Assessment Tools <br />Below are links to assessment tools and techniques along with specific geoscience examples and resources. <br />Show credits<br />Hide<br />Carol Ormand's toolbox, complete with rock hammer. Photo courtesy of Carol Ormand. <br /> HYPERLINK "http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/assess/conceptmaps.html" Concept Maps - A diagramming technique for assessing how well students see the "big picture". <br /> HYPERLINK "http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/assess/conceptests.html" ConcepTests - Conceptual multiple-choice questions that are useful in large classes. <br /> HYPERLINK "http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/assess/knowledgesurvey.html" Knowledge Survey - Students answer whether they could answer a survey of course content questions. <br /> HYPERLINK "http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/assess/exams.html" Exams - Find tips on how to make exams better assessment instruments. <br /> HYPERLINK "http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/assess/oralpresentations.html" Oral Presentations - Tips for evaluating student presentations. <br /> HYPERLINK "http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/assess/poster.html" Poster Presentations -Tips for evaluating poster presentations. <br /> HYPERLINK "http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/assess/peerreview.html" Peer Review - Having students assess themselves and each other. <br /> HYPERLINK "http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/assess/portfolios.html" Portfolios - A collection of evidence to demonstrate mastery of a given set of concepts. <br /> HYPERLINK "http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/assess/rubrics.html" Rubrics - A set of evaluation criteria based on learning goals and student performance. <br /> HYPERLINK "http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/assess/writtenreports.html" Written Reports - Tips for assessing written reports. <br /> HYPERLINK "http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/assess/otherat.html" Other Assessment Types Includes concept sketches, case studies, seminar-style courses, mathematical thinking and performance assessments.<br />ASSESSMENT TOOLS MATH<br /> Assessment is the process of knowing the measurable terms knowledge benefits attitudes etc., Assessment tool is mainly about the assessment test that are being known and the test that were conducted in math. Mathematics is a deep valuable knowledge of everyone and the assessment tools of this math are very important to know. Many different tools are there in the mathematics. Assessment tool mainly depends on the knowledge of the math and it is a theoretical or empirical nature with experimental work. Assessment tools math helps to learn and address issue of measurable standards. Different chapters like algebra in mathematics are main assessment tool.<br />Example<br />Evaluate 20 – 5 *2 + 4<br />Solution<br />Here we use PEMDAS rule to solve the problem since it has various operations to perform<br />From this question we don’t have parenthesis exponents and division. So we are going to perform multiplication first.<br />5*2 = 10<br />20-10+4<br />20 – 14<br />6 is the answer.<br />2. Find the value of x in the given <br />4x + 12 = 0<br />Solution <br />Subtract 12 on both side<br />4x+12-12 = -12<br />4x = -12<br />X=-12/4<br />X=-3.<br />Problems of Assessment Tools Math<br />Find the value of x in the following terms<br /> 7x -3 = 46<br />2. Solve the following <br /> 3x +2x = 28 – 3<br />3. Evaluate 2^3 + 5 –(3*2)<br />4. Solve the equation<br /> -6x + 17 = 23<br />5. If your brother gave 5 chocolates yesterday and 3 chocolates today how <br /> many chocolates will you have in your hand by now?<br />6. Jack has 5 shirts with him. His dad bought him 5 new shirts and his mom<br /> bought him 3 new shirts. How many shirts did jack have with him now?<br />7. Solve the following <br /> a)3x + 5 = 17<br /> b)x- 5 = 25<br /> Answers <br /> 7<br /> 5<br /> 4<br />-1<br /> 8<br />13<br />a)4<br />Essentials of Reflection<br />Hatton & Smith (1995) identified four essential issues concerning reflection: <br />We should learn to frame and reframe complex or ambiguous problems, test out various interpretations, and then modify our actions consequently.<br />Our thoughts should be extended and systematic by looking back upon our actions some time after they have taken place.<br />Certain activities labeled as reflective, such as the use of journals or group discussions following practical experiences, are often not directed towards the solution of specific problems.<br />We should consciously account for the wider historic, cultural, and political values or beliefs in framing practical problems to arrive at a solution. This is often identified as critical reflection . However, the term critical reflection, like reflection itself, appears to be used loosely, some taking it to mean no more than constructive self-criticism of one's actions with a view to improvement.<br />Critical Reflection<br />Going one step further is Critical Reflection — the process of analyzing, reconsidering and questioning experiences within a broad context of issues (Murray, Kujundzic, 2005). Four activities are central to critical reflection (Brookfield 1988): <br />Assumption analysis - This is the first step in the critical reflection process. It involves thinking in such a manner that it challenges our beliefs, values, cultural practices, and social structures in order to assess their impact on our daily proceedings. Assumptions are our way of seeing reality and to aid us in describing how the order of relationships.<br />Contextual awareness - Realizing that our assumptions are socially and personally created in a specific historical and cultural context.<br />Imaginative speculation - Imagining alternative ways of thinking about phenomena in order to provide an opportunity to challenge our prevailing ways of knowing and acting.<br />Reflective skepticism - Questioning of universal truth claims or unexamined patterns of interaction through the prior three activities - assumption analysis, contextual awareness, and imaginative speculation. It is the ability to think about a subject so that the available evidence from that subject's field is suspended or temporarily rejected in order to establish the truth or viability of a proposition or action.