aviation assignment for frankfinn student


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aviation assignment for frankfinn student

  3. 3. 1.  LOW COST AIRLINES <ul><li>THE LOW COST AIRLINES ARE ALSO CALLED LOW FRILLS,THE LOW COST AIRLINES ARE AS FOLLOWS </li></ul><ul><li> GO AIR </li></ul><ul><li> INDIGO AIRLINES </li></ul><ul><li> SPICE JET </li></ul><ul><li> AIR DECCAN </li></ul><ul><li> AIR ASIA </li></ul><ul><li> AIR ARABIA </li></ul><ul><li> AL JAZEERA </li></ul>
  4. 4. Impact of low cost airlines <ul><li> The number of low cost airlines is increasing now a days because of this there is more competition between the airlines </li></ul><ul><li> The fares are reducing due to the low cost airlines </li></ul><ul><li> Thus more and more people are traveling by air instead of going by train or by any other way of transport </li></ul><ul><li> Instead of going by bus or train people are traveling by air because it saves time and now a days really cheap </li></ul><ul><li> Now airlines are not only for business men or for reach persons the common men can also travel by air now a days </li></ul>
  5. 5. INCREASED NUMBER OF DOMESTIC AIRLINES <ul><li>Increased number of domestic airlines are also affecting the Aviation Industry </li></ul><ul><li> There are so many domestic airlines like:- </li></ul><ul><li>Jet airways, Kingfisher airlines, Air India airlines, Indigo airlines, Air Deccan airlines, Go airlines, Spice jet airlines, Jetlite airlines </li></ul><ul><li> Due to Increased number of airlines number of destinations are increased </li></ul><ul><li> Fares are reduced due to increased number of airlines </li></ul><ul><li> There are more facilities and fair competition amongst air-lines </li></ul><ul><li> This competition amongst the airlines may result in further reduction in fares </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The aviation industry has benefited due to </li></ul><ul><li>the following reasons </li></ul><ul><li>People have more money in hand thus more people travel by air.  </li></ul><ul><li>More goods are also transported by air. </li></ul><ul><li>The MNCs have also started a few new airlines.  </li></ul><ul><li>Due to cut throat competition, the fares have really gone down.  </li></ul><ul><li>Better quality of fuel is available for the planes as now India can afford more expensive oil.  </li></ul>
  7. 7. Adverse Affects <ul><li> 1. The demand for air staff and pilots has suddenly gone up, as a result, the airlines are compromising with the staff.   2. The infrastructure is not as developed as the aviation industry. There is shortage of good airports, runways, etc. This leads to inconvenience.   3. The introduction of untrained or poorly educated staff has caused a problem. The services have gone down in a few airlines. </li></ul>
  8. 8. India’s improving economy <ul><li> The Aviation industry in India encompasses a wide range of services related to air transport such as passenger and cargo airlines </li></ul><ul><li> Development in economy means more contraction of runways, airports, etc. thus more planes can fly. </li></ul><ul><li> The Aviation sector has reaped massive benefit from the entry of private carriers, especially from those of the low fare ones. </li></ul><ul><li> The growth of the airlines sector has caused a sharp upturn in demand for allied services including MRO, ground handling, and catering services. </li></ul><ul><li> Due to the improving industries, more and more foreign companies have invested due to this India’s economy is growing more </li></ul><ul><li> India is second largest growing country after China </li></ul><ul><li> The economic growth in India is 7% earlier it was 9% but due to increased fuel prize and resection the growth is decreased to 7% </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cockpit <ul><li> Cockpit is the area which is in the front of the aircraft </li></ul><ul><li> Cockpit is the area from which pilot controls whole aircraft </li></ul><ul><li> The landing and takeoff is done from cockpit of the aircraft </li></ul><ul><li> Cockpit is also called pilot cabin and only licensed people are allowed to enter the cockpit </li></ul><ul><li> The main pilot of an aircraft seats at the port side of and aircraft and the co-pilot seats at the star port side of and aircraft </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li> Cockpit of an aircraft contains flight instruments which are called an instrument panel and the other parts with the help of which the pilot is able to fly the aircraft </li></ul><ul><li> In most of the aircraft the cockpit is divided from the passenger cabin </li></ul><ul><li> The cockpit contains one extra chairs of that of number of pilots because some time the supervisors comes to supervise the pilots way to fly the aircraft </li></ul><ul><li> The seats in the cockpit are like bumped and contains life jacket on it </li></ul>
