways to reach girls. With the World Bank and the Nike than she – or anyone else – realizes. But their proximity to girls’ lives is also Foundation, President Ellen Johnson- Except the Indian non-profit Going To their barrier in gaining support: small Sirleaf is linking girls’ skills training to School. Through their program Be! An and remote, it’s difficult for outside real jobs in the sectors that need them Entrepreneur, a mass media campaign organizations to find and support them. the most. Girls win, their families win teaches girls and boys to see their The Grassroots Girls Initiative fixes – and so does the whole of Liberia. skills. It’s accompanied by an investment that: this is a direct funding pipeline to This initiative extends that approach fund that will support start-up capital hundreds of girl-focused organizations to Afghanistan, Rwanda, Nepal, Sudan for social businesses of young closest to a girl’s community. and Togo, with the support of the entrepreneurs in India. governments of Australia, Denmark, YOUNG WOMEN IN Norway, Sweden, UK and Milan, Italy. ENTERPRISE / KENYA BERHANE HEWAN / TECHNOSERVE ETHIOPIA GirlS team up to create SaFe UN POPULATION FUND, THE income Generation POPULATION COUNCIL In Nairobi’s harsh urban slums, girls a Goat GiveS a Girl a chance, are six times more likely to be HIV- and She doeS the reSt positive than boys. That devastating number reflects girls employing the If you are 15 years old in the poor only economic asset they have: their Amhara region of Ethiopia, there is body. Young Women in Enterprise a 43% chance you are married. You starts simply: a group of girls gets are another mouth to feed, and your together and learns basic business dowry will bring income to your family. principles. From there, they move to This program goes to the heart of collective savings and loans – and those harsh economic trade-offs. In its their own businesses. From there, these pilot, families received an incentive to young women can make choices about let their girl go to a girl-centered safe their lives, in environments where few space: a $25 goat. After two years, individuals have that power. 97% of participants were still in the program, and 11,000 girls had gained life skills and self-confidence, delayed marriage and stayed in school. HAVE FEEDBACK? WE WANT TO HEAR IT. Email info@girleffect.org with “Your Move: Feedback” in the subject line. YOUR MOVE PagE SOFEA/BANGLADESH BERHANE HEWAN/ETHIOPIA 35 ADOLESCENT DVLPT PROGRAM/AFRICA GRASSROOTS GIRLS INITIATIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA YOUNG WOMEN ENT./KENYA TAKE THE TEST ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR/INDIA INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 33. YOUR MOVE PagE SOFEA/BANGLADESH BERHANE HEWAN/ETHIOPIA 36 ADOLESCENT DVLPT PROGRAM/AFRICA GRASSROOTS GIRLS INITIATIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA YOUNG WOMEN ENT./KENYA TAKE THE TEST ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR/INDIA INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 34. MICROFINANCE CUSTOMIZED FOR GIRLS IN BANGLADESH BRAC BANGLADESH SOFEA PROGRAM: SOCIAL AND FINANCIAL EMPOWERMENT OF ADOLESCENTS inveStment opportunity BRAC is an extremely reputable and • Financial sustainability: innovate trusted brand in Bangladesh with the operating model to reduce established equity in communities and With an additional $11 million, BRAC grant dependency families. High rates of local support can expand a proven and successful and participation are expected. customized girls microfinance program proGram deScription throughout rural Bangladesh. outcomeS and deliveraBleS The SOFEA program will provide up The investment will establish a new to 80,000 rural girls with access to a 1 Establishment of the new largely operating model called SOFEA – microfinance program customized for sustainable operating SOFEA Social and Financial Empowerment girls, including access to safe spaces, model. of Adolescents. BRAC designed the small loans, life skills and livelihoods 2 Up to 80,000 girls in rural program to be largely self sustaining, training. Bangladesh participate in decreasing reliance on grants. It customized microfinance for will reach up to 80,000 girls in the The self-sustaining operating model is program for girls. first 5 years, but has the potential to an important feature of this investment 3 Community embraces program multiply rapidly and reach hundreds of opportunity. A number of activities and commits to ensuring on-going thousands of poor but promising girls in build the program’s sustainability: sustainability and success. Bangladesh. community trust fund management 4 Documentation of a refined, tested and financial contributions, program BackGround and partially financially self- membership fees (3 cents/month), sustaining model that is ready for community engagement and oversight, nationwide scale-up. The Nike Foundation partnered and principal and interest repayments. 5 A clear articulation of successful with BRAC in 2004 to test and pilot approaches needed to gain a customized ‘microfinance for girls’ This is a new operating model for BRAC support for community program that provided distinct layers with a high probability of success. contributions. of support to help girls be successful BRAC designed SOFEA based on with their new loan capital. These years of practical experience working eXpected impact layers included access to safe spaces, with low-income girls in Bangladesh. training in life skills and livelihoods, and Careful assessments showed 1 Increased income for girls. time to network with other girls. significant demand from both girls and 2 Reduced early marriage incidence. communities. 3 Increased girl mobility. Compared to non-participants, girls 4 Increased girls’ social networks, in this program were more likely to what’S So Special confidence and aspirations. use the loan for their own economic 5 Increased household prosperity. purposes, instead of turning it over to This program is the first of its kind brothers or fathers. The girls also had at this scale. Establishing SOFEA a 99% loan repayment rate. in a financially self-sustaining and community-centric manner pioneers a new inveStment oBjectiveS path forward for generations of girls to succeed. Reliance on future subsidies • Expand and scale up a proven and grant funds is significantly reduced. microfinance program for girls in rural Bangladesh. YOUR MOVE PagE BERHANE HEWAN/ETHIOPIA SOFEA/BANGLADESH 37 GRASSROOTS GIRLS INITIATIVE ADOLESCENT DVLPT PROGRAM/AFRICA WORKING WITH GIRLS YOUNG WOMEN ENT./KENYA FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA TAKE THE TEST BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR/INDIA ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 35. MICROFINANCE CUSTOMIZED FOR GIRLS IN BANGLADESH intereSted in inveStinG? Assessment For investments of $100,000 or more, contact Amy McDonagh, Senior BreakthrouGh innovation Program Manager, Nike Foundation, First of its kind largely self-sustaining economic empowerment program at amy.mcdonagh@nike.com or Susan for girls at scale. Davis, President, BRAC USA, at susan@ bracusa.org. a perSiStent & important need Girls in Bangladesh are among the world’s most vulnerable, and suffer For investments less than $100,000, visit one of the highest rates of child marriage. www.globalgiving.org/girleffect. hiGh leveraGe opportunity Leverages investment in and learnings from BRAC’s previous adolescent microfinance programs. ScalaBle proGram BRAC’s existing infrastructure can support large scale-up activities. The self-sustainability aspects gear this program for further and continued growth. replicaBle model Commitment from BRAC to document learnings will allow for continued replication. Note: Previous version is already being tested in Uganda and Tanzania. oBServaBle, meaSuraBle reSultS Commitment to extensive research & evaluation will measure and document what works. adoleScent Girl proGram eXperience BRAC is among the world’s premier girl expert organizations. PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS YOUR MOVE PagE SOFEA/BANGLADESH BERHANE HEWAN/ETHIOPIA 38 ADOLESCENT DVLPT PROGRAM/AFRICA GRASSROOTS GIRLS INITIATIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA YOUNG WOMEN ENT./KENYA TAKE THE TEST ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR/INDIA INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 36. MICROFINANCE CUSTOMIZED FOR GIRLS IN TANZANIA AND UGANDA BRAC TANZANIA & BRAC UGANDA ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM inveStment opportunity This program is pioneering for its provides 5,000 rural adolescent girls in time. It took risks and yielded high Uganda and Tanzania with safe spaces, returns for girls and their communities. For $15 million, BRAC can expand life skills training, livelihoods training, It addresses the root causes of the current work underway to replicate and access to microfinance so that they intergenerational poverty cycle, not its already proven and successful girls can start their own small businesses. just the symptoms. When girls are seen microfinance program in both Tanzania as a good investment, every one wins. and Uganda, reaching 25,000 girls over The loans average $150 and are used This program continues to prove that. five years. to start a small vegetable garden or to buy a cow, goat or chickens. Girls outcomeS and deliveraBleS BackGround then sell the resulting produce or milk products to the surrounding community 1 25,000 girls in Uganda and Tanzania The Nike Foundation expanded its and make enough to repay their loans, participate in a customized girls partnership with BRAC Bangladesh to invest in their education, support their microfinance program. do the following in Africa: families and grow their businesses. 