<br />Encouraging Reflection<br />Most educators believe that "reflection is useful in the learning process, even without the supporting research data." However, it is often difficult to encourage reflection among the learners. Gustafson & Bennett (1999) found that promoting reflection among military cadets by means of written responses in "diaries" was difficult. Cadets across three different years generally did not produce responses indicating any deep reflection. Although the results were disappointing, they are consistent with the research literature on promoting reflection that generally indicates it is difficult to accomplish (Stamper, 1996). <br />In their work, Gustafson and Bennett identified eleven variables that affected the cadets' lack of reflective behavior. These eleven variables are grouped into three main characteristics: <br />Learner<br />Environmental<br />Reflection Task<br />Learner Characteristics<br />1. Learner's skill and experience in reflective thinkingThe ability to reflect is a learned behavior that is cultivated by the individual over a period of time. How reflective an individual can become is probably a personality trait. However, designing appropriate learning experiences can develop reflecting skills.2. Breadth of learner's knowledge of the content areaThe ability to reflect on a specific topic is directly proportional to how much one already knows. If a learner's schema for a topic is limited, then there is less ability to relate new information to it.3. Learner's motivation to complete the reflection taskBoth internal and external sources of motivation affect the quality of reflection. Internal motivation by nature is difficult to elevate and even more difficult to accurately estimate or measure. External strategies, such as creating a mental challenge, organizing the learners into pairs, or forming competitive teams enhance motivation, but the effectiveness of these and other strategies for promoting reflection awaits verification.4. Mental preparation (mental set) for reflectingAlthough the mental set of the individual might be considered a motivational variable, it is described separately to highlight its probable importance to promoting reflection.5. Degree of security felt in reporting actual reflections versus perceived desired responsesWhen there is confidence in the professionalism and integrity of reviewers, the amount and quality of responses are enhanced. This is particularly true when items call for making judgments about the worth of an activity or the quality of the instruction. This type of reflection can be used to promote thinking about what was and was not included that the learner wanted or needed to learn, what the designer of the instruction may have incorrectly assumed about the learner's entering knowledge or skill, or why the instruction was or was not effective.<br />Environmental Characteristics<br />6. Physical environment in which reflection occursThe opportunity for the learner to establish an appropriate mental set for reflecting is related to the nature of the physical environment in which reflection is expected to take place. Other factors may contribute to a poor physical environment, such as competing stimuli (e.g. televisions, personal conversations, ambient noise, poor ventilation, high or low temperature, uncomfortable furniture).7. Interpersonal environment in which reflection occursEnvironments that promote interpersonal interaction may result in greater reflection (Bandura, 1977). Social interaction may enhance motivation and prolong engagement with the task. Social interaction would almost certainly bring forth more information and ideas that could be shared and perhaps result in deeper thinking about the subject. This interaction might take place during the learning activity or it may occur later in formal or informal group discussions.<br />Reflection Task Characteristics<br />8. Nature of the stimulus questions, directions, or probesThe nature of the stimulus to reflect will impact the quality of the reflection. Surbeck, Han, and Moyer (1991) identified three levels of reflection:Reacting - commenting on feelings towards the learning experience, such as reacting with a personal concern about an event.Elaborating - comparing reactions with other experiences, such as referring to a general principle, a theory, or a moral or philosophical position.Contemplating - focusing on constructive personal insights or on problems or difficulties, such as focusing on education issues, training methods, future goals, attitudes, ethical matters, or moral concerns. The nature of the stimulus or directions initially provided to the learners, as well as the feedback they receive after the initial reflection, will determine the extent to which they reach the contemplation level of reflection.9. Format required for reporting reflectionsYinger and Clark (1981) believe that reflection results written down are more powerful than reporting them orally. However, handwriting is slow, requires a writing surface, and revisions or extensions of what has been recorded are less likely than for products produced on a word processor. Word processing has the advantage of easy revision, but requires that equipment be readily available.10. Quality of the feedback provided following reflectionFeedback takes several forms, ranging from no feedback, to acknowledging that the work was done, to commenting on how well it was done, to extending beyond or elaborating on what was submitted.11. Consequences of ReflectingListon and Zeichner (1996) posited a five-part taxonomy of reflection, of which reflection upon completion of the action is only one type:Rapidly during an action.Thoughtfully during an action.Briefly as a review after action.Systematically over a period of time after action.Long-term as one attempts to develop formal or informal theory.