  11. 12. Parts of cockpit <ul><li>The parts of cockpit are </li></ul><ul><li>Armrest </li></ul><ul><li>Left Console </li></ul><ul><li>Left Aux Console </li></ul><ul><li>Center Console </li></ul><ul><li>Right Aux Console </li></ul><ul><li>Right Console </li></ul><ul><li>Side Stick Controller </li></ul><ul><li>Throttle Quadrant System </li></ul><ul><li>Rudder Pedal </li></ul>
  12. 13. Armrest <ul><li> The armrests are located at the right inner side of the cockpit and are used to help the pilot to relax in order to increase the resistance during high G's flights. The pilot can rest his forearm on this armrest. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Left Console
  14. 15. Left Aux Console
  15. 16. Center Console <ul><li> The center console is in a certain senses the main console of the a-320 It integrates the following components </li></ul><ul><li> The center block with an own small glare-shield </li></ul><ul><li> The integrated control block (ICB) which holds the  ICP  and the  HUD </li></ul><ul><li> The right and left front panels which hold the corresponding  MFD </li></ul><ul><li> A glare-shield, which holds the  eyebrow lights . </li></ul><ul><li> As far as everything is working fine in the cockpit, the pilot will concentrate on the  HUD ,  MFDs  and  ICP  with  DED , which are all located at the center console right in front of the pilot's head. </li></ul><ul><li> If you want to have more details about every single part of the center console, click with the mouse onto the desired part. They are listed in alphabetical order. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Right Aux Console
  17. 18. Right Console
  18. 19. Side Stick Controller <ul><li> The A-320 was the first aircraft to use the &quot;fly by wire&quot; system, which does not translate the pilot's control- movements by cables and pulleys, but by electronic impulses. Between the flight stick and the control areas is the FLCS (flight control system) which translates the applied pressure to the stick and sends the corresponding electric impulses to electric motors, that move the control areas. The FLCS also controls the amount of movement to be sent to the controls </li></ul><ul><li> The first A-320 models had the SSC (side stick controller) with no free movement at all, which made the pilot feel like trying to move a telegraph pole. Later some free movement was given to the SSC to avoid this feeling. </li></ul><ul><li> Together with the TQS (=Throttle quadrant system) the HOTAS system (Hands on Throttle and Stick) is conformed. This system allows the pilot to handle his plane during critical fight conditions, without taking the hands away from throttle and flight stick. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Throttle Quadrant System <ul><li>The throttle quadrant system (TQS) has besides the throttle itself the friction control and the throttle guide rail. The TQS is located at the left side of the cockpit on the  left console . Together with the  SSC  (=Side Stick Controller) the HOTAS system (Hands on Throttle and Stick) is conformed. This system allows the pilot to handle his plane during critical fight conditions, without taking the hands away from throttle and flight stick. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Rudder Pedal System <ul><li> Using the rudder pedals, the rudder is activated and while on ground, the nose wheel, as long as the NWS switch (missile step switch on the  SSC )) is activated. When the nose wheel steering is activated, the  NWS indexer light  on the right indexer at the  HUD  will glow. By pressing the tips of the pedals on ground, the corresponding wheel-brake is applied. The  pedal adjust handle  allows the desired pedal positioning. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Cargo <ul><li> Cargo is the compartment to carry goods which lies below the passenger cabin </li></ul><ul><li> There are three compartments in cargo </li></ul><ul><li> Forward cargo compartment </li></ul><ul><li> Aft cargo compartment </li></ul><ul><li> Bulk cargo compartment </li></ul>