2 Documentation that a holistic and supported girls economic 1 Test the exportability of a proven what’S So Special empowerment program reduces microfinance program for early marriage, improves girls’ adolescent girls to other countries. Replicating BRAC’s successful girl abilities to negotiate safe sex, 2 Test via a Randomized Control programming across borders will increases girls’ mobility, social Trial (RCT) the impact of adding deliver south-to-south innovation, networks, confidence and microfinance to a basic girls’ providing a rigorous basis for future aspirations and increases the empowerment program. scale-up in Africa and building BRAC’s overall prosperity of households. brand equity outside of Bangladesh. As part of this replication effort, the eXpected impact World Bank, BRAC, and the London We anticipate the African results will School of Economics (LSE) have joined reflect the successes from Bangladesh, 1 Reduced early marriage incidence. forces to deliver rigorous program including: 2 Improved ability to negotiate evaluation. safe sex. 1 Increased earning potential for new inveStment oBjectiveS 3 Increased girl mobility. girls, enabling them to support 4 Increased girls social network, their families and continue their confidence and aspirations. • Expand and scale up BRAC’s proven own education. 5 Increased household prosperity. girls microfinance program in an 2 Exceptional credit-worthiness, African context. with girls in the program achieving • Refine the program components a 99% repayment rate on their for contextual issues and maximum loans - disproving assertions that results through ongoing and youth and in particular girls are rigorous evaluation. high-risks for lenders. 3 Positive social outcomes, with girls proGram deScription having the freedom and mobility to play, study, and form social The current Nike Foundation- networks, leading to delayed supported BRAC Africa program marriage and more years in school. YOUR MOVE PagE BERHANE HEWAN/ETHIOPIA SOFEA/BANGLADESH 39 GRASSROOTS GIRLS INITIATIVE ADOLESCENT DVLPT PROGRAM/AFRICA WORKING WITH GIRLS YOUNG WOMEN ENT./KENYA FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA TAKE THE TEST BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR/INDIA ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 37. MICROFINANCE CUSTOMIZED FOR GIRLS IN TANZANIA AND UGANDA intereSted in inveStinG? Assessment For investments of $100,000 or more, contact Amy McDonagh, Senior BreakthrouGh innovation Program Manager, Nike Foundation, The program will conclusively test whether BRAC’s successful adolescent at amy.mcdonagh@nike.com or Susan girl program can be replicated in an African context. This is the first Davis, President, BRAC USA, at susan@ south-to-south innovation of its kind and the first step in understanding bracusa.org. a truly global model for girls’ social and economic empowerment. Taking it to scale will be a first of its kind. For investments less than $100,000, visit www.globalgiving.com/girleffect. a perSiStent & important need Rural girls in Uganda and Tanzania do not have access to social and economic empowerment opportunities. This investment will address the root causes of her disempowered reality. hiGh leveraGe opportunity Builds off Bangladesh-based learnings and experience and delivers in an African context. Operating model is designed to recycle interest earnings and loan repayments for future disbursement. ScalaBle proGram BRAC is experienced at working at scale. While the model is mostly grant dependent, a portion of the operations is funded by one time loan capitalization funds and interest earnings, making this attractive for scale activities. replicaBle model Testing this, although early results indicate success. oBServaBle, meaSuraBle reSultS In each country, an RCT will allow for robust research and measurable results. adoleScent Girl proGram eXperience BRAC is among the world’s premier girl expert organizations. PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS YOUR MOVE PagE SOFEA/BANGLADESH BERHANE HEWAN/ETHIOPIA 40 ADOLESCENT DVLPT PROGRAM/AFRICA GRASSROOTS GIRLS INITIATIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA YOUNG WOMEN ENT./KENYA TAKE THE TEST ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR/INDIA INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 38. GIRLS SCHOOL THAT PAYS FOR ITSELF FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA SHE’S A RURAL ENTREPRENEUR inveStment opportunity 3 Increased household and required for future economic success, community prosperity. while generating income to cover the 4 Environmental protection through For every $1.5 million invested, a school’s operating costs. girl-driven environmentally school can be set up to operate in sustainable methods of income perpetuity, allowing at least 150 poor what’S So Special generation. girls per year to be transformed into economically successful “rural This flexible model delivers a practical entrepreneurs.quot; market-linked education that pays for itself and and places power in the BackGround hands of the girls and teachers. Low school fees enable the poorest set In 2008 the Nike Foundation partnered of girls to enroll, and local curricula with Fundación Paraguaya to: design methodology ensures relevance and community engagement. The 1 Test a comprehensive girls result is a triple bottom line of social, economic empowerment model in economic and environmental benefits an agricultural setting. and sustainability. 2 Deliver sustainable market-based education and opportunities. outcomeS and deliveraBleS The farming families in northeastern 1 A refined model for replication in Paraguay face environmental other countries. degradation, poor diet and hygiene, 2 Significant increase in number and significant disruption due to of girls realizing new economic urban migration. Girls are especially opportunities within four months vulnerable in these circumstances, of graduation: e.g. operating a experiencing high rates of early small business within the family pregnancy and school drop-out. farm; hired by an agriculture business; enrolled in university; new inveStment oBjectiveS hired as government extension agent; or hired as school Expand the number of schools and instructors. girls reached in Paraguay and other 3 “Girl Farmschool in a Box” scale- countries. up guide. proGram deScription eXpected impact The program will develop, test and 1 Increased earning potential and implement a self-sustaining, agro- confidence levels for vulnerable forestry school for girls in a Biosphere girls. Reserve in Paraguay. Small scale, 2 Improved family and community on-campus enterprises provide a perception of girls’ economic value. platform for girls to develop skills YOUR MOVE PagE BERHANE HEWAN/ETHIOPIA SOFEA/BANGLADESH 41 GRASSROOTS GIRLS INITIATIVE ADOLESCENT DVLPT PROGRAM/AFRICA WORKING WITH GIRLS YOUNG WOMEN ENT./KENYA FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA TAKE THE TEST BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR/INDIA ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 39. GIRLS SCHOOL THAT PAYS FOR ITSELF intereSted in inveStinG? Assessment For investments of $100,000 or more, contact Caitlin Fisher, Portfolio BreakthrouGh innovation Specialist, Nike Foundation, at caitlin. Financially sustainable rural farm school program just for girls. fisher@nike.com. a perSiStent & important need For investments less than $100,000, visit