STEROIDS in SPORTSTEROIDS in SPORTPrepared by:Michaella M. Combine andAira Dominica Lavina
What are steroids?What are steroids?There are a variety of steroids in theworld, but the most commonly related tosports would be anabolic steroids.Anabolic steroids are “steroids thatpromote tissue growth by creatingprotein in an attempt to enhance musclegrowth.”
The widespread use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport is indicative of anover-emphasis on winning. Performance-enhancing drugs are used byathletes◦ To gain a competitive advantage◦ For injury recovery◦ For enhanced appearance
The commonly used steroidsThe commonly used steroids There are three different types of steroids usedtoday. Anabolic steroid▪ Most commonly abused▪ Function:To increase muscle mass and strength Cortico steroid▪ Function:Artificial cortisone, medically injected to reducesinflammation and injury. Androgenic steroid▪ Has an anabolic effects on bones, skeletal muscle and vocalchords.▪ Function: Used to treat muscle and bone degeneration. http://www.clearleadinc.com/site/steroids.html
STEROID STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS:STEROID STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS:The basic skeleton of a steroid, with standardstereo orientation. R is a side-chain at C-17.
StructureStructureSteroids are a class of organic compounds with a chemical structure that containsthe core of gonane or a skeleton derivedthere from. Usually, methyl groups arepresent at the carbons C-10 and C-13 –an alkyl side-chain at carbon C-17 may alsobe present.
GonaneGonane is the simplest possible steroid and is composed of seventeen is the simplest possible steroid and is composed of seventeen carboncarbon atoms, bonded together to form four fused rings.The three atoms, bonded together to form four fused rings.The three cyclohexanecyclohexane rings rings(designated as rings A, B, and C in the figure below) form the skeleton of (designated as rings A, B, and C in the figure below) form the skeleton of phenanthrenephenanthrene; ring D has a ; ring D has a cyclopentanecyclopentane structure. Hence, together they are structure. Hence, together they arecalled called cyclopentaphenanthrenecyclopentaphenanthrene..Numbering of rings and ofcarbon atoms in gonane, thesimplest possible steroid.The structure of cholestane, oneof the comparatively simplersteroids.
Medrogestone,Medrogestone, a synthetic drug with similar effects asprogesterone. The anabolicsteroid testosterone, theprincipal male sexhormone. Progesterone, a steroidhormone involved in thefemale menstrual cycle,pregnancy andembryogenesis.
SteroidsSteroidsAndrostenedione (Andro)◦ Is a natural hormone produced by thebody that increases testosterone levels◦ Too much impairs or shuts off the bodysproduction of testosterone◦ Stunts growth in adolescents
SteroidsSteroidsTetrahydrogestrinone (THG)◦ A purely synthetic designer steroid derivedfrom another banned steroid (gestrinone)that escapes detection in normal drug tests◦ Classified as a controlled substance, likemorphine and amphetamines, and is bannedby the Food and Drug Administration
THE “PERKS”THE “PERKS”http://www.sgfitnessonline.com/IMAGE/lean-muscle-body.jpg
They will affect you insome way, some minoreffects with short termuse, but more seriousside effects with highdose long term use. Athletes who useanabolic steroidsmay inject 300 to1,000 milligramsmore
Health Hazards from Use of SteroidsHealth Hazards from Use of Steroids Specific to males — impotence; development ofbreasts; reduced sperm count; shrinkage oftesticles; difficulty/pain in urination; baldness Specific to females — growth of facial hair;reduction in breasts, changes in menstrual cycle;deepened voice Specific to adolescents — premature halting ofskeletal maturation and growth; acceleratedpuberty changes
Other Dangers of SteroidsOther Dangers of Steroids Barry Bonds first used steroids to returnquicker from his injuries; thus caused hiselbow injury because they had made his armmuscles so large that the elbow tendoncould not support them mood swings, fatigue, restlessness, loss ofappetite, insomnia, reduced sex drive, andthe desire to take more steroids
*Mitchell Report* Barry Bonds* Marion Jones Jose Canseco Mark McGuire Rafael Palmeiro Roger Clemmons*
Effects of SteroidsEffects of Steroids Barry Bonds before steroids Barry Bonds aftersteroids
Severe AcneSevere AcneBeginning of chest breakout• Severe Acne is a commonside effect.• Caused from the imbalanceof testosterone levels.After treatment to chestacne•The severity of the breakout left permanent scaring.•In pursuit to achieve agreat body this 21 year oldmale permanently disfiguredhis body.
GynecomastiaGynecomastia•Gynecomastia is a commonoccurring side effect of steroids.• Development of breast tissue onmales.•Caused from an imbalance oftestosterone to estrogen.•The effects CANNOT be reversed.•Surgery is needed to removeexcess breast tissue.http://www.steroidabuse.com/images/cms/Image/image001(1).jpghttp://www.timemastermd.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/gyno.jpg
DepressionDepression •Depression is a very serious sideeffect of steroids.•Steroid withdrawal•Unbalanced testosteronelevels are said to cause thedepression.•Suicidal thoughts are notuncommon.•It is hard to tell what percent ofsuicides are linked to steroidsbecause most users don’t wantanyone to know they were using,it goes uncharted.http://cristinalaird.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/depression.jpg
Athletic effectsAthletic effects Steroids do not only harm your health but yourimage. Barry Bonds▪ Not remembered for home run record but for steroidabuse. Public image is effected. No longer a role model Looked as a fake and not a great. Abusing at a young age can ruin a life if caught. Can lose scholarships. End a sports career. Not looked as talent anymore but just anotherathletehttp://rayshealth.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/barry-bonds.jpg
How are Steroids taken?How are Steroids taken?Most steroid programs involve 300 tomore than 1,000 milligrams per week inpills, creams, or injectable forms.Anabolicsteroids can be taken orally, injectedintramuscularly, or rubbed on the skin inthe form of gels or creams as justmentioned.These drugs are often used inpatterns which are listed below
Taking SteroidsTaking Steroids Cycling — involves taking multiple doses ofsteroids over cycles of weeks or months,stopping for a period of time, and starting again Stacking — combining several different types ofsteroids to maximize their effectiveness Pyramiding- involves beginning a cycle with alower dose of steroids, gradually increasing thedose over time to a peak level, then graduallydecreasing the dose down to zero again.
SourcesSourcesManufacturers — the sale of performance-enhancingdrugs is a huge market, so the incentives are high topromote them as safe (“natural” does not mean safe)and effectiveDistributors — dietary substances are not regulatedlike drugs by the Food and Drug Administration, soanyone is free to market supplements without proof ofsafety or efficacy (do they do what is claimed)Some drugs, such as steroids, require aprescription, but they can easily be obtained via theInternetOften are obtained from parents, trainers, physicians,coaches, teammates, and peers