Piaget for VoRTCS Tutors

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  • General information regarding the stages These four stages have been found to have the following characteristics: * They apply to thought rather than children * Although the timing may vary, the sequence of the stages does not. * Universal (not culturally specific)‏ * Generalizable: the representational and logical operations available to the child should extend to all kinds of concepts and content knowledge * Stages are logically organized wholes * Hierarchical nature of stage sequences (each successive stage incorporates elements of previous stages, but is more differentiated and integrated)‏ * Stages represent qualitative differences in modes of thinking, not merely quantitative differences
  • Piaget for VoRTCS Tutors

    1. 1. Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development
    2. 2. or
    3. 3. It's just a stage ...
    4. 4. Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development Overview <ul><ul><li>The stages of intellectual development formulated by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piaget appear to be related to major developments in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>brain growth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The human brain is not fully developed until late adolescence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or in the case of males sometimes early adulthood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We often expect children to think like adults when they </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> are not yet capable of doing so. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><ul><li>It is important that parents, teachers and tutors know </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what to expect from the child as they develop. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We often expect children to think like adults </li></ul></ul>Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development <ul><ul><li>Expectations for a given age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>need to be realistic. </li></ul></ul>They're not and they can't.
    6. 6. Each has an And Developmental Stage Approximate Age Range Characteristic Behaviors Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development
    7. 7. Sensorimotor Stage (0 - 24 months)‏ Preoperational Stage (2-7 years) Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years) Formal Operational Stage (11-15+ years) Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development 4 3 2 1
    8. 8. In the first post natal stage of development, children experience six sub-stages of spatial and sensory learning and growth. Sensorimotor Stage Infancy (0 - 24 months) ‏ Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development 1
    9. 9. Characteristic Behavior Developmental Stage & Approximate Age Reflexive (0-2 months) Simple reflex activity such as grasping, sucking. Primary Circular Reactions (2-4 months) Reflexive behaviours occur in stereotyped repetition such as opening and closing fingers repetitively. Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months) Repetition of change actions to reproduce interesting consequences such as kicking one's feet to more a mobile suspended over the crib. Coordination of Secondary Reactions (8-12 months) Responses become coordinated into more complex sequences. Actions take on an &quot;intentional&quot; character such as the infant reaches behind a screen to obtain a hidden object. Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months) Discovery of new ways to produce the same consequence or obtain the same goal such as the infant may pull a pillow toward him in an attempt to get a toy resting on it. Invention of New Means Through Mental Combination (18-24 months) Evidence of an internal representational system. Symbolizing the problem-solving sequence before actually responding. Deferred imitation. Sensorimotor Stage (0 - 24 months)‏ 1
    10. 10. The Preoperational Stage Toddler & Early Childhood (2-7 years)‏ Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development 2 There are 2 sub-stages or phases here: Preoperational 2-4 years Intuitive 4-7 years
    11. 11. The whole Preoperational Stage is characterised by the following processes: <ul><ul><li>demonstrated when children attribute living qualities to inanimate objects, like toys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>involves a child’s response to one aspect of a situation or object, such as the height versus the height and diameter of an object. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows a child to combine similar objects in basic clusters according to shared criteria like size and colour. </li></ul></ul>Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development <ul><ul><li>Animism : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centration : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification : </li></ul></ul>Preoperational Stage (2-7 years)
    12. 12. The Preoperational Stage The First Phase (2-4 years) Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development 2 <ul><ul><li>Beginning of Symbolic Functioning: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egocentrism: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation - lack of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief in magical increase, decrease, disappearance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the child’s self-preoccupation and personal view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that does not readily accept another person’s view. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the inability to conserve reflects a child’s difficulty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>with concepts of volume, mass and number. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the ability to understand the meaning of something that is not physically there. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. The Preoperational Stage The Intuitive Phase (4 -7 years) Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development 2 <ul><ul><li>Intuitive thought reveals belief in something without </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understanding why one believes in it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intuitive grasp of logical concepts in some areas </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency to focus attention on one aspect of an object while ignoring others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief in magical increase,decrease,disappearance. </li></ul></ul>T h e ri s e o f i m ag i nat i on
    14. 14. Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years)‏ Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development 3 Operational thinking develops, moving from the concrete towards the abstract
    15. 15. <ul><li>Conservation evolves so that a child retains the understanding of quantity, length or numbers associated with an object or process. </li></ul>This stage is characterized by 7 types of conservation: number length liquid mass area volume Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years) Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development
    16. 16. Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years) Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development <ul><li>Decentering </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing Egocentrism </li></ul>the child’s ability to comprehend multiple aspects of a problem while solving it. the child begins to understand another person’s perspective, whether or not they are in agreement. <ul><ul><li>speech becomes more social, less egocentric. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The pronoun 'WE' starts to get a workout. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understanding Reversibility </li></ul>an object or number can change and then reverse into its original state.
    17. 17. <ul><li>This stage is often the period of a child’s development when s/he begins to engage with the concepts of: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fairness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sharing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>empathy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>compassion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years)‏ Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development 3
    18. 18. This stage continues into adulthood. This is the stage where children, entering puberty, begin to think abstractly and create meaning from available data. Formal Operational Stage (11-15+ years) Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development 4 `
    19. 19. Formal Operational Stage (11-15+ years) Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development 4 <ul><ul><li>Thought becomes more abstract, incorporating the principles of formal logic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to generate abstract propositions, multiple hypotheses and their possible outcomes is evident. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking becomes less tied to concrete reality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal logical systems can be acquired. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepositional logic, as-if and if-then steps can be used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can handle proportions, algebraic manipulation, other purely abstract processes. If a + b = x then a = x - b. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can use aids such as axioms to enhance comprehension. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. This critical fourth stage is responsible for creating global problem solvers and creative thinkers Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development Formal Operational Stage (11-15+ years) who can analyze a situation and not be confined by concrete ideas or previously accepted logic .
    21. 21. ` global problem solvers and creative thinkers
    22. 22. However cross-sectional studies of adolescents indicate only 30 to 35% of high school seniors attain the cognitive development stage of formal operations
    23. 23. For formal operations, it appears that maturation establishes the basis, but a special environment is required for most adolescents and adults to develop fully formed formal operational capacity .
    24. 24. The four stages are believed to be universal rather than cultural. Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development The four stages follow the same sequence of development despite the variance of timing or geographic relevance.
    25. 25. Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Stage (0 - 24 months)‏ The Preoperational Stage (2-7 years) Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years) Formal Operational Stage (11-15+ years) 4 2 3 1
    26. 26. (Kuhn, Langer, Kohlberg & Haan, 1977).

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