Existing agricultural education is neither good, nor generally available, www.globalgiving.com/girleffect. especially for girls. hiGh leveraGe opportunity Financial sustainability and community involvement enables operational independence. ScalaBle proGram FP is part of an international network of 1,000 members in over 90 countries who have expressed interest in scaling up the financially self- sufficient school. replicaBle model Model contains incentives for teachers to identifying replication strategies. oBServaBle, meaSuraBle reSultS Measurement and evaluation plan designed for detailed comparisons of program components and the all-girls approach. adoleScent Girl proGram eXperience The first class of girls just graduated from FP’s co-ed agricultural school in Asuncion; FP is building its girl expertise. PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS YOUR MOVE PagE SOFEA/BANGLADESH BERHANE HEWAN/ETHIOPIA 42 ADOLESCENT DVLPT PROGRAM/AFRICA GRASSROOTS GIRLS INITIATIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA YOUNG WOMEN ENT./KENYA TAKE THE TEST ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR/INDIA INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 40. FORMALIZING SCHOOL TO WORK TRANSITION THE ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE inveStment opportunity outcomeS and deliveraBleS opportunities for girls in Liberia. Integrating life skills training with the For $10 million, the Adolescent Girl • Creation of a new partnership technical training is also part of the Initiative can build on its employment model for the World Bank, donors AGI approach. This combination helps training work in Liberia and fully fund and national governments to girls overcome crucial barriers such as pilot programs in five additional replicate in other girl-focused early pregnancy, transactional sex and countries. programs. a lack of social support. • Testing of girls’ economic BackGround empowerment interventions in post- AGI will use the same approach in the conflict setting. five additional countries, adapting the The World Bank, the Nike Foundation • Rich learnings across diverse strategy based on local context. and the Danish Government partnered geographic contexts, increasing with the Government of Liberia in 2008 the possibility for scale up and what’S So Special to do the following: replication. AGI breaks the usual mold of girl eXpected impact 1 Develop a model that links skills employment programs that focus on training for girls to the demands of “female” skills like sewing, crafts and Liberia’s marketplace. • Increased employment for girls. soap making – skills for which there is 2 Adapt the program for use in a • Increased income for girls. little demand. Instead, AGI engages variety of country contexts. • Improved confidence and employers to help shape training social standing. programs and rewards training firms new inveStment oBjectiveS • Increased household prosperity with bonuses for successful placements (investments in health, home and – the first program in West Africa to • Complete and scale up to the five education). use this tactic. additional countries in Africa and Asia: Afghanistan, Nepal, Rwanda, Girls emerge with real skills that Sudan, Togo the real world wants. AGI is large, • Rigorously evaluate results to already securing $20 million from the plan subsequent expansions World Bank, Nike Foundation, the inside the six initial countries and in Government of Denmark and others. additional countries. And its positioning in six diverse countries gives it the potential to scale proGram deScription on a massive level. The AGI pilot in Liberia will smooth In Liberia and other post-conflict the path to employment of 2,500 settings, AGI further has the chance adolescent girls by providing skills to reverse the usual practice of training, job placement, business prioritizing ex-combatants for job development service, and links to micro training, reinforcing the employment credit for aspiring entrepreneurs. disadvantages faced by girls. AGI also works to strengthen the government and private sector institutions involved in economic YOUR MOVE PagE BERHANE HEWAN/ETHIOPIA SOFEA/BANGLADESH 43 GRASSROOTS GIRLS INITIATIVE ADOLESCENT DVLPT PROGRAM/AFRICA WORKING WITH GIRLS YOUNG WOMEN ENT./KENYA FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA TAKE THE TEST BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR/INDIA ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 41. FORMALIZING SCHOOL TO WORK TRANSITION intereSted in inveStinG? Assessment For investments of $100,000 or more, contact Desiree Bliss, Program Officer, BreakthrouGh innovation Nike Foundation, at desiree.bliss@nike. A first-of-its-kind effort to link job training for girls to market demands com. across multiple nations. a perSiStent & important need Only 28% of girls in Liberia attend secondary school, underscoring the lack of relevant training options. hiGh leveraGe opportunity High leverage of World Bank global reach and private sector training expertise. ScalaBle proGram Program is designed to fluidly match the changing demands of the employment market, making it responsive to economic trends and easier to scale. replicaBle model Pilots in six diverse countries in Africa and Asia provide multiple learnings that will ease entry into new settings. oBServaBle, meaSuraBle reSultS Private-sector measurement tools will yield precise metrics and concrete lessons to guide future roll-out. adoleScent Girl proGram eXperience Rapidly expanding expertise inside the World Bank. The Nike Foundation, a major funder, has focused exclusively on girls for five years. PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS YOUR MOVE PagE SOFEA/BANGLADESH BERHANE HEWAN/ETHIOPIA 44 ADOLESCENT DVLPT PROGRAM/AFRICA GRASSROOTS GIRLS INITIATIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA YOUNG WOMEN ENT./KENYA TAKE THE TEST ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR/INDIA INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 42. REDUCE CHILD MARRIAGE IN ETHIOPIA UNFPA, POPULATION COUNCIL, MINISTRY OF YOUTH SPORT AND CULTURE BERHANE HEWAN “LIGHT OF EVE” inveStment opportunity outcomeS and deliveraBleS create change in social and economic indicators for girls, their families and For each $5 million unit of investment 1 200,000 girls in the Amhara region their communities. per year, a proven child marriage of Ethiopia meet regularly in a safe prevention program can be expanded space and receive a core set of At the root cause of child marriage is to an additional 10 percent of skills to leverage for life-time an economic trade-off that families adolescent girls in the Amhara region health and well-being. in poverty make when it comes to of Ethiopia. 2 Girls who complete the program their girls. Berhane Hewan therefore (and their families) receive a features an innovative incentive BackGround financial reward for staying in that operates like a conditional school and resisting early marriage. cash transfer: girls are given a goat In 2006 the Berhane Hewan program 3 Documentation that the expanded when they complete the program as (meaning “Light of Eve” in Amharic) model accelerates program impact. a reward to families who commit to was launched to: 4 Documentation that this program keeping their daughters in school (and can be replicated in other regions thus out of wedlock). 1 Experiment with economic with a high rates of child marriage. incentives to delay child marriage. Participating girls receive a ‘kit for life’ eXpected impact 2 Introduce a holistic program that includes safe spaces to play and model to keep girls in school and network, identity cards and documents, increase their knowledge of health 1 Reduced early marriage incidence. mentors, basic literacy, and critical and reproductive issues. 2 Increased girls’ school attendance. tools and knowledge about health. 