<br /> <br />Fostering Reflection<br />Of the eleven variables listed above, number 7 - Interpersonal Environment, may hold the most promise for encouraging reflection. <br />Hatton & Smith (1995) observed students undertaking a four-year secondary Bachelor of Education degree. They were required to complete several activities designed to encourage reflection. The activities included peer interviews in "critical friend" dyads and written reports where they reflected upon the factors that had influenced their thinking and action. Their research indicated that engaging with another person in a way that encourages talking with, questioning, or confronting, helped the reflective process by placing the learner in a safe environment in which self-revelation can take place. In addition, students were able to distance themselves from their actions, ideas, and beliefs, by holding them up for scrutiny in the company of a peer with whom they are willing to take such risks.<br />The study also identified a framework for four types of writing, the first one is non-reflective, while the other three are characterized as different kinds of reflection. <br />Descriptive writing (not reflective) reports events. Its main purpose is to provide a support or a starting point for the framework.<br />Descriptive reflection attempts to provide reasons based upon personal judgment or. E.g., "I choose this problem solving activity because I believe the learners should be active rather than passive."<br />Dialogic reflection forms a discourse with one's self through the exploration of possible reasons. E.g., "I became aware that a number of students did not respond to written text materials. Thinking about this, there may have been several reasons. A number of students may still have lacked some confidence in handling the level of language in the text.<br />Critical reflection involves giving reasons for decisions or events, which takes into account the broader historical, social and/or political contexts.<br />Strategies for Fostering Reflection<br />Hatton and Smith (1995) reported four activites that in in the process of reflection:<br />Action Research Projects<br />Case and cultural studies<br />Practical experiences<br />Structured curriculum tasks: <br />Reading fiction and non-fiction<br />Oral interviews<br />Writing tasks such as narratives, biographies, reflective essays, and keeping journals.<br />However, although these strategies have the potential to encourage reflection, there is little research evidence to show that this is actually being achieved. <br />Obviously "fact" questions do not promote reflection (e.g., What are the functional areas of an air base?). But posing hypothetical situations produced similarly disappointing results (e.g., Assume you have inherited a significant sum of money and wish to buy land in an environmentally sensitive area on which to build. What factors will go into your decision and why?). In contrast, the most successful probe asked learners to write a one page letter to a parent, sibling or other significant person in their lives. <br />Feedback<br />Extending evaluative feedback might have even more powerful effects. Providing probes may cause the learner to continue to think about the topic, such as: <br />"Have you thought about how a skilled operator might do this?"<br />"But how much does safety really get compromised when you don't use safety shoes?"<br />Pointing out other possibilities may also result in additional thinking about relationships among factors not previously considered, such as: <br />"Another factor you might consider is how many different tools will be required if you use different size bolts in the design?"<br />"But what if the rate of water flow is doubled?"<br />Although such feedback may be provided via written comments, they are probably most powerful when used interactively in interpersonal dialogue. Carrying on a dialogue with one or more learners about the work they have submitted is probably the ultimate in promoting reflection via feedback. But the logistics of doing so and having discussion leaders who are skilled in the content and possess good interpersonal skills may be beyond the capacity of the system to provide; unless it is computer mediated in some way. <br />Other hints for encouraging reflection include: <br />Seek alternatives.<br />View from various perspectives.<br />Seek the framework, theoretical basis, underlying rationale (of behaviors, methods, techniques, programs).<br />Compare and contrast.<br />Put into different/varied contexts.<br />Ask "what if. . . ?"<br />Consider consequences.<br />children are brought together to experience school as a place for learning, socialization and to impress a sense of wonder for the world. In this moment of time for me, I am working in a school whose community is united by an end goal of “university prep” but also within the area of being a global citizen through our school motto.By creating strong/positive relationships in my classroom and with the other class I would expect an environment where everyone will feel less stressed and rushed. I expect that these relationships will affect the students, their behaviors and their learning and help create a welcoming classroom environment. I expect a learning climate where children are happy and are learning to self-regulate, problem solve and work with others. I expect these relationships will help the students feel safe and to have a strong sense of belonging.Questions for inquiryHow might I structure my day to contribute to a sense of calmness?<br />Greeted the children each morning, with a handshake, hello and with some questions to find out how they are doing. <br />Helping with the Question of the day every morning and also alternating between play and or a warm up activity booklet when the day starts. <br />Making changes at the beginning of a new year can be hard. We added another step to telling the sotry about the Kissing Hand. We made hands for our parents which is something we have always done but this year we also asked our parents to make a kissing hand for us to hang in our cubbies. This allowed for a connection between home and school and where children could begin to feel more comfortable inside the classroom with their new friends and their new teacher. <br />Journal & Reflection Paper Guidelines <br />By helping the community you also help yourself. Gain experience in a work-related atmosphere. This is a great opportunity for students to develop skills learned in the classroom by applying them to the "real world." <br />
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