  22. 23. Forward cargo compartment <ul><li>It lies in the front part of an aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>The cargo doors normally opens upfront and outwards </li></ul><ul><li>The forward cargo compartment is neither pressurised not heated and carries goods in the containers </li></ul><ul><li>Cargo doors are opened hydraulically versus electically on Boeing or MDD aircraft. The exception being the main deck cargo doors on freighters which open hydraulically. </li></ul><ul><li>With a door connected to an electrical actuation system it usually doesn't move much when it is unlocked. </li></ul><ul><li>  With a door connected to a hydraulic actuator with the pressure bled down, the door quickly creeps down when it is unlocked. Yes, you most certainly should be aware of this. </li></ul><ul><li>If the aircraft has residual air pressure onboard, the door will violently swing open. Fedex has warning devices on each door to warn of this condition while Dc10hound advised AA has deactivated thiers. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Aft cargo compartment <ul><li>Aft cargo compartment lies before main gear cabin </li></ul><ul><li>Aft cargo compartment is used for the transport of the goods which are imported from other country </li></ul><ul><li>Aft cargo compartment have locks at the bottom to hold the containers so it decreases the chances of collide ness </li></ul><ul><li>Aft cargo compartment is also neither pressurized nor heated </li></ul>
  24. 25. Bulk cargo compartment <ul><li>The bulk cargo compartment is at the end of the aircraft after main gear cabin </li></ul><ul><li>The bulk cargo compartment is used for the transport of the goods like vegetable, pets, and other goods </li></ul><ul><li>The bulk cargo compartment is pressurized and is heated also because it contains animals some time and they need normal temperature and pressure to survive </li></ul><ul><li>The pets are normally carried in dog houses </li></ul>
  25. 26. Cockpit and Cargo with relevance to cabin crew <ul><li> Only licensed people are allowed to enter in the cockpit </li></ul><ul><li> Pilot and copilots are not allowed to eat same meal at a time because there may be chance of food poisoning </li></ul><ul><li> The hot braver ages are given by the side of the cockpit for safety </li></ul><ul><li> Crew is not allowed to go in cargo compartment </li></ul><ul><li> The cargo normally contains passenger luggage </li></ul>
  26. 27. Roles & Responsibilities Of Cabin Crew <ul><li> The main responsibility of a cabin crew is safety of the passengers, The second responsibility is passenger comfort </li></ul><ul><li> The crew must have some qualities to do their work properly </li></ul><ul><li> The crew on board is as much as the ambassador of the company because he/she represents the company </li></ul><ul><li> The crew should be well groomed, The crew must have pleasant personality, charming voice quality and ability to solve problems of passengers </li></ul>
  27. 28. The primary functions of a crew <ul><li> Safety </li></ul><ul><li> Service </li></ul><ul><li> Uniforms and presentation </li></ul>
  28. 29. Safety Responsibilities <ul><li>The majority of a flight attendant's duties are safety related. </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to each flight, the crew have to check all the equipments working properly, </li></ul><ul><li>The flight can not go even if any one equipment is not working properly, </li></ul><ul><li>The crew demonstrates use of the equipments in any emergency to the passengers </li></ul>
  29. 30. Service <ul><li>The main function of a crew on board is safety but the second function is to provide proper service to the passengers </li></ul><ul><li>The service includes distribution of food and beverages to the passengers </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of the magazines and newspapers to the passengers </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of games to the kids </li></ul><ul><li>Helping the passengers if they require the help </li></ul>