3 Increased girls’ health knowledge. new inveStment oBjectiveS 4 Increased in girls’ confidence and what’S So Special community standing. Expand the reach of a proven early 5 Altered family and community Berhane Hewan has already enabled marriage prevention program to a calculations of girls’ economic more than 11,000 adolescent girls and vast population of vulnerable girls in value. their families to experience the power the Amhara Region of Ethiopia. Some 6 Increased household prosperity. of positive economic, educational, and 43 percent of the region’s girls marry health improvements for girls. With before age 15, and 95 percent did not a direct annual cost of only $23 per know their husbands before marriage. girl, the program has shown significant Many young wives surveyed had not changes in marriage age and school even begun menstruating. enrollment. Girls participating in the program are more likely than other Expand the model to include additional girls in their communities to remain economic components starting with unmarried and stay in school, and they savings and financial education. know more about reproductive health than non-participating girls. With a 97 percent retention rate, this program has proGram deScription clearly proven its relevance, viability, and readiness for scale up. This model uses incentive and reward mechanisms and community dialogue to YOUR MOVE PagE SOFEA/BANGLADESH BERHANE HEWAN/ETHIOPIA 45 ADOLESCENT DVLPT PROGRAM/AFRICA GRASSROOTS GIRLS INITIATIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA YOUNG WOMEN ENT./KENYA TAKE THE TEST ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR/INDIA INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 43. REDUCE CHILD MARRIAGE IN ETHIOPIA intereSted in inveStinG? Assessment For investments of $100,000 or more, contact Amy Babchek, Program BreakthrouGh innovation Manager, Nike Foundation, at amy. Gets to heart of economic aspect of early marriage through innovative babchek@nike.com. use of family incentives. For investments less than $100,000, visit a perSiStent & important need www.globalgiving.com/girleffect. 100m girls will be married under age 18 in the next 10 years if present patterns continue. hiGh leveraGe opportunity Potential to use learnings to shape government policies and programs. ScalaBle proGram Government partners, low cost, and a large target group in Amhara makes the challenge appealing. replicaBle model Success of economic incentive + kit for life model can translate to other rural settings. oBServaBle, meaSuraBle reSultS Rich learnings from rigorous monitoring and evaluation program. adoleScent Girl proGram eXperience UNFPA and Population Council are recognized leaders in adolescent girl programs. PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS YOUR MOVE PagE SOFEA/BANGLADESH BERHANE HEWAN/ETHIOPIA 46 ADOLESCENT DVLPT PROGRAM/AFRICA GRASSROOTS GIRLS INITIATIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA YOUNG WOMEN ENT./KENYA TAKE THE TEST ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR/INDIA INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 44. COMMUNITY DRIVEN CHANGE FOR GIRLS GRASSROOTS GIRLS INITIATVE (GGI) inveStment opportunity Innovative solutions: Members surface in 2008 and is poised for the next leap fresh solutions from the field, providing in scale. a funding pipeline to fuel innovation. GGI aspires to a massive, 10-fold growth in the next three years. Each $1 new inveStment oBjectiveS Sustainable change: Community- million will contribute to that aspiration based organizations have increased by offering the potential to fuel 50 1 Increase scale of operation: reach prospects for operational effectiveness community-based organizations that significantly more girls by building and sustainable social change. can reach 12,500 additional girls. robust funding channels to grassroots groups and increasing BackGround Open-source knowledge exchange: their capacity to absorb additional Structured collaboration accelerates resources. flow of ideas & help emerging groups Community-led change is powerful and 2 Further validate the case that connect with new donors. sustainable. Grassroots organizations grassroots groups are powerful bubble up practical, innovative change mechanisms for girls. outcomeS and deliveraBleS solutions to the problems girls face, but are often unable to secure adequate proGram deScription 1 Design and development of and consistent funding. The absence of a powerful delivery system for an effective funding mechanism stands Donors fund individual members of the operational efficiency, as their greatest barrier to growth. GGI to administer large numbers of effectiveness and reach. grants to high-potential community- 2 A new platform for sharing In 2006 the Nike Foundation brought based organizations delivering knowledge between funding together six funding organizations in innovative solutions – like the only organizations. this initiative to develop an efficient Iraqi-run center for girls in Baghdad, and cost effective way of channeling and Pakistan’s first mobile lending eXpected impact large amounts of funds to a high library. volume of small, community-based • Stronger grassroots groups, organizations. GGI members also provide technical well-positioned for operational support to strengthen the grassroots effectiveness. The GGI partners are: Global organizations, such as planning and • Increased volume of sustainable, Fund for Women, Global Fund for evaluation skills, encouragement for grassroots-driven change. Children, MamaCash, EMpower, pilot programs, and access to feasibility • Increased funding reaching girls American Jewish World Service and grants. on the ground through grassroots Firelight Foundation. Each group has institutions. considerable experience in finding, what’S So Special • New donors recruited to funding and strengthening grassroots grassroots movement. organizations that support Cost effective way to achieve high • Greater use of grassroots adolescent girls. volume of grassroots change: new groups to promote sustainable infrastructure reaches small, locally social change. To date GGI has reached 215,000 managed groups at the village/ girls via more than 100 grassroots community level in places where organizations. The program has tripled girls face enormous odds. in size from ~$2.5M in 2006 to ~$9M YOUR MOVE PagE SOFEA/BANGLADESH BERHANE HEWAN/ETHIOPIA 47 ADOLESCENT DVLPT PROGRAM/AFRICA GRASSROOTS GIRLS INITIATIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA YOUNG WOMEN ENT./KENYA TAKE THE TEST ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR/INDIA INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 45. COMMUNITY DRIVEN CHANGE FOR GIRLS intereSted in inveStinG? Assessment For investments of $100,000 or more, contact Amy Babchek, Senior Program BreakthrouGh innovation Manager, Nike Foundation, at amy. First donor consortium devoted exclusively to grassroots solutions for babchek@nike.com. adolescent girls. a perSiStent & important need Grassroots organizations are cash-starved and in urgent need of technical and organizational development assistance. hiGh leveraGe opportunity GGI members bring strong models for grassroots grant making and the provision of technical assistance. ScalaBle proGram GGI’s six members and their network of hundreds of groups, plus the proven ability to surface new groups, create huge growth potential. replicaBle model Replicating a consortium model with a different set of actors could prove challenging. oBServaBle, meaSuraBle reSultS Large numbers of small grants, plus grassroots groups' limited monitoring and evaluation experience, makes this systematically challenging using a traditional evaluation model. adoleScent Girl proGram eXperience GGI members – and importantly their partners - collectively have more than half a century of experience investing in the development of adolescent girls. PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS YOUR MOVE PagE SOFEA/BANGLADESH BERHANE HEWAN/ETHIOPIA 48 ADOLESCENT DVLPT PROGRAM/AFRICA GRASSROOTS GIRLS INITIATIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA YOUNG WOMEN ENT./KENYA TAKE THE TEST ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR/INDIA INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 46. SAFE INCOME GENERATION IN KENYA TECHNOSERVE YOUNG WOMEN IN ENTERPRISE (YWE) inveStment opportunity outcomeS and deliveraBleS diverse groups of girls and appraise employment/ self For $3 million, investors can fund 1 A modular, more flexible program employment pathways. and scale up a pioneering girls with capacity for 5,000 girl entrepreneurship program targeted participants proGram deScription to initially reach 5,000 girls in several 2 High success and conversion rates Kenyan urban slums. at each level of participation. Life skills and entrepreneurship training For example: are at YWE’s core. Training modules This is a first-of-its-kind investment, • Number of businesses funded, are matched to girls’ employment goals providing girls access to decent profitable & sustained over a 1-2 and marketplace demands. Community economic opportunities in notoriously year period members are mobilized to help unforgiving and dangerous slum • Number of girls moving into formal- curriculum development, training and environments. sector employment mentoring. A business plan competition 3 A “how-to” toolkit on cost- provides start-up capital for new BackGround effective modular girl enterprises, with an aftercare program entrepreneurship programs to provide business support. Girls are particularly vulnerable in 4 Reported outcomes of employment Kenya: only 35% of girls complete pathways The refined program will adopt a primary school (vs. 55% of boys); more strategic approach to the initial eXpected impact girls are 5 times as likely as boys to target community selection to generate contract HIV. essential local support. 