Roccoco Though Rococo originated in the purely decorative arts, the style showed clearly in painting. These painters used delicate colours and curving forms, decorating their canvases with cherubs and myths of love. Portraiture was popular with some works showing a sort of naughtiness in the behaviour of their subjects and showing the historical trend of departing away from the Baroque's church/state orientation.
Thomas Gainsborough, Porträt des Jonathan Buttall , 1770 oil
Jean-Honoré Fragonard, The Swing, 1766, Oil on canvas
François Boucher, Marie-Louise O'Murphy,mistress to Louis XV of France , c. 1752
Neo-Classicism A reaction against both the surviving Baroque and Rococo styles, and as a desire to return to the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome, the more vague perception ("ideal") of Ancient Greek arts, and, to a lesser extent, 16th century Renaissance Classicism. Contrasting with the Baroque and the Rococo, Neo-classical paintings are devoid of pastel colours and haziness; instead, they have sharp colours with chiaroscuro.
Jacques-Louis David, The Oath of the Horatii , 1784, Oil on canvas, 329.8 x 424.8 cm
Jacques-Louis David Napoleon crosses the Saint-Bernard , 1800.
Romanticism Romanticism stressed strong emotion, imagination, freedom within or even from classical notions of form in art, and overturning of previous social conventions, particularly the position of the aristocracy. There was a strong element of historical and natural inevitablism in its ideas, stressing the importance of "nature" in art and language. Romanticism is also noted for its elevation of the achievements of what it perceived as heroic individuals and artists.
Francisco deGoya, The Third of May, 1814 , oil on canvas 266 × 345 cm
Joseph Turner, The Fighting Téméraire tugged to her last Berth to be broken, 1838, oil on canvas, 91 x 122 cm
Eugène Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People , 1830, Oil on canvas, 325 × 260 cm
A group of English painters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848. The group's intention was to reform art by rejecting what they considered to be the mechanistic approach first adopted by the Mannerist artists who succeeded Raphael and Michelangelo. They believed that the Classical poses and elegant compositions of Raphael in particular had been a corrupting influence on the academic teaching of art. Pre-Raphaelites
Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Proserpine Oil on canvas, 1874 John Everett Millais: Ophelia 1851 - 1852
Realism The depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation. The term also describes works of art which, in revealing a truth, may emphasize the ugly or sordid. Realists positioned themselves against romanticism. Realism believed in the ideology of objective reality and revolted against exaggerated emotionalism. Truth and accuracy became the goals of many Realists.
Gustave Courbet, Burial at Ornans , 1850 Oil on canvas. 314 x 663 cm
Impressionism Impressionism was a 19th-century art movement that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s. Characteristics of Impressionist paintings include visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, the inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
Post-Impressionism Extended Impressionism while rejecting its limitations: they continued using vivid colours, thick application of paint, distinctive brushstrokes and real-life subject matter, but they were more inclined to emphasize geometric forms, to distort form for expressive effect, and to use unnatural or arbitrary colour.
Georges-Pierre Seurat Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, 1884 – 1886
Odilon Redon, Portrait of Violette Heymann , 1910. Pastels, 72 x 92 cm.