  30. 31. Uniforms & Presentation <ul><li> Cabin crew members act very much </li></ul><ul><li>as&quot; AMBASSADORS” for their airline. </li></ul><ul><li> Their standards of Grooming, Behavior, & their wearing of the uniform to acceptable standards must reflect this. </li></ul><ul><li> They are recruited to a specification, which will require a minimum standard. </li></ul><ul><li> Female Attendants are expected to use Appropriate cosmetics </li></ul><ul><li> All attendants must have very high level of personal hygiene. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Unaccompanied minor <ul><li>The unaccompanied minors are boarded first and deplaned last </li></ul><ul><li>child traveling without a parent, guardian, or another trusted adult that the child knows is called unaccompanied minor. The age requirements that are generally used by the airlines to define the unaccompanied minor are children between the ages of five and twelve years old. </li></ul><ul><li>An airline representative takes the unaccompanied minor through security and brings them to the gate where the child will be escorted on board by an airline representative, normally prior to other passengers. </li></ul><ul><li>During the flight, the unaccompanied minor is supervised by the in-flight crew. Upon landing at the destination the child will wait until the passengers not requiring assistance have left the aircraft, and the in-flight crew will hand the child over to a member of the airline's airport staff. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Infirm and invalid passengers <ul><li> Few passengers need that extra attention as they are physically handicapped or are suffering from or recovering from a serious illness. </li></ul><ul><li> these passengers are boarded first and deplaned last. Often classified as a Wheelchair passenger on the passenger information list </li></ul><ul><li> Seriously ill passengers are often accompanied by a relative or a medical presonnel like a doctor or a nurse. </li></ul><ul><li> They are seated close to the toilet. Many airlines have a specially designated Handicap toilet one that is designed with extra amenities to help such passengers. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Safety equipments <ul><li>Flight crew oxygen  When conducting the oxygen mask flow & intercom check, monitor the crew oxygen pressure gauge to ensure a steady flow as any fluctuations may be due to an obstruction in the system. Give a long check of the flow on the first flight of the day in case the crew oxygen shut off valve has been closed. A short check may sound OK but you may be hearing the residual oxygen left in the lines rather than fresh oxygen from the bottle. </li></ul><ul><li> Crew oxygen is stored in a bottle in the forward hold. On older aircraft (pre 1990 ish) there is a servicing point on the outside (see photo below) however on most access is gained through the forward hold. </li></ul><ul><li> All aircraft have a green discharge disc on the outside to warn crews if the bottle has discharged from overpressure. This should be checked on every walk around. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Flight Crew Oxygen Mask <ul><li>The oxygen regulator has three modes: </li></ul><ul><li>Normal : Red latch on left is up - Gives air/oxygen mix on demand. Use if no fumes are present eg decompression. </li></ul><ul><li>100% : Push red latch on left down - Gives 100& oxygen on demand. Use if smoke or fumes are present. </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency : Rotate red knob clockwise - Gives 100% oxygen under pressure. Used to clear mask & goggles of fumes and should also be used if aircraft is depressurised above 39,000ft. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Passenger Oxygen <ul><li> Classics & NG's: Will deploy automatically above 14,000ft cabin alt or when switched on from the aft overhead panel. No oxygen will flow in a PSU until a mask in that PSU has been pulled. Passenger oxygen should not be used as smoke hoods as the air inhaled is a mixture of oxygen and cabin air and there is a significant fire hazard with oxygen in the cabin. </li></ul><ul><li> There is 12 minutes supply of oxygen in each PSU, this is based upon: </li></ul><ul><li> 0.3 min delay at 37,000ft </li></ul><ul><li> 3.1 min descent to 14,000ft </li></ul><ul><li> 7.6 min hold at 14,000ft </li></ul><ul><li> 1.0 min descent to 10,000ft </li></ul><ul><li> Passenger oxygen on 737-1/200's is supplied by two oxygen bottles in the forward hold. The capacity varies with operator but is typically 76.5 cu ft each. Oxygen bottle pressure is indicated on the aft overhead panel. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Emergency Exit Lights <ul><li>When armed, will illuminate if power is lost to DC bus 1. They can also be switched on from the aft flight attendant panel. Whenever these lights are on, they are being powered from their own individual Ni-Cad batteries and will only last for 10mins. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Smoke Hood (Dragger) <ul><li>After pulling the toggle, the oxygen generator will operate for less than 30 sacs. Don’t worry! The oxygen remains in a closed loop system within the mask and filter to prevent contamination from the outside air. It is filtered twice, on inhalation and again on exhalation, and is breathable for approximately 20mins. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Life Jacket <ul><li>Do not inflate until you are outside the aircraft as it will impede your exit and you could puncture it as you leave. </li></ul><ul><li>The life jacket contains nitrogen gas because it do not expand much </li></ul>