1 Increased economic independence In 2006 The Nike Foundation from sustainable business what’S So Special partnered with TNS to pilot a girls’ opportunities. entrepreneurship program in urban 2 Increased income generation Proven & scalable model creating Kenya for in-school and out-of-school options. income opportunities & increasing girls. The pilot demonstrated that 3 Increased household prosperity and self-sufficiency. 99% of 250 pilot entrepreneurship is a viable means of living conditions. participants completed business plans; income generation, even in a harsh and 4 Decreased unsafe sex practices. 15% received $7k prize. Model is risky slum. designed for different profiles & is replicable in various settings. new inveStment oBjectiveS Deep expertise: TNS has 36+ years of 1 Refine & expand program to experience in Kenya. accommodate differing levels of participation. For some schoolgirls, Strong potential for HIV prevention: basic skills suffice; other girls will vulnerable girls have alternatives to launch and grow businesses. high-risk behavior. Presence will be increased in other slum areas. 2 Position for larger scale up. Continue to design for more YOUR MOVE PagE SOFEA/BANGLADESH BERHANE HEWAN/ETHIOPIA 49 ADOLESCENT DVLPT PROGRAM/AFRICA GRASSROOTS GIRLS INITIATIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA YOUNG WOMEN ENT./KENYA TAKE THE TEST ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR/INDIA INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 47. SAFE INCOME GENERATION IN KENYA intereSted in inveStinG? Assessment For investments of $100,000 or more, contact Amy McDonagh, Senior BreakthrouGh innovation Program Manager, Nike Foundation, at First-of-its-kind, phased scale up of a comprehensive girl-specific amy.mcdonagh@nike.com. entrepreneurship model for an urban setting. Critical pilot to inform future entrepreneurship programs. For investments less than $100,000, visit www.globalgiving.com/girleffect. a perSiStent & important need Operating in urban area where girls are extremely vulnerable (youth unemployment is 40%, higher for girls, resulting in significant transactional sex and other unsafe behaviors). hiGh leveraGe opportunity Potential for TNS to institutionalize girl expertise in its other entrepreneurship programs. Program results have already been shared with other larger institutions looking to draft off of TNS’s approach, model and learnings. ScalaBle proGram Scale is grant dependent, but can leverage capacity of local partners to reach more girls. replicaBle model Replication will be grant-dependent. Replicating partnership components in other countries may be challenging. oBServaBle, meaSuraBle reSultS Monitoring and Evaluation will capture insights by testing different profiles of girl entrepreneurs and showing outcomes as a result of the program. adoleScent Girl proGram eXperience TNS Kenya team has rapidly built expertise in girls programming. PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS YOUR MOVE PagE SOFEA/BANGLADESH BERHANE HEWAN/ETHIOPIA 50 ADOLESCENT DVLPT PROGRAM/AFRICA GRASSROOTS GIRLS INITIATIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA YOUNG WOMEN ENT./KENYA TAKE THE TEST ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR/INDIA INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 48. INSPIRING A CULTURE OF SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP GOING TO SCHOOL (GTS) BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR inveStment opportunity Investors already excited: $700,000 in and encourage girls and boys to funding has been secured to date. submit their business plans for social With $2.5 million, Going to School enterprises. outcomeS and deliveraBleS can launch a start-up fund for social entrepreneurship opportunities Through its confirmed agreements with 1 India’s government school system for millions of girls in India. Sounds established TV channels, national radio adopts social entrepreneurship audacious, but a unique approach to networks and government and non- curriculum as a standard. leveraging highly engaging media government partners, GTS will launch 2 Documentation of context-specific, guarantees India’s next generation media nationwide. proven and tested models of social will be inspired to act. enterprises. Through the BE! fund, GTS will fund BackGround 3 Development of high quality the best ideas while featuring the most stories highlighting social promising young entrepreneurs in its enterprises successes and Going to School (GTS) sees an answer media messages, showing India’s youth challenges. to India’s two converging trends of the power of entrepreneurship. 4 More than 100 million young low employment and scarce resources. people exposed to media Through BE!, girls are inspired to what’S So Special campaign (75 books, 13 movies, 30 create businesses that solve the radio episodes). social, economic and environmental A double-bottom line innovation: 5 100,000 proposals submitted from problems they face in their daily lives. Promotes, tests and proves that social young people interested in starting From water to waste management, enterprises are a viable way for India’s their own social enterprises. renewable energy to healthcare, low-income youth to combat social & GTS believes young people can find environmental problems. eXpected impact solutions that will create jobs for themselves and their communities. Proven success at scale: Builds on the 1 Increased number of youth starting success of GTS’ two previous media new inveStment oBjectiveS social enterprises. projects – Going to School and Girl 2 Increased awareness of Stars – which distributed 75 million entrepreneurship as an option for 1 Produce inspiring, instructive books and reached 750 million people employment. entreprenuership media for mass through radio and television. 3 Enhanced income for low- dissemination through government income youth generated from school curriculum. Acute knowledge of audience: A deep social enterprises. 2 Connect girls with good business understanding of what it’s like to be 4 Greater number of children who ideas to start-up capital for social Indian, young and poor (both boys and find their school curriculum relevant enterprises through a fund girls) leads to fresh, real-life stories to their lives and complete school. specifically capitalized for BE! that are relevant and inspirational. 5 New and sustainable solutions entrepreneurs. found for India’s social and/or Mainstreaming entrepreneurship proGram deScription environmental challenges. through school curriculum: A new way of teaching entrepreneurship in the GTS will develop books, movies government system raises the profile of and radio episodes to inspire low- this alternate economic pathway and income youth about entrepreneurship increases its relevance for youth. YOUR MOVE PagE SOFEA/BANGLADESH BERHANE HEWAN/ETHIOPIA 51 ADOLESCENT DVLPT PROGRAM/AFRICA GRASSROOTS GIRLS INITIATIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA YOUNG WOMEN ENT./KENYA TAKE THE TEST ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR/INDIA INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 49. INSPIRING A CULTURE OF SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP intereSted in inveStinG? Assessment For investments of $100,000 or more, contact Lisa Heydlauff: BreakthrouGh innovation lisa@goingtoschool.com. First entrepreneurial curriculum of its kind in India. For investments less than $100,000, a perSiStent & important need visit www.globalgiving.com/girleffect. • Large-scale entrepreneurship addresses limited job opportunities for youth in India today. By making education more relevant, the program addresses extremely high school drop-out levels. • Low-income youth often steered to outdated vocational education. hiGh leveraGe opportunity Government schools – for curriculum development and product distribution – and public broadcasting are huge leverage opportunities. ScalaBle proGram Through government schools and public broadcasting (tv and radio). replicaBle model Overall model could be adapted for other settings given the right creative partners. oBServaBle, meaSuraBle reSultS Aspirations and knowledge in short-term; longer-term includes # of micro- credit loans, # of business plans submitted, # of sustained profitable businesses and # of youth subsequently employed. adoleScent Girl proGram eXperience Relevant girl program experience achieved through development and dissemination of GTS’ Girl Stars series. PARTNER ORGANIZATIONS YOUR MOVE PagE SOFEA/BANGLADESH BERHANE HEWAN/ETHIOPIA 52 ADOLESCENT DVLPT PROGRAM/AFRICA GRASSROOTS GIRLS INITIATIVE WORKING WITH GIRLS FUNDACIÓN PARAGUAYA YOUNG WOMEN ENT./KENYA TAKE THE TEST ADOLESCENT GIRL INITIATIVE BE! AN ENTREPRENEUR/INDIA INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 50. KNOWS A GOOD THING WHEN HE SEES IT Sharifa is 16, and pays her own school fees. Her dad’s impressed. He decided the more economically Brent Stirton / Getty imaGeS independent girls in their village, the better – so he leased a field to his neighbor’s adolescent daughter.
