st. thomas aquinas

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  • The first part is on God. In it, he gives five proofs for God’s existence as well as an explication of His attributes. argues for the actuality and in corporeality of God as the unmoved mover and describes how God moves through His thinking and willing. The last part of the  Summa  is on Christ and was unfinished when Thomas died. In it, he shows how Christ not only offers salvation, but represents and protects humanity on Earth and in Heaven. This part also briefly discusses the sacraments and eschatology. St. Thomas Aquinas understands man as a whole unlike his predecessors particularly Aristotle and St. Augustine. He asserts that man is substantially united body and soul. Summa Theologica The second part is on Ethics. Thomas argues for a variation of the Aristotelian Virtue Ethics. However, unlike Aristotle, he argues for a connection between the virtuous man and God by explaining how the virtuous act is one towards the blessedness of the Beatific Vision ( beata visio ).
  • st. thomas aquinas

    1. 1. St. Thomas Aquinas (1224 – 1274) Human Nature according to St. Thomas Aquinas
    2. 2. St. Thomas Aquinas <ul><li>Saint Thomas Aquinas was a Catholic Priest in the Dominican Order and one of the most important Medieval philosophers and theologians. </li></ul><ul><li>He was immensely influenced by scholasticism and Aristotle and known for his synthesis of the two aforementioned traditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Although he wrote many works of philosophy and theology throughout his life, his two monumental works are Summa Theologica and Summa Contra Gentiles. But his most influential work is the  Summa Theologica  that extensively discusses man which consists of three parts; God , Ethics and Christ. </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Man is the point of convergence between the corporeal ( means things pertaining to the human body ) and spiritual substances. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, Man is “one substance body and soul”. </li></ul><ul><li>In Thomistic physics, man is a substantial unity of body and soul. </li></ul><ul><li>Man is an embodied soul not a soul using a body. (as Plato claimed). </li></ul><ul><li>Man is substantially body and soul. And definitely, only the soul is the substance while the body is actual. </li></ul>According to St. Thomas Aquinas
    4. 4. <ul><li>St. Thomas Aquinas maintains that any existing body is perfect or any existing body is actual. </li></ul><ul><li>According to him, “all things which are diversified by the diverse participation of being, are more less perfect”. </li></ul><ul><li>No body can exist apart from matter. </li></ul><ul><li>This means that any body should necessarily be material. </li></ul><ul><li>This means that any body is actual because it exists as such completely as it is. </li></ul><ul><li>The mere existence of a body makes a body complete, perfect and actual. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Example: a pair of dark glasses and a computer. <ul><li>A pair of dark glasses is perfect and complete because it protects us from the glaring light of the sun. Thus it is actual. </li></ul><ul><li>The computer has a body; it is perfect and complete. Because it can do many tasks simultaneously that we can’t do at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>This examples help us understand what St. Thomas means with his contention that a body is actual or any body is an actual. </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>The human body is perfect. It has head, hands, feet and all else that a human body must have. </li></ul><ul><li>But in some respect the human body must be united to something else that will enable it to perform its intrinsic function as a human body. </li></ul><ul><li>Just like the two examples or anything which is true to what it is, a human body is actual. </li></ul><ul><li>The computer and the pair of dark glasses are inanimate. They don’t have life, feelings, mind, reason and intellect while the human body is subject to animation. </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Although a human body, is like a computer or a pair of dark glasses or any other entity which is actual, </li></ul><ul><li> it is different from them because it has intrinsic potentially animated by the soul . </li></ul><ul><li>Hence, the body must be united by what we call the soul . </li></ul><ul><li>To St. Thomas, when animation happens the two become one. As animation occurs, life instantly comes to the fore. </li></ul><ul><li>Human life here is understood by Aquinas in his doctrine called Participation . </li></ul>
    8. 8. St. Thomas Aquinas doctrines <ul><li>Participation – through participation God allows human life to partake in the celebration of existence. Hence, inasmuch as God is the author of life, he too has the sole power and authority to shut the power of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Annihilation – it is God alone who has the exclusively authority to annihilate life. </li></ul><ul><li>So when a human is animated by the soul, specially during conception, the “soul includes the body in its definition and in its act”. </li></ul><ul><li>The soul substantiates the body which is actual then becomes one with the body in act. </li></ul><ul><li>It is through animation that the soul substantiates the actual body. And the two become one substance. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Soul <ul><li>The animator of human body, it is a substance because it exists by itself and it acts, it wills, it thinks , it knows etc. </li></ul><ul><li>It is incorporeal (therefore immaterial) and spiritual. </li></ul><ul><li>Its possessions of will and intellect is a priori and intrinsic in it. </li></ul><ul><li>It is unified with the body for its lower activity i.e. sensation. </li></ul><ul><li>It can’t have perception in the absence of the body because perception means sensation. Sensation can only be realized in the context of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>The soul in this context is limited because it needs the correlative function of a material element called body. </li></ul><ul><li>The intellectual soul is understood as the form of the body because the soul is the principle of life of the body, the principle of nourishment and principle of movement. </li></ul><ul><li>The body and soul are substantially united. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Form <ul><li>The soul is united to the body not only because of perception, but also, because “it is the form of the body”. </li></ul><ul><li>Form means that the soul is the body’s principle of activity. </li></ul><ul><li>The soul in man is not only an embodied substance in itself- because it is immaterial but also the form of the body. Thus the parts of the human body can only act accordingly through the soul. </li></ul><ul><li>Through this, the soul’s animation by the body becomes evident and the two are one in a form of substantially unity in man. </li></ul><ul><li>However, it must be made clear that “a body is not necessarily to the intellectual operation which requires an organ of equitable temperament, which refers to the body. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Substance <ul><li>Substance is that whose essence necessities its own existence. In simple terms substance essentially exists by itself. </li></ul><ul><li>St. Thomas call the soul in man substance because the soul and the body become substance only in terms of participation. </li></ul><ul><li>He asserts “everything that is in any way it is, is from God”. For him, God is the only substance; God is the only self-subsisting Being. </li></ul><ul><li>The human body becomes a substance only when it is animated by the soul. As long as there is a human body there is also a soul. Like the human body soul is also a substance. </li></ul><ul><li>Each of them becomes a substance by virtue of their participation with God, the only substance. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Corruption <ul><li>However , matter is subject to corruption. </li></ul><ul><li>A human body is subject to corruption by necessity of its matter. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, because the soul is immaterial, it is free from corruption. </li></ul><ul><li>This logically makes the soul is immortal. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of its immortality, its higher powers such as intellect and will must remain in the soul after the destruction of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>According to St. Thomas, “the substantial unit of the body and soul ceases at the cessation of breath.” </li></ul>
    13. 13. In Thomistic Philosophy….. <ul><li>Man is substantially body and soul. </li></ul><ul><li>The soul is united with the human body because it is the substantial form of the human body. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the principle of action in the human body and the principle of life of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>But the soul however, requires the body as the material medium for its operation particularly perception. </li></ul><ul><li>Soul has operative functions which do not need a material medium; they are the man’s intellect and will. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus at death, intellection and will remain in the soul which is immortal, simple and incorruptible. </li></ul><ul><li>Body and soul before death are essentially united because the two exist in a correlative manner. </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>St. Thomas Aquinas treats man in metaphysical direction. </li></ul><ul><li>He argues that body and soul are not in a state of dichotomy, instead they are substantially united in one man. </li></ul>

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