  39. 40. Cockpit Fire Extinguisher <ul><li>Is BCF and works by removing oxygen from the fire triangle of oxygen - heat - fuel. As it does not directly cool the fire, when oxygen returns, so could the fire. To operate, remove ring and press down on top lever. Hold upright and beware, BCF fumes are toxic. </li></ul>
  40. 41. Slide <ul><li> Serviceability check includes the pressure gauge. </li></ul><ul><li> Tip: Be extremely careful to remember to disarm any door slides you may have armed on flights without cabin crew ferry flights or air-tests. </li></ul><ul><li> Note that the slides are not certified as emergency floatation equipment although Boeing say that an inflated slide could be buoyant, and useful as a floatation device and handgrips are positioned along the sides of the slide. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Emergency landing <ul><li>An  emergency landing  is an unplanned  landing  made by an  aircraft  in response to a crisis which either interferes with the operation of the aircraft or involves sudden medical emergencies necessitating diversion to the nearest airport </li></ul>
  42. 43. Types of emergency landings <ul><li>There are several different types of emergency landings for powered aircraft: planned landing or unplanned landing </li></ul><ul><li> Forced landing , the aircraft is forced to make a landing due to technical problems, medical problems or weather conditions. Landing as soon as possible is a priority, no matter where. A forced landing may be necessary even if the aircraft is still flyable. This can arise to either facilitate emergency medical or police assistance or get the aircraft on the ground before a major system failure occurs which would force a crash landing or ditch situation. </li></ul><ul><li> Precautionary landing, may result from a planned landing at a location about which information is limited, from unanticipated changes during the flight, or from abnormal or even emergency situations. The sooner a pilot locates and inspects a potential landing site, the less the chance of additional limitations being imposed by worsening aircraft conditions, deteriorating weather, or other factors. </li></ul><ul><li> Crash landing, is caused by the failure of or damage to vital systems such as engines, hydraulics, or landing gear, and so a landing must be attempted where a runway is needed but none is available. The pilot is essentially trying to get the aircraft on the ground in a way which minimizes the possibility of injury or death to the people aboard. </li></ul><ul><li> Ditching, is the same as a crash landing only on water. After the disabled aircraft makes contact with the surface of the water, the aircraft will typically sink if it is not designed to float. </li></ul>
  43. 44. Procedures <ul><li> During a forced landing,  fixed-wing aircraft  glide, while a rotary winged aircraft ( helicopter )  autorotates  to the ground by trading altitude for airspeed to maintain control. Pilots often practice &quot;simulated forced landings&quot;, in which an engine failure is simulated and the pilot has to get the aircraft on the ground safely, by selecting a landing area and then gliding the aircraft at its best gliding speed. </li></ul><ul><li> If there is a suitable landing spot within the aircraft's gliding or autorotation distance, an unplanned landing will often result in no injuries or significant damage to the aircraft, since powered aircraft generally use little or no power when they are landing. Light aircraft can often land safely on fields, roads, or gravel river banks (or on the water, if they are float-equipped); but medium and heavy aircraft generally require long, prepared runway surfaces because of their heavier weight and higher landing speeds.  Glider pilots  routinely land away from their base and so most cross-country pilots are in current practice. </li></ul>