  • 51. WHO’S DOING SOMETHING 4 IT’S NOT ABOUT MONEY, REALLY It’s about how we make decisions about our portfolios, our policies, our programming, our businesses. Put girls at the center of your vision, and witness change. These folks did. helene Gayle, president & ceo of CARE, enables 10 million girls to complete primary school and develop leadership skills; co-chairs of the NoVo Foundation, peter & jenniFer BuFFett, have invested $45 million to support girls as primary change agents and are investing for the long-term; ruth levine, Center for Global Development’s vice president for programs & operations, co-authored the groundbreaking “Girls Count” advocacy report; roBert zoellick, World Bank president, nGozi okonjo-iweala, World Bank managing director, and mark parker, Nike Inc’s chief executive officer, launched the Adolescent Girls Initiative connecting adolescent girls in six countries to economic opportunities and raised $20.5 million from the governments of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, the United Kingdom and the City of Milan; peter SandS, group chief executive of Standard Chartered, runs GOAL, a community programme using sport and education to enable economic pathways for adolescent girls in India; Director of Maplecroft, alySon warhurSt, is developing a global girls database; nicholaS kriStoF, columnist for the New York Times, has written Half the Sky, arguing that effective foreign assistance requires investing in women and girls; paul BekkerS, Dutch AIDS ambassador, john tedStrom, executive director of the Global Business Coalition on HIV/AIDS Tuberculosis and Malaria and maria eitel, Nike Foundation’s president, urge global leaders to collaborate with them on a girl-focused HIV prevention program in Africa; Former U.S. President Bill clinton opened the 2008 Clinton Global Initiative meeting by saying, “to put every single girl in the world in school, and give every young woman adequate, equal access to the labor markets... is the sort of thing we need to be doing everywhere”; lawrence SummerS, economist and Harvard University professor, has argued that girls’ education yields the best investment returns in the developing world; Fazle aBed, BRAC’s founder & chair, is expanding its successful adolescent girl microfinance program in Bangladesh to East Africa; President ellen johnSon-SirleaF has made investments in economic opportunities for girls a priority in Liberia; Her Majesty Queen rania al aBdullah has made girls education a priority; Gene SperlinG, tom kalil and jane waleS, chairs of the U.S. Education, Global Health & Poverty Tracks, put girls firmly in the Clinton Global Initiative’s 2008 agenda; judith Bruce, Population Council senior associate, is a pioneer of early adolescent girl programming; U.S. Secretary of State hillary clinton urged that “Issues affecting women and girls should not be dismissed as ‘soft’ or marginal but should be integrated fully into domestic and foreign policy decisions.”; Geeta rao Gupta, ICRW president, is a leader in the study and measurement of girls; 400,000 memBerS oF the puBlic, shared girleffect.org with their own networks to support girls; kathy BuShkin calvin, United Nations Foundation’s executive vice president & chief operating officer, invested $43 million to support girl programming, co-founded the Coalition of Adolescent Girls and is collaborating with the United Nations Inter-agency Task Force on Adolescent Girls; aShley judd, global ambassador for YouthAIDS, illustrated the barriers girls face at “Breakthrough: The Women, Faith, and Development Summit to End Global Poverty”; adrienne Germain, president of the International Women’s Health Coalition, wrote “A New Agenda for Girls’ and Women’s Health and Rights,” a report that helped inform the 2009 incoming U.S. presidential administration; U.S. Congresswoman, Betty mccollum, introduced the International Protecting Girls by Preventing Child Marriage Act, which makes the elimination of child marriage a national goal; rick little, ImagineNations president and CEO, and pawan patil, chief executive of the World Bank’s Global Partnership for Youth Investment, represent girl interests across their youth employment portfolio; rajiv Shah, director of agricultural development, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, improves girls¹ technical skills. YOUR MOVE PagE 55 WORKING WITH GIRLS TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 52. YOUR MOVE PagE 56 WORKING WITH GIRLS TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 53. UNEXPECTED SOLUTION
  • 54. THE NEW MATH In Kenya, 1.6 million Or – they could If you only do one girls are high school become one of thing for204,000 Kenya’s the 600 dropouts. If they million girls mothers adolescent in the could finish their developing world,the instead, and lose do secondary education, Brent Stirton / Getty imaGeS this: spend time million economy $500 with they would make anyear. a three billion a adolescent girl 30% more money – who is involved a half upside against in a and contribute $3.2 program or business billion to the Kenyan billion downside. you support. You’ll economy every year. learn something. guaranteed.
  • 55. THE BIG DEAL 5 HOW TO ADD $3B TO A DEVELOPING ECONOMY. Start with a 12-year-old girl —say, in Kenya. Don’t take her out of school when she’s old enough to bring in a dowry. Keep her there through secondary school, then connect her to a decent job. Thanks to those extra years in school, now she’s bringing in $2,000 more a year. To find out more about cost, reward Or — as uneducated mothers at high That’s a 30% lifetime income increase, and the places in the world where this risk for HIV — they can be a multi- so her whole family just got a lift — matters most: billion dollar cost to society, and a family that’s smaller, healthier and endure a lifetime of hardship and better-nourished, also thanks to her COST AND REWARD suffering. education. This isn’t just about Kenya. This is true Now: multiply her increased income It’s spelled out here. Start with a 12- all over the world. There’s a significant by the 1.6 million out-of-school girls year-old girl, and fast forward. reward for including girls, and a in Kenya and you’ve got a $3.2 billion MAPPING THE material cost of excluding them. increase in national income every year, all else being equal. GIRL EFFECT The numbers get bigger. Over their Compiled for the first time, these maps lifetime, those girls could boost their show the world of 600 million girls. See economy by $27.4 billion by virtue how one in ten people on the planet of their education, $25 billion if they are starting behind, and staying behind. delay childbirth, and $1.6 billion if they stay HIV-free. COST AND REWARD YOUR MOVE PagE MAPPING THE GIRL EFFECT 59 WORKING WITH GIRLS TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 56. THE COST OF EXCLUSION: Here’s how one girl drives economic loss. her contriBution to her nation cumulative coStS oF Girl eXcluSion her children when Girl when She’S older time 3 yearS later 12-year-old Girl in kenya they’re older Her three HIV-positive children She becomes HIV-positive – and She’s pulled out of school, as She’s one of the 600 million are denied a lifetime of earnings, so do her next three children. her family can only afford her adolescent girls in the developing as well as social and human With a 9% HIV treatment rate in brother’s education. Instantly world. She will receive less than capital. They join millions of Kenya, prospects are bleak for her lifetime earning potential half a cent of every international children who could have made life expectancy. is reduced by 30% – in a aid dollar. a lifetime contribution to their best-case scenario. communities and economy. Over 250,000 girls in her age Her burden of domestic chores group were HIV-positive in 2003, She gets pregnant and can’t makes it hard to get to school and There is an enormous drain placing a huge demand on national take a job that would pay her to study. on health care costs, with no health care budgets. As they pass $2,500 annually. immediate reduction on along the virus, costs only rise. Right now she’s in school and HIV incidence. With unplanned health care costs HIV-free, but as she gets older she It’s unlikely her children will and no government child support, is five times more likely to become Her other daughter should be finish schooling. she has to find an additional $600 HIV-positive than her brother or able to live a productive life, but that year. other boys in her community. she is also pulled out of school Her amount of foregone earnings early, robbing her of her future climb over time. Multiply her Her community views her and her If there’s a youth project in her earning capacity. foregone lifetime earnings by the family as an economic burden, and community, there’s only a one in other 204,000 girls who became isolates her further. five chance she’s participating. the cycle continues mothers at the same time, and that’s repeating itself. $25 billion that is not brought into Her situation is not unique: Kenya’s economy. In 2003, 1.6 million adolescent girls had dropped out of secondary She was also a high school drop school. That’s a 64% drop out rate. out. The 1.6 million girls in 2003 who were high school dropouts 204,000 adolescent girls become collectively forfeited $27 billion pregnant in Kenya each year. in lifetime earnings – another Combined, their lost income could foregone opportunity to grow add $504M to the GDP – the the economy. same value as Kenya’s construction sector. This scenario repeats in all developing countries. Can the world afford to not invest in girls? COST AND REWARD YOUR MOVE PagE MAPPING THE GIRL EFFECT 60 WORKING WITH GIRLS TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 57. THE REWARD OF INCLUSION: Here’s how a girl can deliver economic growth. her cumulative contriBution rewardS oF to her nation Girl incluSion time her children when 3 yearS later Girl when She’S older 12-year-old Girl in kenya they’re older The next generation is educated, She’s still in school – a micro loan She is healthy. When she More international aid dollars safe, healthy and productive helped to keep her there. decides to raise a family, so are intentionally directed to her. economic actors. are her children. She still has access to safe spaces She is the center of HIV prevention HIV rates are halved. and forums. She has a job, contributes $2,500 strategies. a year to Kenya’s economy. So The economy grows significantly do the 204,000 other girls like her She knows safe sexual behavior NGOs and other implementing and government budgets expand. who could have otherwise been and can negotiate condom use. organizations know where to find adolescent mothers. her, and how to design effective Living standards significantly She has friends, role models and programs for her. improve, and the Millennium With $25 billion infused into a mentor. Development Goals are achieved. Kenya’s economy over the lifetime She’s in school. of these girls, and less pressure on She has a bank account to safely the health budget, more funds can store savings. She has access to safe spaces be spent on sanitation. and forums to develop social and Her ID allows her to access human capital. If the formal sector is not for health services. her, she knows how to construct She has an ID proving her age a business plan and can turn to Her community encourages her. and protecting her against entrepreneurship. They see the benefits of her child marriage. success: she reinvests 90% of her Her children will complete income back to her family. She is schooling and have friends, an asset. networks and opportunities. She’s the most powerful force of change on the planet. COST AND REWARD YOUR MOVE PagE MAPPING THE GIRL EFFECT 61 WORKING WITH GIRLS TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 58. MAPPING THE GIRL EFFECT What do the maps show us? A global picture of 600 million girls – one of six people on the planet – who are starting behind and staying behind. AT 15, SHE CAN’T AT 12, A GIRL IS AND SHE’S AT A READ. LESS LIKELY TO BE IN DISPROPORTIONATELY SCHOOL THAN A BOY HIGHER RISK FOR HIV Makes sense, if she’s not in school. — WORLDWIDE. INFECTION. The gap between she and her brother widens. See world map of girls’ and For every boy who is out of school If you want one very clear picture of boys’ literacy here. globally, there are three girls. The the consequences of not investing in disparity is most alarming in Africa, girls, HIV infection rates are it. SHE’S ON THE ROAD where less than 6% of the poorest TO EARLY MARRIAGE. girls complete primary school in ten Her physiology already puts a girl at countries. See mapS here. higher risk than a boy. Combine that In the ten countries where child with lack of knowledge about her marriage is most prevalent, five to body, lack of power to protect herself, seven girls out of ten will be married by and economic need that can force her the age of 18. See map. to trade sex for money, and you’ve got a grim story. LOOK CLOSER. Even worse, that story is reality. In 2001, 62% of HIV-positive youth in Africa between the ages of 15-24 were If you just look at national averages, girls. In 2007, that figure was 75%. you miss pockets of extremely See comparative rates of infection vulnerable girls. There are reGionS between African boys and girls here. in aFrica where a 15-year-old girl Additional countries listed here. has more than a 50% chance of being married. The same is true in reGionS The trend is going the wrong direction oF india and BanGladeSh. for girls – and when it goes the wrong direction for girls, it goes the wrong direction for everyone. And she’s still just a teenager. COST AND REWARD YOUR MOVE PagE MAPPING THE GIRL EFFECT 62 WORKING WITH GIRLS TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 59. AT 12, A GIRL IS LESS LIKELY TO BE IN SCHOOL THAN A BOY — WORLDWIDE. For every boy who is out of school globally, there are three girls. The disparity is most alarming in Africa. PRIMARY SCHOOL ATTENDANCE (GIRLS OF OFFICIAL PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE) aFGhaniStan niGer mauritania mali chad yemen Somalia ethiopia Burkina FaSo comoroS GirlS attendinG School aS % oF children oF oFFicial primary School aGe (2000-2006) ten Bottom-ranked countrieS country GirlS BoyS Data Source: GirlS attendinG School aS % 24 20 Somalia UNICEF, State of the World’s Children 2008 oF children oF oFFicial primary 36 25 Niger UNICEF, New York, December 2007 School aGe (2000-2006) 41 31 Chad 31 31 Comoros 45 33 Mali > 90% 40.1 - 50% Designed and prepared by: 66 40 Afghanistan 68 41 Yemen 75.1 - 90% <=40% 46 42 Mauritania 49 44 Burkina Faso 50.1 - 75% no data 45 45 Ethiopia COST AND REWARD YOUR MOVE PagE MAPPING THE GIRL EFFECT 63 WORKING WITH GIRLS TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 60. WHERE GIRLS ARE LEFT OUT, POOR GIRLS ARE THE MOST EXCLUDED. Here, less than 6% of the poorest girls complete primary school in ten countries. PRIMARY SCHOOL COMPLETION BY THE POOREST GIRLS primary School completion mali niGer By pooreSt GirlS (%) SeneGal chad the GamBia Burkina FaSo ten Bottom-ranked Guinea- Guinea BiSSau Benin countrieS ethiopia cote toGo central d’ivoire aFrican 1.1 Chad repuBlic 1.3 Niger 2.2 Mozambique uGanda 2.3 Mali 3.0 Benin rwanda 3.0 Guinea 3.2 Burkina Faso 3.3 Guinea Bissau 4.7 Senegal 5.3 Gambia malawi primary School completion Data Source: mozamBiQue madaGaScar amonG the pooreSt 40% oF Hewitt, P. and Cynthia B. Lloyd. Educational 20-24 year old women inequalities in the midst of persistent poverty. Diversity across Africa in educational outcomes Population Council, New York. 2009. 