  44. 45. Airbus A-380
  45. 46. Air bus A-300
  46. 47. Difference between A-380 and A300 <ul><li> The A380 is currently the worlds largest passenger jet, It was much more recently build than the A300 </li></ul><ul><li> As far size is concerned with the as the A300 and the A380 Its a bit like comparing a Mini Cooper to a tank, There is a massive size difference </li></ul><ul><li> The A300 is slowly going out of service and being replaced by the A300 </li></ul><ul><li> The A380 is also much more up to date and contains more advanced technology than the A300 </li></ul><ul><li> For example. The A300 has 1 LCD display per pilot and requires 3 pilots to operate,The A380 is about 5 times bigger than the A300 and only needs 2 pilots who are aided by no less than 9 LCD multifunction displays in the cockpit and the worlds most advanced aircraft systems operations computer </li></ul>
  47. 48. <ul><li> The Airbus A300 is an airplane that is considerably smaller than the A380,holds way less seats, has analogue displays and gauges whereas the A380 has a fly by wire system, and all gauges and components of the aircraft are shown on computer like screens known as Multi-Function display screens or Med's </li></ul>
  48. 49. Advantages and disadvantages of current scenario in the aviation industry <ul><li>The Indian aviation by industry is one of the fastest growing aviation industries in the world </li></ul><ul><li>India has 454 airports and airstrips; of these, 16 are designated international airports. </li></ul><ul><li>With the liberalization of the Indian aviation sector, aviation industry in India has undergone a rapid transformation. </li></ul><ul><li>From being primarily a government-owned industry, the Indian aviation industry is now dominated by privately owned full service airlines and low coast carriers. </li></ul><ul><li>Private airlines account for around 75 percent share of the domestic aviation market </li></ul>
  49. 50. <ul><li>A lot of airlines are going bankrupt at the moment because their fuel costs are going up, and they have fewer customers because people have less money to spend these days. There have also been a few mergers recently. </li></ul><ul><li>This means that there will be less competition which means flight prices will go up. It also means that there won’t be as many flights so it might be more difficult to get to your destination and the exiting flights might be really busy. </li></ul><ul><li>On the plus side it means that there’s less pollution in the air which is good for thee environment, and people might travel more on coaches which is good for those industries. Also, some of the big airlines are horribly inefficient so the situation might force some of them to sort themselves out </li></ul>
  50. 51. Future of domestic aviation sector <ul><li>Despite the economy doing well, the domestic aviation sector does not seem to be very bullish at the moment and is viewing the current scenario with caution. Several industry officials feel that the year, so far, has not been good for them and are of the view that the forthcoming winter period is very critical for the entire sector. </li></ul><ul><li>However, on the international front, the country’s carrier, Air India (A-I) claims that its seats for the winter months have already been booked to capacity. Speaking about the current scenario, Indian Airlines (IA) commercial director Anil Goyal said: “Indian Airlines views the eminent situation with cautious optimism.” </li></ul><ul><li>While, it is true that there is added capacity in the market, the yields are not growing as yet,” he added. He said that impact of the current scenario on the viability equation in the long run, is yet to be seen. </li></ul><ul><li>Yields for IA have, so far, remained stagnant and are not rising as yet. Mr Goyal added that IA is addressing this situation by trying to expand the market base on a short term basis through a number of short term promotional schemes. He, however, added that long term solution to this problem is yet to be found. </li></ul><ul><li>Talking to FE, Jet Airways executive director Saroj Datta said that the current year has not been very encouraging on the domestic aviation sector. </li></ul>
  51. 52. Bibliography <ul><li>Wikipedea. Com </li></ul><ul><li>Airbus. Com </li></ul><ul><li>Aircrafts. Com </li></ul><ul><li>Class notes </li></ul>
  52. 53. My special thanks to Mr. Evaristo A. MENDIS to teach us aviation <ul><li>HANIF MIYANOOR </li></ul>