75.1 - 95 % 10.1 - 25 % Designed and prepared by: 50.1 - 75 % 0 - 10 % 25.1 - 50% no data COST AND REWARD YOUR MOVE PagE MAPPING THE GIRL EFFECT 64 WORKING WITH GIRLS TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 61. AT 15, SHE CAN’T READ. Makes sense, if she’s not in school. The gap between her and her brother widens, worldwide. LITERACY RATE (GIRLS AGED 15-24) aFGhaniStan niGer mali Burkina FaSo chad SeneGal Guinea Sierra Benin leone ethiopia central mozamBiQue aFrican repuBlic GirlS (15-24) literacy rate, % (2000-2006) ten Bottom-ranked countrieS (with male compariSon) country GirlS BoyS GirlS (15-24) literacy rate, Data Source: 32 17 Mali % (2000-2006) UNICEF, State of the World’s Children 2008 51 18 Afghanistan UNICEF, New York, December 2007 56 23 Chad 52 23 Niger 40 27 Burkina Faso > 80% 50.1 - 60% Designed and prepared by: 59 33 Benin 59 34 Guinea 70.1 - 80% <=50% 60 37 Mozambique 60 37 Sierra Leone 60.1 - 70% no data 62 39 Ethiopia COST AND REWARD YOUR MOVE PagE MAPPING THE GIRL EFFECT 65 WORKING WITH GIRLS TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 62. AT 15, SHE’S ON THE ROAD TO EARLY MARRIAGE. In the ten countries where child marriage is most prevalent, five to seven girls out of ten will be married by the age of 18. CHILD MARRIAGE (WOMEN AGED 20 - 24 MARRIED BEFORE 18 YEARS OLD) nepal BanGladeSh mali chad niGer Guinea uGanda Sierra leone central aFrican malawi repuBlic mozamBiQue percentaGe oF women (20 - 24) married/in union BeFore 18 yearS ten Bottom-ranked countrieS percentaGe oF women (20 - 24) Data Source: married/in union BeFore 18 yearS Demographic and Health Surveys (2001- 2007), Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys 74.5 Niger (2005-2006) 71.5 Chad 70.6 Mali < = 10% > 50 % Compiled by UNICEF, State of the World’s 64 Bangladesh Children 2009, UNICEF, New York 63.1 Guinea 10.1 - 25 % no data (forthcoming January 2009) 60.6 Central African Republic 55.9 Mozambique 25.1 - 50% Designed and prepared by: 55.6 Sierra Leone 51 Nepal 50.2 Malawi COST AND REWARD YOUR MOVE PagE MAPPING THE GIRL EFFECT 66 WORKING WITH GIRLS TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 63. WHERE A 15-YEAR-OLD HAS A 50% CHANCE OF BEING MARRIED. In parts of Africa, one in two 15-year-olds are brides. Where girls’ literacy is lowest, their chances of early marriage are highest. PREVALENCE OF GIRLS PREVALENCE OF GIRLS MARRIED BY AGE 18 MARRIED BY AGE 15 eGypt kidal niGer niGer B.e.t. mali tahoua chad mali diFFa centre diFFa chad Sudan SeneGal SeneGal Sahel zinder zinder eSt kayeS kayeS Burkina maradi chari Burkina maradi chari amhara Guinea Guinea BaGuirmi FaSo niGeria FaSo niGeria BaGuirmi Sierra ethiopia ethiopia central Benin Benin leone aFrican liBeria liBeria cameroon cameroon repuBlic uGanda uGanda kenya dr conGo tanzania malawi madaGaScar madaGaScar zamBia mozamBiQue mozamBiQue percentaGe oF GirlS (18-24) married By aGe 18 percentaGe oF GirlS (18-24) married By aGe 15 reGional hotSpotS prevalence amonG 18-24 yr old prevalence amonG 18-24 yr old (prevalence 80-90%) GirlS aS a percentaGe oF total GirlS aS a percentaGe oF total reGional hotSpotS population oF GirlS 18-24 yrS population oF GirlS 18-24 yrS (prevalence over 40%) Chari Baguirmi (Chad) 91.3 Kayes (Mali) 88.5 53.7 < 15 % 25 - 50 % Chari Baguirmi (Chad) 30.1 - 40% 70.1 - 80 % Zinder (Niger) 88.3 53.4 Zinder (Niger) Maradi (Niger) 87.7 48.8 Centre Est (Chad) 15 - 20 % 50.1 - 60 % > 40 % 80.1 - 95 % B.E.T. (Chad) 87.5 43.7 Kayes (Mali) Diffa (Niger) 87.4 43.5 Diffa (Niger) 20.1 - 30 % 60.1 - 70 % Countries with Countries with Sahel (Burkina Faso) 86.7 43.0 Maradi (Niger) no available no available Tahoua (Niger) 82.7 42.9 Amhara (Ethopia) data > 15 % data > 50% Kidal (Mali) 81.2 Data Source: Compiled by the Population Designed and prepared by: Data Source : Demographic Compiled by the Population Demographic and Health Council’s Poverty, Gender and and Health Surveys (2001- Council’s Poverty, Gender and Youth Surveys (2001-2007) Youth Adolescent Girls Program 2007), Multiple Indicator Adolescent Girls Program, UNICEF Cluster Surveys (2005-2006) COST AND REWARD YOUR MOVE PagE MAPPING THE GIRL EFFECT 67 WORKING WITH GIRLS TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 64. THE ECONOMICS OF MARRIAGE. Uneducated and without opportunities, she’s not seen as a breadwinner. Poor families make hard choices: marry her off, and there’s one less mouth to feed. PREVALENCE OF GIRLS PREVALENCE OF GIRLS MARRIED BY AGE 18 MARRIED BY AGE 15 mid weStern rajaSthan rajaSthan rajShahi rajShahi Bihar Bihar Sylhet Sylhet dhaka jharkhand jharkhand dhaka madhya madhya weSt weSt pradeSh pradeSh chittaGonG BenGal chittaGonG BenGal BariSal khulna BariSal khulna andhra andhra pradeSh pradeSh percentaGe oF GirlS percentaGe oF GirlS (18-24) married By aGe 15 (18-24) married By aGe 18 reGional hotSpotS reGional hotSpotS 88.2 52.9 Rajshahi (Bangladesh) Rajshahi (Bangladesh) 87.4 50.9 Khulna (Bangladesh) Khulna (Bangladesh) prevalence amonG 18-24 yr old prevalence amonG 18-24 yr old 83.8 47.3 Dhaka (Bangladesh) Dhaka (Bangladesh) GirlS aS a percentaGe oF total GirlS aS a percentaGe oF total 82.1 41.3 Barisal (Bangladesh) Barisal (Bangladesh) population oF GirlS 18-24 yrS population oF GirlS 18-24 yrS 76.8 33.3 Chittagong (Bangladesh) Chittagong (Bangladesh) 75.5 33.1 Sylhet (Bangladesh) Sylhet (Bangladesh) Jharkhand (India) Jharkhand (India) 21.4 59.4 no data 60.1 - 70 % no data 20.1 - 30 % Bihar (India) Andhra Pradesh (India) 19.5 58.5 Rajasthan (India) Bihar (India) 18.0 53.8 25 - 50 % 70.1 - 80 % < 15 % 30.1 - 40 % West Bengal (India) Rajasthan (India) 17.6 51.0 Andhra Pradesh (India) West Bengal (India) 15.7 50.3 50.1 - 60 % 80.1 - 95 % 15 - 20 % > 40 % Madhya Pradesh (India) 15.1 Mid Western (Nepal) 54.8 Data Source: Compiled by the Population Designed and prepared by: Demographic and Health Council’s Poverty, Gender and Surveys (2001-2007) Youth Adolescent Girls Program COST AND REWARD YOUR MOVE PagE MAPPING THE GIRL EFFECT 68 WORKING WITH GIRLS TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 65. HIV: A WINDOW TO HER ISOLATION AND VULNERABILITY. In regions of Africa, girls are six times more likely to be HIV-positive than boys. That’s bad news for everyone. GENDER BALANCE OF HIV AND AIDS AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE Female : male ratio oF hiv and aidS prevalence Between 15 - 24 year oldS Sudan ten worSt countrieS For djiBouti younG women central Sierra Guinea aFrican leone repuBlic cameroon liBeria 5.2 : 1 Kenya 5.0 : 1 Central African Republic eQuatoria 3.9 : 1 Swaziland Guinea 3.6 : 1 Cameroon 3.5 : 1 Malawi Burundi 3.3 : 1 Sudan 3.3 : 1 Burundi 3.3 : 1 Ghana 3.3 : 1 Liberia 3.3 : 1 Sierra Leone zamBia malawi Female : male ratio oF hiv Data Source: and aidS prevalence Between namiBia 2006-2008 Reports on the global BotSwana 15 - 24 year oldS in 2007 AIDS epidemic, UNAIDS / WHO Swaziland 1:4 to 1:2 2.1:2 to 3:1 Designed and prepared by: 1:2 to 1:1 3.1:1 to 5:1 South aFrica 1.1:2 to 2:1 no data COST AND REWARD YOUR MOVE PagE MAPPING THE GIRL EFFECT 69 WORKING WITH GIRLS TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 66. THE TREND IS GETTING WORSE. In 2001, 62% of HIV-positive youth in Africa were girls. In 2007, that figure was 75%. SWAZILAND SOUTH AFRICA ZIMBABWE CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC UGANDA CHAD CÔTE D’IVOIRE SIERRA LEONE RWANDA HAITI GUINEA ETHIOPIA BENIN MALI DR CONGO NIGER DOMINICAN REPUBLIC SENEGAL GIRLS CAMBODIA INDIA BOYS 0 5 10 15 20 25 % HIV PREVALENCE 2008 REPORT ON THE GLOBAL AIDS EPIDEMIC Chapter 2, page 42; figure 2.10 Http://www.Unaids.Org/en/knowledgecentre/hivdata/globalreport/2008/2008_global_report.Asp COST AND REWARD YOUR MOVE PagE MAPPING THE GIRL EFFECT 70 WORKING WITH GIRLS TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL
  • 67. WANT TO DIG DEEPER? In Zinder, Niger, a girl has a 50% chance of being married at 15. If she’d been born a few hundred miles away, in northern Niger, her chances would drop to 20%. To precisely target the world’s most vulnerable girls requires going a step further, into understanding the variations within one country’s borders. These resources can help you go CONSULT THESE deeper: REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS: MINE EXISTING DATA FOR THE FACTS ABOUT • Growing Up Global GIRLS: • World Development Report and • National census Indicators (2007 report on youth) • Department of Health Services • Girls Count Report (Center for data Global Development) • World Bank Living Standards • State of the World’s Children Measurements Surveys (UNICEF) • Urban poverty surveys. • State of the World’s Mothers 2005. The Power and Promise of SEEK OUT THE Girls’ Education (Save the Children) GIRL EXPERTS IN THESE RESEARCH • Because I am a Girl. The State of INSTITUTIONS: the World’s Girls 2007, 2008 (Plan) • Population Council • International Center for Research on Women • Center for Global Development • Guttmacher Institute HAVE FEEDBACK? WE WANT TO HEAR IT. Email info@girleffect.org with “Your Move: Feedback” in the subject line. COST AND REWARD YOUR MOVE PagE MAPPING THE GIRL EFFECT 71 WORKING WITH GIRLS TAKE THE TEST INVEST TODAY WHO’S DOING SOMETHING THE BIG DEAL